Panch phoron (Bengali: পাঁচ ফোড়ন pãch phoṛon), also found transliterated as Padkaune Masala, panch puran, panch phoran, panchphoran, panch phutana, is a whole spice blend used in Bangladesh, Eastern India and Southern Nepal especially in Mithila of Nepal, Bengal, Assam and Oriya in their cuisine. The name literally means "five spices" in Maithili (paanch phorana), Nepali (Paudkaune Masala), Assamese (pas phoṛôn), Bengali (pãch phoṛon) and Oriya (panchu phutana (ପଞ୍ଚୁ ଫୁଟଣ)).
All of the spices in panch phoron are seeds. Typically, panch phoron consists of fenugreek seed, nigella seed, cumin seed, black mustard seed and fennel seed in equal parts. Some cooks prefer to use a smaller proportion of fenugreek seeds, which have a mildly bitter taste.
In the tradition of Oriya, Maithili cuisine, Nepali cuisine and Bengali cuisine, panch phoron is typically fried in cooking oil or ghee, which causes it to immediately begin popping. This technique is known as "tempering", called ବଘାର (baghaar) in Oriya, ফোড়ন (phoŗon) in Maithili of Nepali dialect or বাগাড় (bagaŗ) in Bengali and छौंक (chaunk) in Hindi/Urdu. After tempering, other ingredients are added to the fried spices to be coated in the mixture.
- Jaffrey, Madhur. Madhur Jaffrey's Ultimate Curry Bible. Ebury Press, 2003. ISBN 0-09-187415-7
- "Panch Phoron Seeds Glossary | Recipes with Panch Phoron Seeds". Tarladalal.com. Retrieved 2012-07-13.
- Mom, Bong (2007-06-07). "Bong Mom's CookBook: Panch Phoran". Bongcookbook.com. Retrieved 2012-07-13.
- Deepika Sahu (10 May 2012). "The power of five seeds".
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