# Glossary of American football

(Redirected from Pancake block)

The following terms are used in American football and Canadian football. For Canadian Football only, see the Glossary of Canadian football.

## 0–9

2-4-5 defense
A type of Nickel formation with 2 linemen (2 DEs or 1 DE & 1 DT), 4 linebackers (2 ILBs & 2OLBs), and 5 defensive backs (3 CBs, 1 FS & 1 SS). More common among teams with 3-4 base defenses than the 3-3-5, because all four starting linebackers remain on-field while the defensive linemen -- the slowest players on the defense -- come out. This maximizes versatility for the defense against 3- or even 4-WR offensive sets. a safety will often cover the fourth receiver, and a linebacker will cover the tight end or halfback, leaving three to patrol the middle of the field. The 2-4-5 is most often used against the 2-minute offense, when substituting players may be difficult.
3–3–5 defense
A variation of the Nickel formation with 3 linemen (2 DE & 1 DT), 3 linebackers (2 OLB & 1 MLB), and 5 defensive backs (3 CB, 1 SS & 1 FS). Often called a 3-3 stack. Also called the "Rule Breaker" due to the fact that it often changes blocking schemes for the offensive line.
3–4 defense
A defensive formation with 3 linemen and 4 linebackers. A professional derivative in the 1970s of the earlier Oklahoma or 50 defense, which had 5 linemen and 2 linebackers. The 3-4 outside linebackers resemble "stand-up ends" in the older defense. It is sometimes pronounced thirty-four defense. The 3-4 also was spun off from the Miami Dolphins "53 defense named for the jersey number worn by linebacker Bob Matheson, who was often used by the Dolphins as a fourth linebacker in passing situations.
4–3 defense
A defensive formation with 4 linemen and 3 linebackers. Several variations are employed. First used by coach Joe Kuharich[citation needed] and Tom Landry.[1][2] It is sometimes pronounced forty-three defense.
4–4–4 Defense
Illegal participation (name so derived from the fact that 4+4+4=12 men on the field; each team is limited to 11). Coined by coach and color commentator John Madden. (However, this formation is legal in Canadian football, as there are 12 players on the Field)
46 defense
Usually pronounced forty-six defense, a formation of the 4-3 defense (four linemen and three linebackers) featuring several dramatic shifts of personnel. The line is heavily shifted toward the offense's weak side; both outside linebackers tend to play on the strong side outside of the defensive linemen; and three defensive backs (the two cornerbacks and the strong safety) crowd the line of scrimmage. The remaining safety, which is the free safety, stays in the backfield. It was invented by Buddy Ryan while with the Chicago Bears and popularized by the Super Bowl XX Champion Chicago Bears.
50 defense
A once popular college defense with 5 defensive linemen and 2 linebackers. Also known as the "Oklahoma Defense," it is structurally very similar to the 3-4. In the 50-defense, the team uses a nose tackle (NT), 2 defensive tackles (DTs) lined up over or slightly inside the offensive tackles (OTs), and 2 defensive ends (DEs) lineup over or outside the tight end (TE). It maximizes size along the line of scrimmage and is mostly used only in high school against teams that run the ball a lot.
n-possession game
A way of expressing the number of times a team, who is late in the game and trails their opponent, must secure possession of the ball and score without allowing their opponent to do the same in order to tie and/or overtake the opponent. Eight points (a touchdown and a two-point conversion) are the most points possible on any given possession; therefore, the number of possessions (n) necessary is equal to the point margin, divided by eight, rounded up to the nearest integer. For instance, a team down by 17 points would be in a three-possession game.

## A

A-11 offense
An offensive philosophy designed to appear as if all 11 players are eligible receivers. The offense exploits a loophole in the American football rulebook to technically make the formation a scrimmage kick, and the offensive line is spread across the field, all wearing numbers of eligible receivers, in an effort to confuse and deceive the defense. It was banned in 2009.
air raid
An offensive philosophy derived from the West Coast Offense but adapted to the shotgun formation. In this offense the running game is heavily de-emphasized while the quick pass, medium pass, and screen game are highly developed.
air yards
The yards gained by a pass through the air. It is the distance gained by a pass forward of the line of scrimmage to the spot of the reception. Alternatively, it is the total passing yards minus the yards run after catch (YAC).
all-purpose yardage
The sum of all yards gained by a player who is in possession of the ball during a play. This includes rushing and receiving yards gained on offense, yards gained on returns of interceptions and fumbles, and yards gained on kickoff punt and missed field goal returns.
attempt
1. A pass attempt.
2. A rush attempt; a carry.
3. A kick.
audible
A play called by the quarterback at the line of scrimmage to make a change from the play that was called in the huddle.
automatic first down
For several of the most severe fouls against the defensive team, a first down is awarded to the offensive team even if the result of the penalty does not advance the ball beyond the line to gain. In the NFL and NCAA, the fouls include pass interference and all personal fouls. Under NFHS (High School) rules only roughing the snapper, holder, kicker, or passer and forward pass interference by the defense are penalized with an automatic first down.

## B

back
Any position not typically aligned on the line of scrimmage (exception: defensive linemen are off the line in Canadian rules, but are not backs). Offensively: Runningback, Tailback, Quarterback, Halfback, Flankerback, Fullback and Wingback. Defensively: Linebacker, Cornerback, Rover, Defensive Halfback and Safety.
backfield
The area of an American football field behind the line of scrimmage. The backfield or offensive backfield can also refer to members of offense who begin plays behind the line, typically including any backs on the field, such as the quarterback, running back and/or fullback.
backup
A second string player who does not start the game, but comes in later in relief of a starter.
backward pass
A pass thrown backward. Also called "onside pass" in Canadian football. There is no limit to the number of backward passes or where they may be thrown from. Sometimes referred to as a "lateral," which specifically refers to a pass thrown with no motion toward either end zone (the best known of which is the Music City Miracle).
ballcarrier
The player currently in possession of the football. If the ball is "loose", meaning nobody has possession, there is no ball carrier.
ball control
A strategy that is based on low-risk plays in an effort to avoid losing possession of the ball; examples of when a ball-control strategy would be used include when a team is in the red zone and when a team is protecting a lead late in a game.
baseball score
A low and uncommon score in a game. As the predominant forms of scoring are field goals and touchdowns, most scores can be expressed as the sum of multiples of 7 and 3. If a safety (see below) is scored, this is no longer valid, and the score will look unfamiliar, more likely to be encountered in a game of baseball than football, especially if the score is already low (examples: 5-3, 7-2).
Black Monday
The day following the final Sunday of the National Football League season (Week 17) in which coaches and administration are fired or resign their position.[3][4][5] The term is also attributed to the day following the annual NFL Draft where players contracts may be terminated once new players are added to a roster.[6]
blitz
A defensive maneuver in which one or more linebackers or defensive backs, who normally remain behind the line of scrimmage, instead charge into the opponents' backfield. However, in the 3-4 defense, one linebacker typically rushes the passer with the three down linemen. This is not considered a blitz. If an additional linebacker is sent, bringing the total number of rushers to five, it is a blitz.
block
The act of one player obstructing another player with his body, either to push him back or to prevent him from moving beyond the blocker. Some types of blocks include: a run block, where the blocker pushes a defensive player back and away from the ball carrier; a pass block, where a blocker protects a player by moving laterally and backwards to slow or halt an incoming pass rusher; a cut block; a zone block, which is any block executed in a zone blocking scheme; a trap block; a pull block; a screen block, which is a kind of pass block; and a double-team block, where two blockers simultaneously block one player.
blocking
The act of executing a block; the collective play of those players performing blocks; the performance of a blocker or blockers during a game.
blocking back
Used to describe a running back who is assigned to block. It describes either an assignment for a single play or the back's primary function throughout his career, such as when describing a fullback who is particularly skilled at blocking. Also an early term for quarterback.
blocking sled
A heavy piece of practice equipment, usually a padded angular frame on metal skids, used for developing strength and blocking techniques.
blowout
A game in which one team dominates another in scoring.
bomb
Also Long Bomb; a long, distinctly arcing pass.[7]
bootleg
An offensive play predicated upon misdirection in which the quarterback pretends to hand the ball to another player, and then carries the ball in the opposite direction of the supposed ballcarrier with the intent of either passing or running (sometimes the quarterback has the option of doing either).[7] A naked bootleg is a risky variation of this play when the quarterback has no blockers pulling out with him. Contrast with scramble, sneak, and draw.
box, the
An area on the defensive side of the ball, directly opposite the offensive linemen and about 5 yards deep; having 8 players in the box means bringing in a defensive back, normally the strong safety, to help stop the offensive team's running game
bust
Term often used to refer to a player, usually one drafted in the first day of the NFL Draft, who failed to meet the expectations of the drafting team. (Ex : JaMarcus Russell, Ryan Leaf, Akili Smith, Tim Couch, Mike Williams (offensive lineman), Mike Williams (wide receiver b. 1984), or in the pre-draft era, Walter Koppisch)
bubble screen
A type of screen pass where the quarterback takes the snap and immediately throws to a wide receiver lined up to the far right or left of the center. The receiver catches the ball, and then turns to run downfield.
busted play
A play which, due to unforeseen circumstances, deteriorates to the point that it no longer conforms with coach's playbook and leads to confusion or chaos on the field.
buttonhook (hook, dig)
The buttonhook route is when a receiver runs straight upfield a certain distance and then plants hard and runs straight back towards the quarterback.[7] Often simply called a hook route or a dig route. In some cases, a dig route is considered a very long buttonhook, such as 15+ yards downfield. Hence the receiver must dig his cleats in hard to stop and come back at the quarterback after running so far and fast.

