कर्णाटकाश्च तैलंगा द्राविडा महाराष्ट्रकाः, गुर्जराश्चेति पञ्चैव द्राविडा विन्ध्यदक्षिणे ||
सारस्वताः कान्यकुब्जा गौडा उत्कलमैथिलाः, पञ्चगौडा इति ख्याता विन्ध्स्योत्तरवासिनः ||
Meaning :(The-) Karnātakas, Tailangas, Dravidas, Mahārāshtrakās and Gurjaras; these five(-types who-) live south of Vindhya (- mountains) are (called-) "five Dravidas" (- Brahmins); (whereas-) Sārasvatas, Kanyakubja Brahmins, Gauḍa Brahmins, Utkala Brahmins, and Maithil Brahmins, who live north of Vindhya (- mountains) mainly in Nepal are known as "five Gaudas" (-Brahmins).
Saryupari Sanadhyashcha Bhumiharo Jijhoutayah
Prakritashcha Iti Panchabhedastasya Prakartitah
The differentiation of Brahmin community is mentioned in a Sanskrit text Brāhmaṇotpatti-mārtaṇḍa:
- सृष्टियारम्भे ब्राह्मणस्य जातिरेका प्रकीर्तिता ।
- एवम् पूर्व जातिरेका देशभेदादद्विधाऽभवत् ॥
- गौड़द्रविड़ भेदेन तयोर्भेदाददश स्मृताः ...
Meaning : There was one caste of Brahmin in the beginning of Creation, but due to difference in country (of residence) it got bifurcated into two, namely Gauda and Dravida (i.e., Panch-Gauda and Panch-Dravida), which was again differentiated into ten (five Panchgaudas and five Panchdravida sub-castes).
Panch-Gauda still include a major portion of all Maithil Brahmins in Nepal and Bihar, barring a few migrant Brahmin communities like Shakadvipi. Panch-Gauda includes many branches all of which come under Brahmin communities.
- cf. Kalhana's Rajatarangini in reference for English version.
- cf. Brāhmaṇotpatti-mārtaṇḍa, p.2, ŝloka 8
- cf. A History of Brahmin Clans, p.40-42
- Saraswati, Swami Sahajanand (2003). Swami Sahajanand Saraswati Rachnawali in Six volumes (in Volume 1 at p. 518, Parishist by Acharya Tarineesh Jha, 515-519). Prakashan Sansthan. ISBN 81-7714-097-3.
- cf. Harikṛṣṇa Śāstri, chapter-1, sloka 8
- cf. A History of Brahmin Clans, Introduction
- cf. A History of Brahmin Clans, p.279
- Kalhana's Rajatarangini: A Chronicle of the Kings of Kashmir; 3 Volumes > M.A.Stein (translator),(Introduction by Mohammad Ishaq Khan),published by Saujanya Books at Srinagar,2007,(First Edition pub. in 1900),ISBN 81-8339-043-9 / 8183390439.
- A History of Brahmin Clans (Brāhmaṇa Vaṃshõ kā Itihāsa) in Hindi, by Dorilāl Śarmā,published by Rāśtriya Brāhamana Mahāsabhā, Vimal Building, Jamirābād, Mitranagar, Masūdābād,Aligarh-1, 2nd ed-1998. (This Hindi book contains the most exhaustive list of Brahmana gotras and pravaras together their real and mythological histories).
- Brāhmaṇotpatti-mārtaṇḍa by Harikṛṣṇa Śāstri, (Sanskrit), 1871
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