Pancho Villa Expedition
|Pancho Villa Expedition|
|Part of the Mexican Revolution, Border War|
Cartoon by Clifford Berryman reflects American attitudes about the expedition
|Commanders and leaders|
|John J. Pershing|| Pancho Villa
|c. 10,000||c. 500 (Villistas) and 22,000 (Carrancistas)|
The Pancho Villa Expedition—now known officially in the United States as the Mexican Expedition but originally referred to as the Punitive Expedition—was a military operation conducted by the United States Army against the paramilitary forces of Mexican revolutionary Francisco "Pancho" Villa from March 14, 1916 to February 7, 1917 during the Mexican Revolution 1910-1920.
The expedition was launched in retaliation for Villa's attack on the town of Columbus, New Mexico, and was the most remembered event of the Border War. The primary objective was the capture of Villa. Despite successfully locating and defeating the main body of Villa's command, responsible for the raid on Columbus, Villa himself escaped American forces.
The active search for Villa ended after a month in the field when troops of the de facto Mexican government used arms at the town of Parral to resist passage of an American column, changing the mission of the U.S. forces to preventing further attacks on it by Mexican federal troops and planning for war in the eventuality it broke out. When war was averted diplomatically, the expedition remained in Mexico until February 1917 to encourage the de facto government to pursue Villa and prevent further raids across the border.
Trouble between the United States and Pancho Villa had been growing since October 1915, when the United States government officially recognized Villa's rival and former ally Venustiano Carranza as head of the government of Mexico, and provided rail transportation through the United States for the movement of more than 5,000 troops of the Mexican Army to defeat Villa at the Battle of Agua Prieta, in which Villa's seasoned División del Norte was smashed. Feeling betrayed, Villa began attacking American property and citizens in northern Mexico.
On January 11, 1916, sixteen American employees of the American Smelting and Refining Company were removed from a train near Santa Isabel, Chihuahua and summarily stripped and executed. Brigadier General John J. Pershing, commanding the district headquartered at Fort Bliss, Texas, received information that Villa with a new force was on the border and about to make an attack that would force the United States to intervene, embarrassing the Carranza government. Raids by ordinary bandits were so commonplace, however, that the rumor was not seen as credible.
But at about 4:00 am on March 9, 1916, Villa's troops attacked Columbus, New Mexico, and Camp Furlong, the U.S. Army post there, where four troops of the 13th Cavalry Regiment had been stationed since September 1912. Ten civilians and eight soldiers were killed in the attack, and two civilians and six soldiers wounded. The raiders burned the town, stole horses and mules, and seized machine guns, ammunition and merchandise, before fleeing back to Mexico.
However, Villa's troops had suffered considerable losses, with at least sixty-seven dead and dozens more wounded. Many of the casualties were inflicted when the machine gun platoon of the 13th Cavalry led by 2nd Lt. John P. Lucas set up its guns under fire on the town square. About thirteen of Villa's wounded later died of their wounds, and five Villistas taken prisoner by the Americans were summarily executed. Local lore in Columbus holds that the attack may have been caused by a merchant in Columbus who supplied Villa with arms and ammunition. Villa is said to have paid several thousand dollars in cash for the weapons, but the merchant refused to deliver them unless he was paid in gold, giving "cause" for the raid.
On March 15, 1916  on orders from President Woodrow Wilson, Pershing assembled an expeditionary force and led a provisional division consisting of three provisional brigades (four regiments of cavalry, two of infantry, and 3,700 men) across the border into Mexico to search for Villa, marching in two columns from Columbus and Culbertson's Ranch. Pershing with the 2nd Provisional Cavalry Brigade reached Colonia Dublán on March 17 and established the main base of operations for the campaign. The 1st Aero Squadron, which had departed San Antonio, Texas, on March 13 by rail with eight Curtiss JN-3 airplanes, flew the first aerial reconnaissance of the area from Columbus the day after it arrived, on March 16. The entire squadron flew to the advanced camp at Colonia Dublán on March 19–20, losing two aircraft in the process.[n 1]
Pershing immediately sent the 7th Cavalry south on March 18 to begin the pursuit, followed by the 10th Cavalry moving by rail two days later. From March 20 to March 30, as the 13th Cavalry collected its units dispersed along the El Paso and Southwestern Railroad and the 11th Cavalry arrived by train from Fort Oglethorpe, Georgia, Pershing dispatched four additional "flying columns" through the mountainous territory into the gaps between the first three forces. Snow and ice storms occurred through early April and made both pursuit and logistics more difficult. An additional regiment of cavalry and two of infantry were added to the expedition in late April,[n 2] bringing its total size to 4,800 men. Ultimately more than 10,000 men—virtually the entire Regular Army and additional National Guard troops—were committed to the expedition either in Mexico or its supporting units at Columbus.
