Panaeolus cinctulus

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Panaeolus cinctulus
Panaeolus.subbalteatus.3.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Basidiomycota
Class: Agaricomycetes
Order: Agaricales
Family: Psathyrellaceae
Genus: Panaeolus
Species: P. cinctulus
Binomial name
Panaeolus cinctulus
(Bolton) Saccardo (1887)
Panaeolus-subbalteatus-range-map.png
Approximate Panaeolus cinctulus range
Synonyms[1]

Agaricus cinctulus Bolton (1791)
Coprinus cinctulus (Bolton) Gray (1821)
Agaricus fimicola var. cinctulus (Bolton) Cooke (1883)
Panaeolus fimicola var. cinctulus (Bolton) Rea (1922)

Panaeolus cinctulus
View the Mycomorphbox template that generates the following list
Mycological characteristics
gills on hymenium

cap is campanulate

or convex

hymenium is adnate

or adnexed
stipe is bare
spore print is black
ecology is saprotrophic
edibility: psychoactive

Panaeolus cinctulus, syn. Panaeolus subbalteatus, commonly known as the banded mottlegill, is a very common, widely distributed psilocybin mushroom. According to American naturalist and mycologist David Arora, Panaeolus cinctulus is the most common psilocybin mushroom in California.

Some common names include: Weed Panaeolus, Benanosis, Girdled Panaeolus, Banded Mottlegill, and red caps.

During the early 1900s, these species were referred to as the "weed Panaeolus" because they were commonly found in beds of the commercially grown, grocery-store mushroom Agaricus bisporus. Mushroom farmers had to weed it out from the edible mushrooms because of its hallucinogenic properties.[2]

Description[edit]

  • Cap: (1.5)2 — 5(5.5) cm (0.59–2.17 in), hemispherical to convex when young to broadly umbonate or plane in age, smooth, hygrophanous, striking cinnamon-brown when moist, soot-black when wet which disappears as the mushroom completely dries out. The flesh is cinnamon-brown to cream-colored and thin.
  • Gills: Close, adnate to adnexed, cream-colored when young, later mottled dingy brown then to soot-black. Gill edges white and slightly fringed, but turn blackish when fully mature.[3]
  • Spore Print: Jet Black
  • Spores: 12 x 8 µm, smooth, ellipitic-citriform, thick-walled.
  • Stipe: (2)3.5 — 8(10) cm long, (2)3 — 7(9) mm thick, equal or tapered at the ends, reddish brown to whitish, pruinose, hollow, no veil remnants, longitudinally white-fibrillose and white-powdered, striate at the apex or twisting vertically down the entire length of the stipe, Stem base and mycelium occasionally staining blue.
  • Taste: Farinaceous when fresh, saliferous (salty) when dried.
  • Odor: Slightly farinaceous.
  • Microscopic features:

Morphologically, Panaeolus cinctulus can be easily confused with other species of psilocybin mushrooms. They have a resemblance to Psilocybe semilanceata, commonly known as the liberty cap.

Habitat and formation[edit]

Panaeolus cinctulus is a cosmopolitan species that grows solitary to gregarious to cespitose (densely clumped) on compost piles, well-fertilized lawns and gardens, and, rarely, directly on horse dung.[4] It grows from Spring to Fall seasons. It grows abundantly after rain. It can be found in many regions, including: Africa[5] (South Africa),[5] Austria,[5][6] Canada (Alberta, British Columbia, Prince Edward Island, Ontario, Quebec),[5] Denmark,[6] Finland,[7] France,[5] Germany,[5][6] Great Britain,[5] Guadeloupe,[6] Estonia,[5] Iceland,[5] India,[5] Ireland,[5] Italy,[5] Japan,[5] Mexico,[7] New Guinea,[5] New Zealand,[5] Norway,[6] Philippines,[5] Russia,[5] Slovenia,[6] South America (Argentina, Chile, Brazil)[5] and the United states (it is common in Oregon, Alaska, Washington, and both Northern and Southern California, but is also known to occur in all 50 states).

It has also been sighted in Melbourne, Australia and in Belgium.[8]

Legality[edit]

Panaeolus cinctulus is not specifically scheduled in the United States.[citation needed] Panaeolus cinctulus has a long shelf life compared to other magic mushrooms, as it contains no psilocin, is non-poisonous, and the psycho-activity comes only from psilocybin and its analogues. In contrast to LSD and hallucinogenic phenethylamines, and like other psilocybin mushrooms, Panaeolus cinctulus produces a low, mild psychedelic trip that lasts for a short while.

Neurological effects[edit]

Psilocybin is similar in structure to the neurotransmitter serotonin, which is involved in or associated with mood regulation, appetite, sleep, learning and the cardiovascular system among others. Thus psilocybin may disrupt the actions of serotonin, accounting for its effects such as restlessness, increased heart rate, and inability to concentrate.[9][10]

Baeocystin is a psilocybin mushroom alkaloid and analog of psilocybin. It is found as a minor compound in most psilocybin mushrooms together with psilocybin, norbaeocystin, and psilocin. Baeocystin is a N-demethylated derivative of psilocybin, and a phosphorylated derivative of 4-HO-NMT (4-hydroxy-N-methyltryptamine). Baeocystin produces similar, if not almost the exact same effects of Psilocin.

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Panaeolus cinctulus (Bolton) Sacc. 1887". MycoBank. International Mycological Association. Retrieved 2011-05-11. 
  2. ^ Singer and Smith (1958).
  3. ^ "Panaeolus Cinctulus". Shroomery. Retrieved February 12, 2014. 
  4. ^ Stamets, Paul (1996). Psilocybin Mushrooms of the World. Berkeley: Ten Speed Press. ISBN 0-9610798-0-0.  p. 82.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Worldwide Distribution of Neurotropic Fungi, Guzman (www.museocivico.rovereto.tn.it)
  6. ^ a b c d e f [1] Panaeolus Specimens in Various Countries (data.gbif.org)
  7. ^ a b Panaeolus cinctulus Mushroom Observer (mushroomobserver.org)
  8. ^ Funbel, See Funbel database: http://www.kamk.be/soorten_2007.mdb
  9. ^ "What is serotonin? What does serotonin do?". Medical News Today. 
  10. ^ "Neuroscience for Kids - Hallucinogenic Mushrooms". Washington.edu. c. 1998. 

Sources:

External links[edit]