## C

carry or carries
A statistic referring to the number of times a rushing player attempts to advance the ball. A ballcarrier can be any player that attempts to advance the ball during an offensive play, regardless of position.
center (C)
A player position on offense. The center usually snaps the ball. The middle lineman is not always the snapper.
center-eligible
A trick play where the entire offensive line is to one side of the center at the snap, so that the center is an extra lineman on the end, and therefore an eligible receiver. A center-eligible play was featured in the film M*A*S*H.
centre
chain
The 10-yard long chain that is used by the chain crew (aka "chain gang") to measure for a new series of downs.
chip shot
A very short field goal, usually of 25 yards or less, that is almost certain to be successful. (This also applies to almost all extra point kicks as well.) Named after the golf term of the same name (see wedge (golf)), for the ball's high and short trajectory.
chop block
Similar to a cut block in which one offensive player blocks a defensive player below the knees and another blocks him above the waist. It is illegal to block low if a team mate is already engaged with the defensive player blocking high to prevent knee and ankle injuries.
chuck and duck
A degrading way to refer to the Run And Shoot offensive strategy.
checkdown
The checkdown pass is when the quarterback has to complete a short pass to a running back or tight end as a last resort to avoid a sack. Handling a checkdown situation is for a running back to catch this short pass, then use his speed, agility and power to run for extra yardage.
clipping
An illegal block in which the victim is blocked from the back and at or below the waist; the penalty is 15 yards. Originally, clipping was defined as any block from the back, but is now restricted to blocks at or below the waist. Other blocks from the back are now punished with 10-yard penalties.
coffin corner
The corner of the field of play between the end zone and the 10-yard line.[7] A punter, if he is close enough, will often attempt to kick the ball out of bounds close to the receiving team's goal line and pin them back near their own end zone.
comeback route
A receiver or tight end route where the player runs straight upfield a specified number of yards (could be a short or medium route), plants hard, and turns and runs back towards the sideline at a 45 degree angle. Often confusingly named, a wide receiver doesn't come back towards the quarterback, instead he tries to catch the ball and guarantee getting out of bounds.
completion percentage
The percentage of passes completed from passes attempted.
contain
A defensive assignment. On outside runs such as the sweep, one defensive player (usually a cornerback or outside linebacker) is assigned to keep the rusher from getting to the edge of the play and turning upfield. If executed properly, the rusher will have to turn upfield before the design of the play calls for it, giving the linebackers a better chance of stopping the play for little or no gain.
cornerback (CB)
A defensive back who lines up near the line of scrimmage across from a wide receiver. Their primary job is to disrupt passing routes and to defend against short and medium passes in the passing game, and to contain the rusher on rushing plays.
cover
To cover is attempt to prevent a receiver from catching a pass. There are two general schemes for defending against the pass:
1. Man-to-man - each eligible receiver is covered by a defensive back or a linebacker.
2. Zone - certain players (usually defensive backs and/or linebackers, though occasionally linemen as well) are assigned an area on the field (Flat, Hook, Curl and Deep) that they are to cover.
Common types of coverage:
1. Cover Zero - Strict man-to-man coverage with no help from safeties (usually a blitz play with at least five men crossing the line of scrimmage)
2. Cover One - Man-to-man coverage with at least one safety not assigned a player to cover who can help out on deep pass routes.
3. Cover Two - Zone coverage with the safeties playing deep and covering half the field each. Can be Cover 2 man, where every receiver is covered by a defensive player, or Cover 2 Zone (also known as Tampa 2), where CB covers Flat zone, OLB Hook Zone and MLB Curl Zone.
4. Cover Three - Zone coverage as above, but with extra help from Strong Safety/Cornerback, so that each player covers one-third of a deep zone.
5. Cover Four - As above, with the corners and safeties dropping into deep coverage, with each taking one-fourth of the width of the field. Also referred to as Quarters.
counter
A running play in which the running back will take a step in the apparent direction of the play (i.e., the direction the line is moving), only to get the handoff in the other direction. Weak side linemen will sometimes pull and lead the back downfield (sometimes called a counter trap), but not necessarily. The play is designed to get the defense to flow away from the action for a few steps as they follow the linemen, allowing more room for the running back.
crackback block
An illegal block delivered below the opponent's waist by an offensive player who had left the area of close line play and then returned to it, or was not within it at the snap. The term is also used to describe a legal block (delivered from the front, or from the side with the offensive player's helmet in front of the blocked player) by a wide receiver on a player who lined up inside of him.
cut
A sharp change of direction by a running player. Also called a cutback.
cut blocking

A blocking technique in which offensive linemen, and sometimes other blockers, block legally below the waist (i.e., from the front of the defensive player) in an attempt to bring the defenders to ground, making them unable to pursue a running back for the short time needed for the back to find a gap in the defense.

The San Francisco 49ers of the 1980s and early 90's were noted for their cut-blocking (and leg-whipping, which is illegal), a tactic that was later adopted in mid-90's by the NFL's Denver Broncos. The Broncos gained a degree of notoriety for their cut-blocking techniques (often called "dirty" play by their opponents) which produced the NFL's best rushing attack for a decade, but also resulted in several players on their opponent's defense being injured by cut blocks. In a Monday Night Football game in 2004, defensive lineman Anthony Williams of the Cincinnati Bengals was lost to the season on a block (by the Broncos tackle George Foster), and in 2005, Jacksonville Jaguars defensive lineman Paul Spicer was badly injured on block by Broncos tackle Matt Lepsis. Responding to the criticism, in 2004 Broncos coach Mike Shanahan showed local reporters some NFL game film (only seen and used by coaches) that demonstrated how nearly every team in the NFL uses cut-blocking.

## D

A ball which is no longer in play.
A penalty committed by either team before or after the play. If it is after, the result of the play stands and the penalty is assessed from the current position of the ball. Pre-snap penalties on the defense do not require the play to be blown dead unless a defensive player has a clear path to the quarterback. On the offense, some penalties do stop the play before it begins and some do not. A dead ball foul that does not stop play cannot be declined. A frequent dead ball foul is delay of game.
defensive back
A cornerback or safety position on the defensive team; commonly defends against wide receivers on passing plays. Generally there are 4 defensive backs playing at a time; but see nickel back and dime back.
defensive end (DE)
A player position on defense who lines up on the outside of the defensive line and which principal function is to deliver pressure to the Quarterback. Also known as Rush.
defensive tackle (DT)
A player position on defense on the inside of the defensive line and which principal function is to contain the run. When a defensive tackle lines up directly across from the center, he is known as a nose tackle, often the heaviest player on the defense. When a defensive tackle lines up between offensive guard OG and Offensive tackle OT, he is known as a 3-gap technique tackle.
defensive team
The team that begins a play from scrimmage not in possession of the ball.
delay of game
A foul which occurs when the offensive team does not put the ball in play before the play clock runs out. There are also less common occurrences which result in a delay of game foul, such as a defensive player holding an offensive player on the ground to prevent him from lining up during a two-minute drill. Penalty: 5 yards.
dime back
The second extra, or sixth total, defensive back. Named because a dime has the same value as two nickels. See nickel back.
direct snap
A play in which the ball is passed directly to the presumed ball carrier by the center. Contrast with an indirect snap play in which the ball is first handed to the quarterback, who will then pass or hand it to the eventual ball carrier. Also used to refer to formations that use a direct snap, such as the single wing.
dive
A play in which the ball is handed off to the running back, who attacks the middle of the offensive formation (between the OG). This play is part of the Triple option strategy.
double reverse
A play in which the ball reverses direction twice behind the line of scrimmage; this is usually accomplished by means of two or three hand-offs, each hand-off going in an opposite direction as the previous one. Such a play is extremely infrequent in football. Some people confuse the double reverse with a reverse, which is a play with two hand-offs instead of three.
double wing
A formation with 2 tight ends & 2 wingbacks in which the snap is tossed by the center between his legs to the quarterback or halfback moderately deep in the backfield.
double wing(ed)-T
A formation with 2 tight ends & 2 wingbacks in which the center hands the ball to the quarterback, who holds his hands between the legs of the center.
down
A unit of the game that starts with a legal snap or legal free kick after the ball is ready for play and ends when the ball next becomes dead. First down is the first of the plays; fourth is the last down in American (third in Canadian) football. A first down occurs after a change of possession of the ball, after advancing the ball 10 yards following a previous first down or after certain penalties.
down box
The post used with the chain gang to mark the line of scrimmage and designate the current down.
down by contact
When the player carrying the ball touches the ground with any part of his body other than his feet, hands, or arms as a direct result of contact with a player of the opposing team. In professional football a player must be down by contact in order for play to stop; if he trips and falls without being touched by an opposing player he is free to get up and continue advancing the ball. Exceptions to this rule that result in play stopping include when the player carrying the ball is on the ground but not downed by contact (e.g., after tripping and falling) and is touched by a member of the opposing team while still on the ground; or when the player with the ball intentionally kneels down or throws himself on the ground and stops advancing, e.g., a quarterback kneel or touchback. This rule does not apply in collegiate and high school football, i.e., a player need not be downed by contact at these levels in order for play to stop.
down lineman
A player stationed in front of his line of scrimmage and who has either one (three-point stance) or two (four-point stance) hands on the ground.
draw play
A play in which the quarterback drops back as if to pass, then hands off to a running back or runs with the ball himself. Contrast with scramble
drive
1. A continuous set of offensive plays gaining substantial yardage and several first downs, usually leading to a scoring opportunity.
2. A blocking technique - "drive block" - in which an offensive player through an advantaged angle or with assistance drive a defensive player out of position creating a hole for the ball carrier.
drop kick
A kick in which the ball is dropped and kicked once it hits the ground and before it hits it again; a half-volley kick. A drop kick is one of the types of kick which can score a field goal. Drop kicks are extremely rare due to the pointed nature of the ball.
dual-threat quarterback
A quarterback who is skilled at both passing and rushing the ball. These quarterbacks may be difficult to defend against since the defensive team cannot focus on one threat to the exclusion of the other.

## E

Players who may legally touch a forward pass. On the passer's team, these are: the ends, the backs, and (except in the NFL) one player in position to take a hand-to-hand snap, i.e. a T quarterback; provided the player's shirt displays a number in the ranges allowed for eligible receivers. All players of the opposing team are eligible receivers, and once the ball is touched by a player of the opposing team (anywhere in American, or beyond the lines of scrimmage in Canadian football), all players become eligible.
encroachment
An illegal action by a defensive player: to cross the line of scrimmage and make contact with an opponent before the ball is snapped.
end around
A play, often confused with a reverse, where the quarterback hands the ball off to a wide receiver. The receiver motions/moves into the backfield as the ball is snapped to take the handoff and runs around the opposite end from where he lined up.
end zone
The area between the end line (or deadline in Canadian amateur football) and the goal line, bounded by the sidelines.
extra point
A single point scored in a conversion attempt by making what would be a field goal during general play. See try.