Because of disputes with the Carranza administration over the use of the Mexico North Western Railway to supply Pershing's troops, the United States Army employed trucks to convoy supplies to the encampment where the Signal Corps also set up wireless telegraph service from the border to Pershing's headquarters. This was the first use of truck convoys in a U. S. military operation and provided useful experience for World War I. During this phase of the campaign Pershing maintained a small mobile headquarters of 30 men using a Dodge touring car for personal transportation, to keep abreast of the moving columns and control their movements, using aircraft of the 1st Aero Squadron as messengers. His headquarters advanced as far as the 1st Aero Squadron's field at Satevó, southeast of Chihuahua City, before falling back at the end of April.
Villa had a six-day head start on the pursuit, all but ensuring that his forces would successfully break up into smaller bands and he would be able to hide in the trackless mountains. Nevertheless he was nearly caught by the forced marches of the pursuing cavalry columns when he recklessly paused in his retreat to attack a Carrancista garrison. The Battle of Guerrero was fought on March 29, 1916, after a 55-mile night march through the snowy Sierra Madre by Colonel George A. Dodd and 370 men of the 7th Cavalry. 360 Villistas had remained in Guerrero celebrating the victory won over the Carrancista garrison[n 3] and 160 more were in nearby San Ysidro. Dodd's force was unexpected by the Villistas, who hastily dispersed when the U.S. troops appeared on the bluffs above the town. Dodd immediately attacked, sending one squadron around the town to block escape routes and charging with the other two. During a five-hour pursuit of fleeing Villista elements, over 75 of Villa's men were killed or wounded and he was forced to retreat into the mountains. Only five of the Americans were hurt, none of them fatally. The battle is considered the single most successful engagement of the expedition and possibly the closest Pershing's men came to capturing Villa.[n 4]
After advancing from Namiquipa on March 24 to San Diego del Monte, the 10th Cavalry became isolated from Pershing's headquarters by a snow storm. On March 31 a squadron of the 10th marched toward Guerrero after receiving reports of the action there and at midday April 1 a meeting engagement resulted with one of the retreating Villista groups, 150 strong, under Francisco Beltran at a ranch near Agua Caliente. Breaking up into even smaller groups and retreating over a wooded ridge, some of the Villistas attempted to defend themselves behind a stone wall, resulting in the first mounted cavalry charge by U.S. troops since 1898, led by Major Charles Young. The pursuit lasted until darkness and the Buffalo Soldiers killed at least two Villistas left on the field and routed the remainder, without loss.
The columns pushed deeper into Mexico, increasing tensions between the United States and the Carranza government. On April 12, 1916, Major Frank Tompkins and Troops K and M, 13th Cavalry, numbering 128 men, were attacked by an estimated 500 Mexican troops as they were leaving the town of Parral, 513 miles into Mexico and almost to the state of Durango, following violent protests by the civilian populace. Tompkins knew that his outnumbered column could not win a straight-up engagement and so used a rear guard to reach the fortified village of Santa Cruz de Villegas. Two Americans were killed in the fight, one was missing from the rear guard, and another six were wounded, while the Carrancistas lost between fourteen and seventy men, according to conflicting accounts.
