Pancha-Gauda

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Pancha-Gauda and Pancha-Dravida are the two primary Brahmins, as per the śloka from the Rajatarangini of Kalhana:

कर्णाटकाश्च तैलंगा द्राविडा महाराष्ट्रकाः, गुर्जराश्चेति पञ्चैव द्राविडा विन्ध्यदक्षिणे ||

सारस्वताः कान्यकुब्जा गौडा उत्कलमैथिलाः, पञ्चगौडा इति ख्याता विन्ध्स्योत्तरवासिनः ||

Meaning :(The-) Karnātakas, Tailangas, Dravidas, Mahārāshtrakās and Gurjaras; these five(-types who-) live south of Vindhya (- mountains) are (called-) "five Dravidas" (- Brahmins); (whereas-) Sārasvatas, Kanyakubja Brahmins, Gauḍa Brahmins, Utkala Brahmins, and Maithil Brahmins, who live north of Vindhya (- mountains) mainly in Nepal are known as "five Gaudas" (-Brahmins).[1][2][3]

The differentiation of Brahmin community is mentioned in a Sanskrit text Brahmanopatti-martanda:[4]

सृष्टियारम्भे ब्राह्मणस्य जातिरेका प्रकीर्तिता ।
एवम् पूर्व जातिरेका देशभेदादद्विधाऽभवत् ॥
गौड़द्रविड़ भेदेन तयोर्भेदाददश स्मृताः ...

Meaning : There was one caste of Brahmin in the beginning of Creation, but due to difference in country (of residence) it got bifurcated into two, namely Gauda and Dravida (i.e., Panch-Gauda and Panch-Dravida), which was again differentiated into ten (five Panchgaudas and five Panchdravida sub-castes).

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ cf. Kalhana's Rajatarangini in reference for English version.
  2. ^ cf. Brāhmaṇotpatti-mārtaṇḍa, p.2, ŝloka 8
  3. ^ cf. A History of Brahmin Clans, p.40-42
  4. ^ cf. Harikṛṣṇa Śāstri, chapter-1, sloka 8

References[edit]

  • Kalhana's Rajatarangini: A Chronicle of the Kings of Kashmir; 3 Volumes > M.A.Stein (translator),(Introduction by Mohammad Ishaq Khan),published by Saujanya Books at Srinagar,2007,(First Edition pub. in 1900),ISBN 81-8339-043-9 / 8183390439.
  • A History of Brahmin Clans (Brāhmaṇa Vaṃshõ kā Itihāsa) in Hindi, by Dorilāl Śarmā,published by Rāśtriya Brāhamana Mahāsabhā, Vimal Building, Jamirābād, Mitranagar, Masūdābād,Aligarh-1, 2nd ed-1998. (This Hindi book contains the most exhaustive list of Brahmana gotras and pravaras together their real and mythological histories).
  • Brāhmaṇotpatti-mārtaṇḍa by Harikṛṣṇa Śāstri, (Sanskrit), 1871