## F

The protective grill that forms part of the football helmet.
A foul in which a player grabs the face mask or helmet opening of another player's helmet, usually in the process of making a tackle. It results in a 15-yard penalty. A 5-yard penalty was once enforced for a so-called incidental facemask, but was eliminated in the 2008 NFL's Owners Meeting.
false start
A foul (resulting in a 5-yard penalty) in which an offensive player moves before the ball is snapped, potentially drawing defensive players offside.
fair catch
An unhindered catch of an opponent's kick. The player wanting to make one must signal for a fair catch by waving an arm overhead while the ball is in the air. After that signal, if he gains possession of the ball it is dead immediately and opponents will receive a fifteen-yard penalty for hitting him.
fair catch kick
A free kickoff that takes point at the spot of a fair catch, if the catching team so chooses to execute it. It is very rare (in fact, college football does not even allow it), and most teams pass on the opportunity and take possession of the ball instead.
fantasy football
A game in which the participants (called "owners") each draft on their own or with the aid of software[8] a team of real-life NFL players and then score points based on those players' statistical performance on the field.
field judge
The official traditionally in charge of timekeeping
field of play
The area between both the goal lines and the sidelines, and in some contexts the space vertically above it.
field goal
A score of 3 points made by place- or drop-kicking the ball through the opponent's goal other than via a kickoff or free kick following a safety; formerly, "goal from the field". A missed field goal can be returned as a punt, if recovered in-bounds by the defending team. In some leagues, four-point field goals can be scored under special circumstances.
field position
A relative measure of how many yards a team must travel in order to score: "good field position" would mean the offense has less distance to cover.
first down
The first of a set of four downs. Usually, a team which has a first down needs to advance the ball 10 yards to receive another first down, but penalties or field position (i.e. less than 10 yards from the opposing end zone) can affect this.
flag
A weighted yellow cloth thrown by a field official to indicate that a foul has been committed Also the weighted red flag that an NFL head coach throws throws onto the field to alert officials that he is challenging a call on the field.
flanker
A player position on offense. A wide receiver who lines up in the backfield outside of another receiver. The term is used infrequently in American Football, having been long since replaced by the "Z" wide receiver.
flat
An area on the field between the line of scrimmage and 10 yards into the defensive backfield, and within 15 yards of the sideline. Running backs often run pass routes to the flat when they are the safety valve receiver.
flea flicker
A trick play in which a running back throws a backward pass back to the quarterback, who then throws a pass to a wide receiver or tight end.
flexbone
A formation involving three running backs where a fullback is lined up behind the quarterback and two slotbacks are lined up behind the line of scrimmage at both ends of the offensive line.
formation
An arrangement of the offensive skill players. A formation usually is described in terms of how the running backs line up (e.g. "I" formation, which refers to the situation where the half back is lined up about 7 yards deep, and the fullback is lined up about 5 yards deep, both directly behind the quarterback) or how the wide receivers line up (e.g. "Trips left", in which three wide receivers line up to the left of the linemen). Frequently, the formation will allude to both, such as with Strong I Slot Right, in which the halfback is lined up 7 yards deep behind the quarterback, the fullback is 5 yards deep behind the guard or tackle on the strong side, and both wide receivers are lined up on the right side of the offensive line. There are rules limiting what is legal in a formation. All five offensive linemen must be on the line of scrimmage (a small amount of leeway is given to tackles when lined up for pass protection). Also, there must be one receiver (usually one tight end and one wide receiver) lined up on the line on either side of the offensive linemen (it doesn't matter how close they are to the tackles, as long as they are on the line), with a total of no fewer than seven players on the line, 5 of which must be numbered between 50-79. A numbering exception exists if the offense is in a scrimmage kick formation which allows a player whose number is 1-49 or 80-99 to take the place of a lineman numbered 50-79. A receiver who is on the line may not go in motion.
forward pass
A pass that touches a person, object, or the ground closer to the opponent's end line than where it was released from, or is accidentally lost during a forward throwing motion.
forward progress
The location to which a ball carrier's forward momentum carries him before he is tackled. At the end of a play, the football is spotted at the point where the ball carriers forward progress is stopped, even if he is pushed backward by the defenders.
fourth down
The final of a set of four downs. Unless a first down is achieved or a penalty forces a replay of the down, the team will lose control of the ball after this play. If a team does not think they can get a first down, they often punt on fourth down or kick a field goal if they are close enough to do so.
fourth down conversion
The act of using a fourth down play to make a first down (also known as going for it [on fourth down]). These are comparatively uncommon. If a team is close enough to the goal posts, they will generally attempt a field goal on fourth down. Otherwise, they will usually punt. However, the coach may elect to try to get a new first down. This is more likely if the amount of yardage needed for the conversion is small (typically a yard or less), if the team is trailing by a significant amount (likelihood of such a try increasing as it gets later in the game), or if a team is in a position on the field where a punt would likely result in a touchback but a field goal attempt is unlikely to succeed (usually between the opponent's 35- and 45-yard lines at the NFL level).
four-point stance
down lineman's stance with four points on the ground, in other words, his two feet and his two hands; often a technique used in short yardage or goal line situations.
free kick
A kick made to put the ball in play as a kickoff or following a safety (the score; "safety touch" in Canadian football) or fair catch.
free safety (FS)
A player position on defense. Free safeties typically play deep, or "center field", and often have the pass defense responsibility of assisting other defensive backs in deep coverage (compared to strong safeties, who usually have an assigned receiver and run support responsibilities).
fullback (FB)
A player position on offense. Originally, lined up deep behind the quarterback in the T formation. In modern formations this position may be varied, and this player has more blocking responsibilities in comparison to the halfback or tailback.
fumble
A ball that a player accidentally lost possession of; in Canadian football the term includes muffs.
fumblerooski
A trick play where the quarterback deliberately places the ball on the ground, technically fumbling so that another player (usually a lineman) can pick up the ball and advance it. This type of play is now banned by most football sanctioning groups.

## G

game manager
A quarterback who makes a minimum number of mistakes for a team that relies on its defense and rushing offense to win games.
goal
A surface in space marked by a structure of two upright posts 18 feet 6 inches apart extending above a horizontal crossbar whose top edge is 10 feet off the ground. The goal is the surface above the bar and between the lines of the inner edges of the posts, extending infinitely upward, centered above each end line in American, and each goal line in Canadian football.
goal area
Alternate term for end zone, used primarily in Canadian football.
goal line
The front of the end zone.
goal line stand
When a team's defense stops another team's offense from scoring a touchdown when the opposition's offense is near the line.
gridiron
1. The field of play; a football field
2. A generalized term for American, Canadian, arena, and other related forms of football, especially in contrast with rugby football (rugby union, rugby league) and association football (soccer). See also gridiron football.
The word derives from the same root as griddle, meaning a "lattice." The original field was marked in a grid of crisscrossed lines; the ball would be snapped in the grid in which it was downed on the previous play. In modern usage, a gridiron—whether in cooking or football—is considered a surface with parallel lines. American and related codes of football have lines spaced out every 5 yards (as compared to 10-12 metres in rugby), giving the field a unique look among football codes.
guard (OG)
One of two player positions on offense. See lineman.
gunslinger
Term for a quarterback who plays with an aggressive and decisive manner by throwing deep, risky passes. These quarterbacks usually possess the strong arm needed to throw deep effectively. NFL Network named Brett Favre as the best gunslinger of all time.
gunner
The widest player on the line in a punting formation. The gunner is often one of the fastest players on the team, usually a cornerback or wide receiver.

## H

Hail Mary
A long pass play, thrown towards a group of receivers near the end zone in hope of a touchdown. Used by a team as a last resort as time is running out in either of two halves (usually by a team trailing in the second half). Refers to the Catholic prayer. The term originated from Roger Staubach's comeback victory in which he threw such a pass to Drew Pearson to defeat the Minnesota Vikings in a divisional round playoff game in 1975.
halfback (HB)
A player position on offense. In American football, it is a type of running back; in Canadian football, it is a type of defensive back. Also known as a tailback.
halfback option play
A trick play in which the halfback has the option to either throw a pass or run with the ball.
halo violation
From 1983 until the end of the 2002 season, in the NCAA (college football) the halo rule was a foul for interference with the opportunity to catch a kick. The so called halo rule stated that no player of the kicking team may be within two yards of a receiving team player positioned to catch a punt or kickoff (before that person has touched the ball). The rule was abolished beginning in the 2003 season.
In a hand-off, the quarterback (Colt McCoy, #12) is handing the ball to the running back (Jamaal Charles, #25)
hand-off
A move in which a player transfers the ball to another player, and the receiving player takes possession of the ball before it leaves the hands of the giver (thus the ball is never in flight). A handoff can occur in any direction. Sometimes called a "switch" in touch football. (Note different usage of term from its rugby meaning.) Alternately spelled without the hyphen; i.e., handoff.
hands team
A group of players, mostly wide receivers, that are responsible for recovering an onside kick. They line up as close as possible to the ten-yard neutral zone and their goal is to recover the ball immediately after, but only if, the ball crosses out of the neutral zone.
hard count
A strategy commonly used by offenses to convert on fourth down and less than five yards to go. An offense will take the full time on the play clock with the quarterback utilizing an irregular, accented (thus, the term "hard") cadence for the snap count in the hope that the defense will jump offside, giving the offense the five yards needed to convert the first down. However, if the defense does not go offside, the offense will take a five-yard penalty for delay of game and punt the ball away.
hash marks
Lines between which the ball begins each play. The lines are parallel to and a distance in from the side lines and marked as broken lines. If a play is blown dead while the ball is between the hash marks, the ball is spotted where it is blown dead for the following play. If the play ends outside the hash marks, the ball is spotted at the nearer hash mark.
H-back
A player listed in a roster or depth chart as a fullback but with better athletic / pass-catching abilities and playing as a hybrid of a fullback and a tight end
hidden yardage
Yards based on the difference in starting field position between the teams and penalty yardage. These yards do not show up in the statistics as yards gained by an offense, hence the hidden part. This sometimes explains how a team with a significant advantage in yards gained loses the game since starting possessions deeper in a team's own territory on a regular basis means more yards need to be gained in order to score points and that teams that tend to commit many penalties will force the offense to gain more yards to score points or give the opposing offense free yards allowing them to score points with fewer yards needed.
hike
Synonym of "snap" - the handoff or pass from the center that begins a play from scrimmage.
holder
A player who holds the ball upright for a place kick. Often backup quarterbacks are used for their superior ball-handling ability and in the event of a bad snap requiring a pass play, or punters for their ability to catch long snaps.
holding
There are two kinds of holding:
Offensive holding, illegally blocking a player from the opposing team by grabbing and holding his uniform or body
Defensive holding, called against defensive players who hold offensive players, but who are not actively making an attempt to catch the ball (if the defensive player were to impede an offensive player in the act of catching the ball, that would be the more severe foul of pass interference)
home and away
A method of scheduling opponents, such that the two teams play one game at each team's home stadium. In college football, conferences such as the Big12, where a team does not play all the other teams each year, use a "home and away" schedule to play an opponent two years in a row and then rotate to another opponent. Teams also use this method to schedule non-conference opponents of roughly equal skill so that ticket revenue is split evenly. When scheduling teams of a lower calibre, the higher-rated team usually plays at home and provides a cash payout to the other team.
hook and lateral or hook and ladder
A trick play in which a receiver (usually a wide receiver) runs a hook pattern (i.e., moving toward the line of scrimmage to make a catch), and then laterals the ball to a second player (generally another receiver or a running back) going in a different direction. One of the most famous uses of this play was by Boise State in its epic 2007 Fiesta Bowl win over Oklahoma.
horse-collar
A horse-collar is a type of tackle made by grabbing the back-inside of an opponent's shoulder pads or jersey. This type of tackle was banned in the NFL in 2005 and in college football in 2008.
When a quarterback sees a blitz coming and quickly passes to a receiver running a short route. This involves the quarterback adjusting his target and the "hot receiver" adjusting his route (for instance, breaking off a deeper route in favor of a slant or hitch).[9] If a quarterback at the line of scrimmage reads the defense and identifies a blitz coming, he may call an audible to designate a receiver as a hot read or hot receiver.[10]
huddle
An on-field meeting of team members to communicate instructions for the upcoming play
hurry-up offense
An offensive strategy designed to gain as much yardage as possible while running as little time off the clock as possible. Often involves making plays without a huddle. This technique can also be used to keep the defensive team off-balance.