The battle marked a turning point in the campaign as military opposition by Carranza forced a halt in further pursuit while diplomatic conversations took place by both nations to avoid war. Only four days earlier, on April 8, Army Chief of Staff General Hugh L. Scott had expressed to Secretary of War Newton Baker that Pershing had virtually accomplished his mission and that it was "not dignified for the United States to be hunting one man in a foreign country." Baker concurred and so advised Wilson, but following the fight at Parral the administration refused to withdraw the expedition, not wanting to be seen as caving in to Mexican pressure during an election year. Instead, on April 21 Pershing ordered a withdrawal of the four columns that had converged near Parral to San Antonio de Los Arenales, and a week later assigned the cavalry regiments, including the newly arrived 5th Cavalry, to five districts established in central Chihuahua in which to patrol and seek out the smaller bands.[n 5]
The five districts that Pershing established west of the Mexican Central Railway on April 29, 1916 were:
- Namiquipa District (10th Cavalry) south of the 30th parallel to Namiquipa;
- Bustillos District (13th Cavalry), around Laguna Bustillos below the eastern part of Namiquipa District, to San Antonio de Los Arenales and Chihuahua City;
- Satevó District (5th Cavalry), southeast of the Bustillos District and east of the San Borja District, south to Jimenez;
- San Borja District (11th Cavalry), between the Guerrero and Satevó Districts, south to Parral; and
- Guerrero District (7th Cavalry), below the western part of Namiquipa District and west of the Bustillos and San Borja Districts.
Colonel Dodd and a portion of the 7th Cavalry fought another engagement on April 22 with about 200 Villistas, under Candelaro Cervantes, at the small village of Tomochic. As the Americans entered the village, the Mexicans opened fire from the surrounding hills. Dodd first sent patrols out to engage the Villistas' rear guard, to the east of Tomochic, and after they were "scattered" the main body was located on a plain, to the north of town, and brought into action. Skirmishing continued, but after dark the Villistas retreated and the Americans moved to in Tomochic. The 7th Cavalry lost two men killed and four wounded, while Dodd reported his men had killed at least thirty Villistas.
The next battle was on May 5 at a ranch near Ojos Azules. Tha Carrancista garrison at the silver mining town of Cusihuiriachic was attacked by Villa's forces on May 4, prompting the garrison commander to request help from U.S forces at nearby San Antonio. Six troops of the 11th Cavalry, its machine gun platoon, and a detachment of Apache Scouts, totaling 14 officers and 319 men, began a night march under Major Robert L. Howze. Arriving at Cusihuirischic, Howze found that 140 Villistas under Julio Acosta had pulled back westward into the mountains to a ranch at Ojos Azules and that the garrison commander had received orders not to cooperate. Howze was delayed three hours in finding a guide and by the time he located the ranch and deployed to attack, day had broken. When Acosta's guards and the Apache scouts exchanged fire, Howze immediately ordered a charge with pistols, supported by plunging fire from the machine gun troop, in what Friedrich Katz called the "greatest victory that the Punitive Expedition would achieve." Without a single casualty, the Americans killed forty-two Villistas and wounded many more. The survivors, including Acosta, were dispersed, but they later regrouped to continue fighting the Mexican government.
Also on May 5, several hundred Mexican raiders, under a Villista officer, attacked the geographically isolated towns of Glenn Springs and Boquillas in the Big Bend region of Texas. At Glenn Springs the Mexicans overwhelmed a squad of just nine 14th Cavalry troopers guarding the town, set fire to it, then rode on to Boquillas where they killed a boy, robbed the town and took two captives. Local commanders pursued the Mexicans 100 miles into the Mexican state of Coahuila to free the captives and regain the stolen property. On May 12, Major George T. Langhorne and two troops from the 8th Cavalry from Fort Bliss, Texas, soon reinforced by Colonel Frederick Sibley and Troops H and K of the 14th Cavalry from Fort Clark, rescued the captives at El Pino without a fight, and three days later a small detachment of cavalry encountered the raiders at Castillon. Five of the Villistas were killed and two wounded; the Americans had no casualties. The force returned to the United States May 21 after ten days in Mexico.