## I

I formation
A formation that includes a fullback and tailback lined up directly behind the quarterback while the quarterback is under center. By definition, the fullback lines up in front of the tailback. Several variations on this backfield formation exist, including the "Offset I" (in which the fullback lines up out of line to the left or right of the quarterback and halfback; also known as the strong or weak I depending on which direction the fullback is positioned), the "Maryland I" and "Power I" (in which an additional fullback is added to the backfield, either next to in the Power I's case or in front of in the Maryland I's case, the fullback).
icing the kicker
When a team calls time out just before the kicker has the ball snapped. A team is limited to calling one time-out on any given play (thus a team cannot repeatedly call all of its time-outs to prevent the game from continuing, or else a delay of game penalty or, more rarely, a palpably unfair act penalty is imposed). It is thought that kickers tend to miss after being iced due to nervousness, so icing the kicker usually happens at the end of the game before a walk-off field goal. Some kickers like Adam Vinatieri are famous for remaining accurate even after having been iced. There is evidence that this tactic doesn't work.[11] (An older way of referring to this situation was "making the kicker think about it".)
illegal formation
On offense, there must be exactly seven players lined up on the line of scrimmage for at least one count before the ball is snapped. If not, then it is an illegal formation.
illegal motion
On offense, a player may be in motion but cannot be going forward at the time of the snap (except in Arena football where one player is allowed to do so), and a lineman must be set for one second before the snap. Otherwise it is an illegal motion.
illegal shift
On offense, only one person is allowed to be in pre-snap motion after the formation is set. A second person may go in motion after the first has come to a set position for one second. If these conditions are not met when sending people into motion, an illegal shift has occurred.
incomplete pass
A forward pass of the ball which no player legally caught.
inbounds lines
The hash marks.
indirect snap
A play in which the ball is handed to the quarterback rather than thrown directly to the ballcarrier by the center as in a direct snap play. So named because the quarterback acts as an intermediary in relaying the ball to the ballcarrier. Also used to refer to formations that use such a snap, as most modern formations do. Indirect snap formations exploded in popularity after World War II.
Certain players on the offense are not allowed to catch passes. For example, in most situations offensive interior linemen cannot be receivers and they may cause their team to be penalized if they catch the ball. An exception is if the ball has already been tipped by a different player. In six-man football all players are eligible receivers.
inside of a player's path
Relatively close (in reference to the sides of the field) to where the ball was snapped from. Thus, a ballcarrier's path in crossing the neutral zone may be said to be "inside" of an opponent, or an "inside run" in general, and a rushing defensive player may be said to put on an "inside move" or "inside rush".
inside of the movement of the ball between players
Directed toward a player who cuts between a player in the backfield who throws or hands the ball and the place from which it was snapped. Thus, an "inside pass" or "inside handoff". An "inside reverse" (sometimes called a scissors play) is a reverse play via an inside handoff.
intentional grounding
A type of illegal forward pass; thrown without an intended receiver and no chance of completion to any offensive player, for the sole purpose of conserving time or avoiding loss of yardage. This foul costs the offense a loss of down and 10 yards. If it occurs 10 yards behind the line of scrimmage, then the 10 yards is taken from the spot of the foul. If the foul is committed in the end zone the penalty is a safety. Intentional grounding is not called in the case of a spike after a hand to hand snap or if under NFL or NCAA rules, the quarterback was outside the tackle box, (the imaginary area between each tackle) at the time of the pass, provided that the ball travels at least to the line of scrimmage. The Tackle Box is also known as the Pocket. nfl rules
interception
The legal catching of a forward pass thrown by an opposing player.

## J

Jack (ILB)
Interior linebacker (ILB) of the 3-4 formation, that plays in the weak side of the formation. Also known as Mo.
jumbo
An offensive package which includes two tight ends, a full back and a half back. Similar to heavy jumbo, in which either the half back or the fullback is replaced by another tight end. In a goal line formation, Miami package, often one or more of the "tight ends" is actually a linebacker (the New England Patriots used Mike Vrabel this way - he has 11 career regular season TDs) or offensive lineman. In the NFL, such a player must report in as an eligible receiver because a lineman or linebacker would not generally wear an eligible number.

## K

kick
1. As a verb, to strike the ball deliberately with the foot
2. As a noun, such an action producing a punt, place kick, or drop kick
kicker or placekicker (K)
Player who specializes in placekicking (i.e. field goals and kick offs).
kickoff
A free kick which starts each half, or restarts the game following a touchdown or field goal. The kickoff may be a place kick in American or Canadian football, or a drop kick in American football.
kick returner
A player on the receiving team who specializes in fielding kicks and running them back.
kneel
A low risk play in which the player in possession of the ball kneels down after receiving the snap, ending the play while keeping the clock running. This is done to end the game sooner without needing to run a riskier play. The player kneeling is said to "take a knee", and thus is "taking a knee" or "taking the knee". The quarterback of the team in the lead will often take a knee on the first snap following the two-minute warning. Though long frowned upon - because it was not in accordance with the game's doctrine of "toughness" - taking a knee became an accepted way to run out the clock after the events of the Miracle at the Meadowlands. To this end, players will sometimes forgo scoring a touchdown and instead choose to run out the clock by kneeling short of reaching the end zone. This is usually done when the team with possession of the ball is in the lead, but not always. For example, in week 10 of the 2009 NFL regular season, the Jacksonville Jaguars' Maurice Jones-Drew took a knee in this fashion when his team was trailing the New York Jets by 1 point with less than 2 minutes remaining in the game.[12] The Jaguars were then able to run the clock down before calling a time-out with 3 seconds remaining - just enough time to successfully kick a game-winning 3-point field goal. By taking the knee and allowing the clock to run instead of scoring the touchdown, Jones-Drew and the Jaguars kept the ball in their possession until the clock was at zero, thus eliminating the possibility of the Jets scoring any further points and guaranteeing victory with a successful field goal.

## L

lateral
See backward pass.
leg whip
An illegal block or tackle using the legs to trip the opponent.
line of scrimmage/scrimmage line
One of two vertical planes parallel to the goal line when the ball is to be put in play by scrimmage. For each team in American football, the line of scrimmage is through the point of the ball closest to their end line. The two lines of scrimmage are called offensive line of scrimmage and defensive line of scrimmage. Often shortened to "line". In Canadian football, the line of scrimmage of the defensive team is one yard their side of the ball.
line to gain
A line parallel to the goal lines, such that having the ball dead beyond it entitles the offense to a new series of downs, i.e. a new "first down". The line is 10 yards in advance of where the ball was to be snapped for the previous first down (or is the goal line, if it is not farther than 10 yards away).
Linebacker (LB)
A player position on defense. The linebackers typically play 1 to 6 yards behind the defensive linemen and are the most versatile players on the field because they can defend both run and pass defense or called to blitz. There are two types of LB: Middle Linebacker (MLB) and Outside Linebackers (OLB). In 3-4 formation Outside Linebacker (OLB) may be designated as a "rush linebacker", rushing the passer on almost every play.
lineman
A defensive or offensive position on the line of scrimmage.
On offense, the player snapping the ball is the center. The players on either side of him are the guards, and the players to the outside of him are the tackles. The players on the end of the line are the ends. This may be varied in an unbalanced line.
On defense, the outside linemen are ends, and those inside are tackles. If there are 5 or 6 linemen, the inner most linemen are known as guards. This is rare in professional football except for goal-line defense, but is sometimes seen in high school or college.
live ball
Any ball that is in play, whether it is a player's possession or not. The ball is live during plays from scrimmage and free kicks, including kickoffs.
live ball foul
A foul given for various infractions such as changing numbers during a game
long snapper
A center who specializes in the long, accurate snaps required for punts and field goal attempts. Most teams employ a specialist long snapper instead of requiring the normal center to perform this duty.
loose ball
Any ball that is in play and not in a player's possession. This includes a ball in flight during a backward or forward pass.
losing record
A regular season record when a team loses more games than it wins. A losing record corresponds to a winning percentage less than .500. See also: non-winning record, winning record, and winning percentage.
losing season
A season when a team loses more regular season games than it wins. See also: non-winning season and winning season.

## M

man coverage
Same as man-to-man coverage
man-in-motion
A player on offense who is moving backwards or parallel to the line of scrimmage at the snap. In American football, only one offensive player can be in motion at a time, cannot be moving toward the line of scrimmage at the snap, and may not be a player who is on the line of scrimmage. In Canadian football, more than one back can be in motion, and may move in any direction as long as they are behind the line of scrimmage at the snap.
man-to-man coverage
A defense in which all players in pass coverage, typically linebackers and defensive backs, cover a specific player. Pure man coverage is very rare; defenses typically mix man and zone coverage.
margin of victory
The total difference in points in a game, expressed as possessed by the winning team.
Marty Ball
A conservative gameplan which involves an offense based around the use of running backs with use of the passing game only to advance the running game, and a great emphasis on defense. Popularized term for Marty Schottenheimer's approach to coaching.
Maryland-I
An I formation with three running backs aligned behind the quarterback in a straight line.
max protect
A modification used on pass plays (usually combined with a shotgun formation) which keeps the tight end and both backs in behind the line of scrimmage to pass protect rather than run a pass route. This is used in obvious blitzing situations to give the quarterback "maximum protection" in the pocket. Although good for holding off a blitz, it leaves the quarterback with only two receivers to throw to (and therefore only two players for the secondary to defend). Some of the logic behind this play might stem from a player's supposed lack of defensibility: when a receiver (such as Randy Moss) or quarterback-receiver duo (such as the historic Joe Montana-and-Jerry Rice) is of the caliber that a completion is likely even when the receiver is closely guarded by defenders. Redskins Head Coach Joe Gibbs is known for having used a two tight end formation to protect his QB from the nearly unstoppable blitzer Lawrence Taylor.[13][14]
mike (MLB)
The middle linebacker in 4-3 formation. In the 3-4 formation Mike is the Interior Linebacker (ILB) that plays on the strong side of the formation. Mike has the responsibility to defend the interior gaps and the Curl Zone. Mike is the leader of the defense and has to be as bright as a Quarterback because often he calls the audibles on defense.
Mo (ILB)
Also known as Jack. The interior linebacker, 3-4 formation, that plays on the weak side of the formation.
Monster Man (MM)
Sometimes monster man, a player position on the defensive team. The monster is a strong safety in a four-deep secondary with the ability to cover deep zones, defend against runs and, on occasion, play on the line of scrimmage.[15] See strong safety.
motion
The ordered movement of eligible receivers prior to the snap. Motion can be used to gain mismatches, i.e. physical advantages against specific defensive personnel, e.g. a fast wide receiver defended by a slower linebacker. Another use for motion is to enhance the pre-snap read of the defensive coverage, e.g. motioning a receiver from one side of the formation to the other may help in identifying zone versus man coverage. Generally, if the coverage is man the receiver's defender will follow him across the formation and if it is zone coverage the defenders will exchange responsibilities by shifting or bumping over.
muff
A loose ball that is dropped or mishandled while the player is attempting to gain possession.
muffed punt
Occurs when there is an "uncontrolled touch" of the football after it is punted. May be recovered but not advanced by the kicking team.

## N

National Football League (NFL)
The largest professional American football league, with 32 teams split into 2 conferences (National & American), 4 divisions each (North, West, East, South).
National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA)
Principal governing body of college sports, including college football
National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA)
Another governing body of college sports, including college football, whose member schools tend to be smaller than those of the NCAA
National Federation of State High School Associations (NFHS)
Principal governing body of U.S. high school football and other high school sports. The NFHS football rules are used throughout the country, except in Texas and Massachusetts, where the base rules are those of the NCAA.
National Junior College Athletic Association (NJCAA)
The governing body for community college athletics, including junior college (or "juco") football.
neutral zone
The region between the lines of scrimmage or between the free kick restraining lines
NFL
The National Football League
NFL Europa
The NFL's former 6-team European spring league, which folded after its 2007 season. It was originally intended to introduce Europe to the NFL culture, but it ended up being a secondary league for failed NFL players. Only a select few have successfully transitioned from Europa to NFL, most notably Kurt Warner (Amsterdam Admirals).
nickel back
An extra, or fifth, defensive back. Named after the coin, worth five cents. Popularized by the Miami Dolphins in the 1970s, now common. Used in situations where a forward pass is likely.
no good
Unsuccessful; often said of an unsuccessful field goal attempt.
no-huddle offense
A tactic wherein the offense quickly forms near the line of scrimmage without huddling before the next play.
non-winning record
A regular season record when a team wins a number of games equal to or less than it loses. A non-winning record corresponds to a winning percentage equal to or less than .500. See also: losing record, winning record, and winning percentage.
non-winning season
A season when a team wins a number of games equal to or less than it loses. See also: losing season and winning season.
nose tackle
A tackle in a 3-man defensive line who lines up "opposite the center's nose". Contrary to a regular defensive tackle, a nose tackle is often much larger and considered the 'anchor' of the line, effective at disrupting blocking schemes and stopping runs.

## O

offensive team
The team with possession of the ball
offside

An infraction of the rule that requires both teams to be on their own side of their restraining line as or before the ball is put in play. Offside is normally called on the defensive team during a scrimmage down and on the kicking team during free kick downs.

In Canadian football, at the time a ball is kicked by a teammate, being ahead of the ball, or being the person who held the ball for the place kick

one back formation
A formation where the offensive team has one running back in the backfield with the quarterback. Other eligible receivers are near the line of scrimmage.
onside kick
A play in which the kicking team tries to recover the kicked ball.
option run or option

Usually, a type of play in which the quarterback has the option of handing off, keeping, or laterally passing to one or more backs. Often described by a type of formation or play action, such as triple option, veer option, or counter option. Teams running option plays often specialize in them.

Less often, a play in which a back may either pass or run.

option offense
An offense heavily relying upon the option run and variations thereof.
outside
Opposite of inside

## P

PAT
Point After Touchdown. See try.
package
The group of players on the field for a given play. For example, the Nickel Package substitutes a cornerback for either a linebacker or a defensive lineman (the latter is referred to as a 3-3-5 Nickel), or the Jumbo package substitutes a wide receiver with a tight end.
Catching a punt
pancake
Pancake block; sometimes shortened to cake; slang for a particularly effective block where the player being blocked is pushed onto the ground by a blocker, metaphorically "flattening" the opposing defender into a pancake. This is usually performed by an offensive lineman, tight end, or fullback, and is considered an ideal block, designed to completely eliminate the defender from the play for several seconds, or for as much time as it takes said defender to get back to his feet. While not an official statistic, offensive linemen often keep track of the number of pancakes they have made, and successfully performing this block is termed pancaking or caking an opponent. It is considered an official statistic on Madden games. If an offensive lineman got flattened by a defensive lineman, it is still considered a sack, regardless of whether the quarterback got sacked or not.
pass
Throw; an action performed by a player, using their arm to transfer the ball to another player by throwing the ball through the air between them. Every pass is classified as either a forward pass or a lateral pass, depending on the direction the ball travels.
pass attempt
An attempt by any player to pass the ball. If successful, this results in a completion for the passer and is counted as a reception for the player who caught the ball.
pass interference
Also passing interference or P.I.; when a player illegally hinders an eligible receiver's opportunity to catch a forward pass.
pass protection
The use of pass blocking by the offensive line, tight ends and various backs to protect the quarterback from being sacked, and to allow him time and space to throw the ball. Sometimes shortened and pronounced "pass pro".
passer rating or quarterback rating
A numeric value used to measure of the performance of quarterbacks. It was formulated in 1973 and it uses the player's completion percentage, passing yards, touchdowns and interceptions.
passing play
A pass play; a play in which a forward pass is made.
passing yards
Also pass yards, passing yardage, and yards passing; the distance in total yards from scrimmage that a passer has thrown the football plus the distance any receivers have run after catching the ball. Passing yards do not include incomplete throws, nor does it measure the actual distance the ball travels through the air, as it is measured in flat yards along one direction of the field, always starting from the line of scrimmage and ending at the point that the receiver is ruled down. If the receiver reaches the end zone and scores a touchdown, then the yardage measurement ends at the opposing team's goal line (which is technically the zero-yard line). For example, if a passer completes a pass when the line of scrimmage is at the 50-yard line and the receiver is tackled and ruled down at the 20-yard line, then this would be counted as 30 passing yards for the passer, no matter how far the ball was thrown or how far the receiver ran after catching the ball. If the receiver reached the end zone, the same pass would count as 50 passing yards.
peel-back block
An action where an offensive player blocks a defender who is moving back toward the direction of his own end zone; they are illegal below the waist and from either the back or the side.
pick
1. In a play, the use of any offensive player to underhandedly block a defender simply by impeding their course of movement. This is usually designed into the play, but can occur accidentally.
2. An interception of a pass, e.g. a pass by the offense can be "picked off" by the defense.
pick-six
An interception ("pick") that is returned to the passing team's end zone for a touchdown ("six").
pistol formation
A hybrid version of the shotgun in which the quarterback lines up about 3 yards behind the center and the running back lines up directly behind the quarterback.
place kick
Kicking the ball from where it has been placed stationary on the ground or, where legal, on a tee.
play
1. See down.
2. The plan of action the offensive team has for each snap, for example a running play or pass play
play action
A tactic in which the quarterback fakes either a handoff or a throw in order to draw the defense away from the intended offensive method
play clock
A timer used to increase the pace of the game between plays. The offensive team must snap the ball before the time expires, or receive a 5 yard delay of game foul. Currently, the NFL uses 40 seconds (25 seconds after a time out or other administrative stoppage).
playing field
See field of play
pocket
An area on the offensive side of the line of scrimmage, where the offensive linemen attempt to prevent the defensive players from reaching the quarterback during passing plays.
points percentage
A statistic used in league standings for comparing win-loss or win-loss-tie records. It is an alternative to the winning percentage. Used by some leagues to allow for games decided (won/lost) in overtime. Also used by the National Hockey League.
Mathematically: $P = (2w + t + x)/(2g)$ where $P$ is winning percentage, $w$ is number of wins, $t$ is number of ties, $x$ is number of overtime losses, and $g$ is number of games played.
pooch kick
A punt or kickoff that is deliberately kicked with less than full force. It is often used in an attempt to limit the ability of the return team to return the ball.[16][17]
Pop Warner Little Scholars
The predominant youth-level (13 years old and younger) football league in the United States. The name "Pop Warner" (or its generic equivalent, "Pee Wee") can occasionally be used to refer to any youth league, whether or not it is affiliated with the national organization.
post pattern
A passing route in which the receiver sprints 8 to 10 yards, fakes a look back at the Quarterback, then sprints deep at an angle toward the middle of the field; the opposite pattern is the flag route. It is called a post pattern because the middle of the field is where the goal posts are found.
position
A place where a player plays relative to teammates, and/or a role filled by that player
possession
1. :See drive
2. Physical control of the ball after a pass or fumble.
preseason
In the NFL, games (in or around August) that do not count toward the final team standings. These games are used to pick final team rosters. Star players often have limited playing time during preseason.
prevent defense
A defensive strategy that utilizes deep zone coverage in order to prevent a big pass play from happening downfield, usually at the expense of giving up yards at shorter distances. Often used against Hail Mary plays, or at the end of the game when the defending team is protecting a lead. Disparaged by many fans. John Madden, legendary player, coach, and commentator, has been quoted as saying, "The only thing a prevent defense prevents is a win."
pro set
Offensive formation using two backs, lined up side-by-side 2-3 yards behind the quarterback, with one on either side of the quarterback
pulling
Pulling blocker; an offensive lineman who, instead of blocking the player in front of him, steps back from the line (pulls away from the line) and runs to block a defender, usually in a trap or sweep play.
pump fake
When the quarterback fakes a pass and keeps the ball in his hand in an attempt to fool the defensive team.
punt
A kick in which the ball is dropped and kicked before it reaches the ground. Used to give up the ball to the opposition after offensive downs have been used, as far down the field as possible.
punt return
When a punt is fielded by the receiving team and advanced for better field position. The punt returner generally attempts to move the ball as far up the field as possible. Alternatively, they can signal for a fair catch or allow the ball to go into the end zone for a touchback. A receiver can also immediately punt the ball back, though this strategy is not used in modern football.
punter (P)
A kicker who specializes in punting as opposed to place kicking.

## Q

quarter
One of four periods of play in a standard American football game. A quarter lasts for fifteen game clock minutes in most adaptations of American football but may take longer in elapsed time, since the clock does not run continuously. A tie at the end of four quarters may result in overtime.
quarterback (QB)
An offensive player who lines up behind the center, from whom he takes the snap.
quarterback rating
See passer rating.
quarterback scramble
See scramble.
quarterback sneak
A play most commonly used in very short yardage or goal line situations. The Quarterback quickly takes the snap and runs right behind or beside the center.
quarter defense
Defensive formation with seven defensive backs, three down linemen and one linebacker.
quick kick
An unexpected punt.

## R

rag doll
Slang for a particularly effective shedding of a block, where the player-to-be-blocked not only sheds his block, but knocks the blocker off of his feet (with limbs flailing like a rag doll). The rag doll of a blocker is the polar opposite of a pancake.
reception
When a player catches (receives) the ball past the line of scrimmage. If a reception is made behind the line of scrimmage, it is a lateral.
red flag
A weighted red marker thrown onto the field by a coach to tell the officials that he wants a certain play reviewed. Sometimes referred to as "challenge flag."
red shirt
A college player who is foregoing a season to retain a year of eligibility. Student athletes have five years to play four after he/she enrolls. A sixth year is occasionally granted to a player to play his/her four years under extenuating circumstances.
red zone
The area between the 20-yard line and the goal of the defensive team. The area is not literally colored red and the term is used mainly for statistical purposes; a team that has a high "red zone percentage" (number of touchdowns scored from within the red zone divided by number of drives in which the team enters the red zone) is capable of finishing drives with touchdowns on a regular basis.
referee (R)
The official who directs the other officials on the field: one of seven officials.
regular season
In college football, it is the portion of the season that is scheduled ahead-of-time by the schools. It excludes any bowl game, conference championship, or playoff games. In NFL football, the regular season is defined as weeks 1-17 (as of the 2010 season; the league is attempting to expand this an additional two weeks).
restraining line
1. A team's respective line of scrimmage
2. At a free kick, the line the ball is to be kicked from (for the kicking team), or a line 10 yards (5 yards in the NFL, beginning 2011) in advance of that (for the receiving team)
return
The act of progressing the ball down the field after a change of possession, such as a kick or interception. (E.g. "He returned the interception for a touchdown".)
return yards
Yards gained advancing the ball during play after a change of possession such as a punt or a kickoff or a turnover such as a fumble or an interception.
reverse
An offensive play in which a running back carries the ball toward one side of the field but hands or tosses the ball to a teammate (almost exclusively a wide receiver) who is running in the opposite direction. This is slightly different from an end around, in which the ball is handed off directly to a wide receiver (usually the man in motion), so the direction of the play never reverses.
A game played in the opponent's home stadium. Games at neutral sites are generally not considered road games although they are "away from home". However, games at nominally neutral sites (typically in college football) are often called "effective road games" for one of the teams if the venue is much closer to the opponent's fan base. An example of this phenomenon was the 2011 Chick-fil-A Kickoff Game, in which Boise State played (and defeated) Georgia at the Georgia Dome in Atlanta, little more than an hour's drive from the Georgia campus and located in a city home to a large number of Georgia alumni and fans.
rover
A hybrid safety that has duel responsibilities as a defensive back and a linebacker. This is more commonly seen in college football more so than NFL, CFL, or AFL football. A perfect example this in use is in West Virginia's or Air Forces's 3-3-5 schemes.
run and shoot
An offensive philosophy designed to force the defense to show its hand prior to the snap of the ball by splitting up receivers and sending them in motion. Receivers run patterns based on the play of the defenders, rather than a predetermined plan. Also known as 'Run & Gun'.
running back (RB)
A player position on offense. Although the term usually refers to the halfback or tailback, fullbacks are also considered running backs.
running out the clock
A game strategy that involves repeatedly executing simple plays that allow the game clock to continue running in an effort to bring the game to a quicker end. This strategy is almost always employed by the leading team at the end of the game, and may involve one or more kneels.
running play
A play where the offense attempts to advance the ball without a forward pass.
running up the score
A generally discouraged practice in which a team, despite leading by several touchdowns (to the point that it is obvious that the team is going to win), continues to score as many points as possible in an effort to create as wide of a margin of victory as possible.
run out of the gun
Running the ball out of the shotgun formation, which is primarily a pass formation.
rush
1. An attempt to tackle or hurry a player before he can throw a pass or make a kick.
2. A running play.
rushing average or yards per carry average
The quotient of a player's total rushing yards divided by the number of rushing attempts.

## S

sack

Tackling a ball carrier who intends to throw a forward pass. A sack is also awarded if a player forces a fumble of the ball, or the ball carrier goes out of bounds, behind the line of scrimmage on an apparent intended forward pass play. The term gained currency circa 1970.

In Madden NFL series, a sack also means, for an offensive lineman, being flattened by the defensive lineman, therefore unable to hold off his defensive tackle or defensive end, the worst that could happen is contributing to conceding an interception or a quarterback sack.

safety
1. A player position on defense. See free safety and strong safety.
2. A method of scoring (worth two points) by downing an opposing ballcarrier in his own end zone, forcing the opposing ballcarrier out of his own end zone and out of bounds, or forcing the offensive team to fumble the ball so that it exits the end zone. A safety is also awarded if the offensive team commits a foul within its own end zone. After a safety, the team that was scored upon must kick the ball to the scoring team from its own 20-yard line. A safety scored during a try scores 2 points and is followed by a kickoff as for any other try.
safety valve
A receiver whose job it is to get open for a short pass in case all other receivers are covered.
Sam
The strong side outside linebacker
scatback
A running back that is generally very fast, and good at juking and making defenders miss as opposed to running them over on purpose like a 'power' back.
scramble or quarterback scramble
On a called passing play, when the quarterback runs from the pocket in an attempt to avoid being sacked, giving the receivers more time to get open or attempting to gain positive yards by running himself.
screen pass
A short forward pass to a receiver who has blockers in front of him. The receiver in this play is usually a running back, although wide receiver and tight end screens are also used. Although they are both called screen passes, the wide receiver screen and the running back screen are used for very different reasons. In the case of a running back screen, the play is designed to allow the pass rushers by the offensive linemen, leaving the defender out of position to make a play. The play is usually employed to defuse the pass rush in the case of a running back screen. The Wide Receiver screen is a much faster developing play, designed to catch the defense off guard.
scoop and score
A fumble recovered by the defense that results in a touchdown.
scrimmage
1. An informal practice matchup, either between two teams or between different units of the same team. Usually score is not kept; often, each team will get 10 plays from the same yard line. Sometimes played "7 on 7," with a full backfield and an abbreviated offensive line.
2. Play from scrimmage
3. Line of scrimmage
secondary
Refers to the defensive "backfield", specifically the safeties and cornerbacks. Primarily responsible for pass coverage/defense.
shield punt
When 7 men line up on the line of scrimmage and immediately start to cover the punt while 3 offensive players stay to guard the punter.
shift
When two or more offensive players move at the same time before the snap. All players who move in a shift must come to a complete stop prior to the snap.
shooting
The action of a linebacker or defensive back to blitz
shotgun formation
Formation in which offensive team may line up at the start of a play. In this formation, the quarterback receives the snap 5-8 yards behind the center.
sideline
1. One of the lines marking each side of the field
2. As an adjective: on the field near a sideline
side zone
The area between a hash mark and a sideline
single wing
A diverse set of formations, now out of fashion but highly popular between 1906 and World War II, that typically used an unbalanced line, direct snap, and one wingback.
single wing(ed)-T
A formation with 1 wingback & an adjoining tight end in which the center hands the ball to the quarterback, who holds his hands between the legs of the center.
slant
A receiver route. In the slant route, a receiver runs straight upfield a few yards, plants his outside foot hard while in full stride, and turns 45 degrees towards the quarterback. A staple of the West Coast Offense (WCO) and the player may go as little as 2 yards or as many as 6 yards before moving inside for the pass. Variations include the quick slant in which the player plants and turns at the snap instead of running ahead first and the Slow or Zone route, in which the receiver runs 10 to 15 yards downfield to get behind the linebackers before turning.
slobber-knocker
A particularly gruesome tackle or hit.
slot
The area between a split end and the rest of the offensive line. A pass receiver lined up in the slot at the snap of the ball may be called a slotback or slot receiver.
snap
The handoff or pass from the center that begins a play from scrimmage.
snap count
The "hut" sound the quarterback will use to signal for the snap to be made.
sneak
An offensive play in which the quarterback, immediately on receiving the snap dives forward with the ball. The play is used when a team needs a very short gain to reach either the goal line or the line to gain.
special teams
The units that handle kickoffs, punts, free kicks and field goal attempts. Often manned by second and third team players.
spike
A play in which the quarterback throws the ball at the ground immediately after the snap. Technically an incomplete pass, it stops the clock. Note that a spike is not considered intentional grounding if it is done with the quarterback under center and immediately after the snap; the only "penalty" is that one down is sacrificed. Running a spike play presumes there will be at least one play by the same team immediately afterward, so it would not be done on 4th down or if it would run the clock out (the clock is probably running while the teams are lining up for the play). If for either reason, a spike cannot be run, a quarterback whose first choice was to spike the ball would have to run a regular play instead. There is at least one case of a quarterback in the NFL doing just that, although that quarterback's regular play failed. (In the January 1998 Rose Bowl, Ryan Leaf spiked the ball and inadvertently ran the clock out on that play.)
split-T
T formation in which the gaps between offensive guards & tackles are nearly twice as large as the gaps between the center & the guards.
splits
The distance between the feet of adjacent offensive linemen. Said to be wide, if there is a large gap between players, or narrow, if the gap is small.
split end
A player position on offense. A receiver who lines up on the line of scrimmage, several yards outside the interior offensive linemen. The term is now rarely used in American Football, having been long since replaced by the wide receiver or wideout, with no distinction between whether the receiver is on the line or not.
spot
The location determined by the official where the ball was downed or blown dead
sprint football
A form of football in which all players must be below the weight of the average college student; the game is played at a select few colleges. Weight limits are also present in most youth football leagues.
squib kick
A type of kickoff in which the ball is intentionally kicked low to the ground, typically bouncing on the ground a few times before being picked up. This is done in the hopes of preventing a long return, as the ball is often picked up by one of the upmen as opposed to the designated kickoff returner.
starter
A player who is the first to play his position within a given game or season. Depending on the position and the game situation, this player may be replaced or share time with one or more players later in the game. As an example, a quarterback may start the game but be replaced by a backup quarterback if the game becomes one-sided. A running-back may start the game but share time with another running back in specific situations or to provide the opportunity for rest during the game.
steal

In case of players, they are the opposite of a bust. They are either:

Players that are drafted later (or later than expected) in the draft or not drafted at all, but ended up being great players. Perhaps the modern-day archetypal example would be sixth-round draft pick Tom Brady. The Buffalo Bills are known for their ability to find quality late-round and undrafted talent, such as Brian Moorman, Jason Peters, Stevie Johnson, and Fred Jackson, although difficulties in drafting in the earlier rounds have hampered the team's abilities on the field.

Unexpected players drafted into the first round, most notably punter Ray Guy, when normally, even a great punter or kicker would never be drafted earlier than mid- to late-round two.

sticks
The pole attached to the end of the 10-yard chain that is used by the chain crew to measure for a new series of downs — i.e. the line to gain a new "first down".
stiff-arm or straight-arm
A ballcarrier warding off a would-be tackler by pushing them away with a straight arm.
strip
To remove a football from the player carrying it
strong I
A formation wherein the tailback is lined up deep directly behind the quarterback, and the fullback is lined up offset to the strong side of the formation.
strong safety (SS)
A kind of safety on defense, as opposed to a free safety. This is a central defensive back; originally, the term indicated that he lined up on the strong side of the field and covered the tight end. However, the modern usage of the term now indicates a central defensive back with responsibility for run and pass support, slightly favoring run support.
strong side
The side of the field (left or right) that has the most players, but it depends on the formations of the teams. When a team uses one tight end, the strong side is the side of the field where the tight end lines up. If the offensive package uses no tight end, or more than one tight end, the strong side is the side of the field with the most offensive players on or just behind the line of scrimmage.
stuff
A tackle of a ball carrier on a running play, behind the line of scrimmage. Compare to sack.
stunt
A tactic used by defensive linemen in which they switch roles in an attempt to get past the blockers. Both defenders will start with power rushes, with the stunting defender getting more of a push. The other lineman will then go around him, ideally using him as a pick to get free from his blocker.
The kickoff and punting teams. Named because the players on both sides have plenty of space to get to running at full speed, making player collisions more dangerous and injurious. The term has been deprecated in favor of "special teams," but it still appears in sports writing.
sweep
A running play in which several blockers lead a running back on a designed play to the outside. Depending on the number of blockers and the design of the play this is sometimes referred to as a "power sweep" or "student-body-right" (or left).

## T

T formation
A classic offensive formation with the quarterback directly behind the center and three running backs behind the quarterback, forming a 'T'. Numerous variations have been developed including the split-T, wing-T, and wishbone-T.
The players in white (#7, #11) are tackling the ball carrier (#10)
tackle
1. The act of forcing a ball carrier to the ground
2. A player position on the line, either an offensive tackle (T) or a defensive tackle (DT). See lineman.
tackle box
The area between where the two offensive tackles line up prior to the snap.
tackle-eligible
A lineman that lines himself up in the position of an eligible receiver.
tailback (TB)
Player position on offense farthest ("deepest") back, except in kicking formations. Also often referred to as the running back, particularly in a one-back offense.
take a knee
See kneel.
take the top/lid off the defense
Forcing the defense to keep the defensive backs out of the box, where they can provide support against the offense's running game, and in a position to honor and protect against deep pass threats.
three-and-out
When an offensive team fails to gain a first down on the first three plays of a drive, and thus is forced to punt on fourth down.
three-point conversion
A novelty developed in the new millennium, used in leagues such as the XFL and the Stars Football League, that is nearly identical to the two-point conversion. A play that advances the ball into the end zone from the 10-yard line (as opposed to the 2- or 3-yard line in a two-point conversion) earns 3 points.
three-point stance
A down lineman's stance with three points on the ground, in other words, his two feet and one of his hands.
throwaway
A pass intentionally thrown out of bounds by the quarterback while he is outside the pocket with no chance of the pass being caught by any eligible receiver or defender. This is done when the quarterback is about to get tackled by a defender and has no open receivers so that the team avoids a loss of yardage that would have happened if the quarterback was sacked.
tight end (TE)
A player position on offense, often known as Y receiver, lines up on the line of scrimmage, next to the offensive tackle. Tight ends are used as blockers during running plays, and either run a route or stay in to block during passing plays.
time of possession (TOP)
The amount of time one team has the ball in its possession relative to the other team. Since there are 60 minutes in a non-overtime game, and one team or another always has possession of the ball, the two teams divide up the time with which they have the ball out of the 60 minutes. If one team has it 40 minutes the other will have it 20 and so forth. A time of possession advantage is seen as a positive thing and is highly correlative with a win or loss as it usually means the opponent's defense becomes fatigued and easier to gain yardage on late in games. Teams that dominate time of possession usually have good defenses (that can keep the opposing team's offense from mounting many long drives) and solid offenses (usually with good running games as running plays keep the clock running more often than passing plays). Teams that have a big disadvantage in the time of possession usually give up several third down conversions and/or frequently go three-and-out on offense.
total offense
A statistic that combines yards rushing and yards passing.
touchback
The act of downing the ball behind one's own goal line on a kickoff or punt after the ball had been propelled over the goal by the opposing team. This can be accomplished by one of several ways: the receiving team player catching the ball in the endzone and dropping down to one knee; by the ball touching any part of the endzone; the ball carrying out of the endzone in any way without being possessed by either team. After a touchback, the team that downed it gets the ball at their own 20-yard line.
touchdown
A play worth six points, accomplished by gaining legal possession of the ball in the opponent's end zone or by the ball crossing the plane of the opponent's goal line with legal possession by a player. It also allows the team a chance for one extra point by kicking the ball or a two-point conversion; see try.
trap
A basic blocking pattern in which a defensive lineman is allowed past the line of scrimmage, only to be blocked at an angle by a "pulling" lineman. Designed to gain a preferred blocking angle and larger hole in the line.
trick play
Also gadget play; any of a variety of plays that use deception to catch the other team off-guard. Famous trick plays include the fake punt or kick, the "Statue of Liberty", the flea-flicker, center-eligible, surprise on-side kick and running back pass plays. These plays are often very risky, as most decent teams have too much skill and experience to be fooled for long.
trips
A formation in which 3 wide receivers are lined up on the same side of the field, with one on the LOS and usually the others flanking the WR one yard off the LOS (as in Slot or Wing, though only one yard off the WR, each way.
true freshman
A player who is one year out of high school. This contrasts with a redshirt freshman who has practiced with the team for one year but who has not played yet in any games.
try
A try is a scrimmage down which is neither timed nor numbered, awarded to a team who has just scored a 6 point touchdown, from close to their opponent's goal line (2-yard line in the NFL, 3-yard line NCAA & NFHS). The try allows the offense (and in some codes, the defense) to score an additional 1 or 2 points. Also called "try-for-point", "conversion", "convert" (Canadian), "extra point(s)", "point(s) after (touchdown)" or PAT. Derived from the rugby term of the same name, although in rugby, the term "try" refers to the actual event corresponding to the American touchdown, not the event that comes afterward as in the American game.
turn the ball over on downs (a.k.a. turnover on downs)
When a team uses all four of their downs without either scoring or making a first down, they must relinquish the ball to the other team.
turnover
The loss of the ball by one team to the other team. This is usually the result of a fumble or an interception.
tweener
A player that plays 2 or more positions because he is a very gifted athlete who could not possess enough size for one position or enough quickness for another.
two-level defense
A defense with only two, as opposed to the usual three, levels of defensive organization. Generally a much more aggressive defense than normal.
two-minute warning
A free time out given to both teams when there is two minutes left on the game clock in each half. Certain leagues may use different times for this warning.
two-point conversion
A play worth two points accomplished by gaining legal possession of the ball in the opponent's end zone, either via a run or pass, after a touchdown has been made; see try.

## U

unbalanced line
Usually refers to an offensive formation which does not have an equal number of linemen on each side of the ball. Done to gain a blocking advantage on one side of the formation; typically one tackle or guard lines up on the other side of the ball. For example a common alignment would be E-G-C-G-T-T-E.
under center
Refers to the quarterback lining up directly behind the center to take the snap. The person under center is conisdered ineligible in the NFL, but an eligible receiver in the NCAA and high school, though this distinction rarely manifests itself since the person under center usually is the passer. Contrast with shotgun formation.
undrafted
A player who enters the NFL Draft but is not selected by any team in the draft's seven rounds. Undrafted players are free agents and can sign with whatever team they so choose if that team is willing to take them.
upback
A player, in a scrimmage kick (punts and field goals) or kneel formations, who lines up behind the offensive line. An upback's primary duty is to block oncoming defensive players in a kick formation and to recover any fumbles in a kneel formation. They can receive direct snaps, and upbacks are eligible receivers.
upman
During a kickoff, every player on the return team is called an "upman" with the exception of the one or two designated kickoff returners, who stand furthest away from the starting point of the kicking team.
utility player
A player capable of playing multiple positions

## V

vanilla offense
An offense with very few plays and/or formations. Used primarily in exhibition games to prevent opposing coaches from gleaning any information from the team's playbook. So named because "vanilla" flavoring is considered plain.
victory formation
See kneel. Based on the most common game situation for a kneel, in which the team with the lead near the end of the game has the ball and wishes to run out the clock.
veer
A type of option offense using 2 backs in the backfield, one behind each guard or tackle (referred to as split backs), allowing a triple option play (give to either back or quarterback keep).

## W

walk-on
In college, a non-scholarship player. I.e., a player who is not receiving a scholarship to play football.
weak I
A formation wherein the tailback is lined up deep directly behind the quarterback, and the fullback is lined up offset to the weak side of the formation.
weak side
When one tight end is used, the side of the field opposite the tight end. In other offensive packages, the side of the field with the fewest offensive players on or just behind the line of scrimmage.
West Coast offense
An offensive philosophy that uses short, high-percentage passes as the core of a ball-control offense. Was invented in Cincinnati under coach Paul Brown in the mid-1970s. Is now widely used in the NFL but originally made popular by San Francisco 49ers coach Bill Walsh. The original west coast offense may have been a term used by Don Coryell, as a Sports Illustrated article accidentally confused Coryell's title with the offense being used by Walsh, thus possibly coining the term. (Coryell's offense was known instead as "Air Coryell" through the 1980s.) The basis of Walsh's offense is to use short routes for receivers, delivering the ball on time and accurately and using short passes to replace runs. It relies heavily on yardage from running after the catch, using many eligible receivers on plays to maximize quarterback options, and spreading the ball to many targets to keep the defense confused.
wheel route
A pass route in which the receiver, often a running back, travels parallel along the line of scrimmage and then takes off up the field.
wide
Adjective meaning towards the sidelines. Example: A kick that is "wide right" has missed to the right side of the field from the perspective of the offense.
A player position on offense. He is split wide (usually about 10 yards) from the formation and plays on the line of scrimmage as a split end (X) or one yard off as a flanker (Z). The offensive-formation rules regarding the number of backs and linemen are still used.
wildcat offense
An offensive philosophy that dictates that either a quarterback or a running back can receive a direct snap from the snapper; it is often compared to the single wing. The Wildcat creation is attributed to Gus Malzahn (currently the head coach at Auburn University, formerly at Tulsa and Arkansas where he made the formation famous with star backs Felix Jones and Darren McFadden. Coincidentally running back Ronnie Brown of the Miami Dolphins is leading the nation with the Wildcat in 2009 and happens to be a former player at Auburn University).
Will
The weak side linebacker.
win-loss(-tie)
The ratio of wins to losses (and if necessary, ties), expressed as a pair or trio of numbers. For example, 6-1 means 6 wins and 1 loss and 5-3-1 means 5 wins, 3 losses and 1 tie.
wing back or wingback (WB)
A player position in some offensive formations (Flexbone). Lines up just outside the tight end and one yard off the line of scrimmage. A versatile position that can be used as a receiver, blocker, and/or runner of reverses.
winning percentage
A statistic used in league standings to compare and/or rank teams based on their win-loss (or win-loss-tie) records. Winning percentage is calculated by dividing the number of games won by the number of games played. A tie counts as one-half of a win and one-half of a loss. The winning percentage is not increased nor decreased by tied games. These values are expressed as a decimal (e.g.: .600 not 60.0%). See also: points percentage.

Mathematically: Pw $= (w + (0.5t))/(g)$ where Pw is winning percentage, $w$ is number of wins, $t$ is number of ties, and $g$ is number of games played.
winning record
A regular season record when a team wins a number of games greater than it loses. A winning record corresponds to a winning percentage greater than .500 (Pw > .500). See also: losing record, non-winning record, and winning percentage.
winning season
A season when a team wins a number of games greater than it loses. See also: losing season and non-winning season.
wishbone
A formation involving three running backs lined up behind the quarterback in the shape of a Y, similar to the shape of a wishbone.

## X

Used in offensive play calling, usually referring to the split end, the wide receiver who lines up on the line of scrimmage. For example, "Split Right Jet 529 X Post" tells the X-receiver to run a post route.

## Y

YAC
1. Yards After Catch; the amount of yardage gained after initial catch. A quarterback's length of pass is the distance from where the line of scrimmage is, to where the receiver caught the ball. YAC is the distance the ball carrier ran after the initial catch. Screen pass plays boosts YAC effectively due to the short passes, and the receiver has to run to increase yardage.
2. Yards After Contact.
1. A designation used in play calling for the offense's third receiver in a play. This is usually either the slot receiver or a tight end, depending on the play. For example, "Buffalo Right 534 Boot Y Corner" tells the Y-receiver to run a corner route.
2. The offense's primary tight end in a play.
yard
One yard of linear distance in the direction of one of the two goals. A field is 100 yards (120 when both end zones are included). Typically, a team is required to advance at least 10 yards in order to get a new set of downs. Identical in length to the standard unit of measurement (3 feet or 36 inches).
yard Line
A marking on the field that indicates the distance (in yards) to the nearest goal line.
yardage
The amount of yards gained or lost during a play, game, season, or career.
yards gained
See yardage.
yards from scrimmage
The amount of yards gained by the offensive team advancing the ball from the line of scrimmage.
yellow flag
See flag

## Z

Used in offensive play calling, usually referring to the flanker, the wide receiver who lines up off the line of scrimmage. For example, "Panther Gun 85 Slant Z Go" tells the Z-receiver to run a go (also called a fly or streak) route.
zebra
A colloquial term for an official, referring to their black-and-white striped uniform.
zone defense
A defense in which players who are in pass coverage cover zones of the field, instead of individual players. Pure zone packages are seldom used; most defenses employ some combination of zone and man coverage.
zone blitz
A defensive package combining a blitz with zone pass coverage. Allows the defense to choose the blitzer after the offense shows formation and pass coverage requirements, and features unpredictable blitzes from different linebackers and defensive backs. Invented by coach Dick LeBeau.
A type of option offense where the quarterback and tail back line up approximately side by side. After the quarterback receives the snap, the two players cross paths and go through the motions of a hand-off. Based upon reading the defensive reaction, the quarterback either completes the handoff or pulls the ball out and runs with it himself.

## References

Notes
1. ^ "Building America's Team". Dallas Morning News. Retrieved 2007-01-29.
2. ^ "Describing 'The Innovator'". The Sporting News. Retrieved 2007-01-29.
3. ^ USA Today. 2010-09-25 http://blogs.usatoday.com/gameon/2007/12/new-years-eve-1.html `|url=` missing title (help).
4. ^ "NFL's Black Monday". CycloneFanatic. Retrieved 2012-05-29.
5. ^ "Moments, sports and otherwise, In Time: NFL's Black Monday continues into Tuesday". Abriefsecond.blogspot.com. 2006-01-03. Retrieved 2012-05-29.
6. ^ "ProFootballTalk". ProFootballTalk. 2012-05-21. Retrieved 2012-05-29.
7. ^ a b c d Hickok, 1977, p. 204.
8. ^ "Fantasy Football Draft Software". The Coordinator. Retrieved 2012-05-29.
9. ^ Stoltz, Jeremy. "Chalk Talk: the Zone Blitz". Scout.com. Retrieved 8 February 2012.
10. ^ Weeks, Chris. "Football Terminology". fftoolbox.com. FullTime Fantasy Sports LLC. Retrieved 8 February 2012.
11. ^ Zimmerman, Paul. "Icing on the cake" Si.com (January 21, 2005)
12. ^ NFL Video: Jones-Drew takes a knee NFL Game Center: Jacksonville Jaguars at New York Jets - Week 10, 2009
13. ^ The Polian Corner, colts.com, September 20, 2006, accessed March 25, 2007.
14. ^ Charles, Nick. Taylor made: 'L.T.' has a date with Canton, destiny, sportsillustrated.cnn.com, August 12, 1999, accessed May 25, 2007.
15. ^ American Football Coaches Association. Defensive football Strategies. Human Kinetics, 2000. pp. 202–203. ISBN 0-7360-0142-5.
16. ^ Coach Bass. NFLHS.com (National Football League) http://nflhs.org/tipsdrills/coachbass/coachbass_09192001_sim.asp `|url=` missing title (help). Retrieved 2007-11-10.
17. ^ Mallory, Bill and Don Nehlen. Complete Guide to Special Teams. American Football Coaches Association. ISBN 0-7360-5291-7.

## Sources

• Hickok, Ralph (1977). New Encyclopedia or Sports. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc. ISBN 0-07-028705-8