On May 14, 2nd Lt. George S. Patton raided the San Miguelito Ranch, near Rubio, Chihuahua. Patton, a future World War II general and a Pershing aide, was out looking to buy some corn from the Mexicans when he came across the ranch of Julio Cárdenas, an important leader in the Villista military organization. With fifteen men and three Dodge touring cars, Patton led America's first motorised military action, in which Cárdenas and two other men were shot dead. The young lieutenant then had the three Mexicans strapped to the hood of the cars and driven back to General Pershing's headquarters. Patton is said to have carved three notches into the twin Colt Peacemakers he carried, representing the men he killed that day. General Pershing nicknamed him the "Bandito".
The Villistas launched an attack of their own on May 25. This time a small force of ten men from the 7th Cavalry were out looking for stray cattle and correcting maps when they were ambushed by twenty rebels just south of Cruces. One American corporal was killed and two other men were wounded, though they killed two of the "bandit leaders" and drove off the rest.
On June 2, Lieutenant James A. Shannon and twenty Apache scouts fought a small skirmish with some of Candelaro Cervantes' men after they stole a few horses from the 5th Cavalry. Shannon and the Apaches found the rebels' trail, which was a week old by then, and followed it for some time until finally catching up with the Mexicans near Las Varas Pass, about forty miles south of Namiquipa. Using the cover of darkness, Shannon and his scouts attacked the Villistas' hideout, killing one of them and wounding another without losses to themselves. The rebel who died was thought to be the leader as he carried a sword during the fight.
Another skirmish was fought on June 9, north of Pershing's headquarters and the city of Chihuahua. Twenty men from the 13th Cavalry encountered an equally small force of Villistas and chased them through Santa Clara Canyon. Three of the Mexicans were killed and the rest escaped. There were no American casualties.
End of active operations
On May 9, following a face-to-face meeting with Carranza's Secretary of War and Navy, General Álvaro Obregón, Pershing's immediate superior Major General Frederick Funston, acting on the Carrancista threat to send a massive force against the expedition's supply lines and forcibly drive it out of Mexico, ordered him to withdraw all his troops from San Antonio de Los Arenales to Colonia Dublán. Although the order was rescinded on the evening of May 11 when no evidence of Carrancista troop movements was found, the southernmost supply depots had been closed and materiel sent north that could not easily be turned around. Pershing instead was ordered to halt in place at Namiquipa, making tactical dispositions of his forces there and on El Valle to the north. However a gradual withdrawal of the expedition to Dublán was effectively underway when on May 19, the 10th and 11th Cavalry returned to the intermediate base to guard the supply lines with Columbus. As the threat of war with the de facto government increased, the northward movement continued. The advanced supply depot at Namiquipa closed June 23 and Pershing's headquarters left there on June 21, setting up again in Dublán June 23. June 29 found the expedition concentrated on the main base and the forward camp at El Valle 60 miles farther south.[n 6]
The last and most costly engagement of the Mexican Expedition was fought on June 21 when 3 officers and 87 men of Troops C and K of the 10th Cavalry, sent to scout Carrancista dispositions reported along the Mexican Central Railway, encountered a blocking force of 300 soldiers and were defeated at the Battle of Carrizal. Captain Charles T. Boyd, 1st Lt. Henry R. Adair, and ten enlisted men were killed,[n 7] ten wounded and another 24 (23 soldiers and 1 civilian guide) taken prisoner. The remainder, including the sole surviving officer, Capt. Lewis S. Morey, were rescued by a relief squadron of the 11th Cavalry. The Mexicans did not do much better; they reported the loss of 24 men killed and 43 wounded, including their commander, General Félix Uresti Gómez, while Pershing listed 42 Carrancistas killed and 51 wounded. When General Pershing learned of the battle he was furious and asked for permission to attack the Carrancista garrison of Chihuahua City. President Wilson refused, knowing that it would certainly start a war.
The action at Parral had made the destruction of Villa and his troops secondary to the objective of preventing further attacks on U.S. forces by Carrancistas and preparing contingencies in the event of war. The battle at Carrizal brought the countries to the brink of war and forced both governments to make immediate overt gestures clearly showing their intent to avoid it, and although the United States deployed 100,000 troops on the border, by July 4 the major crisis had passed. The Mexican Expedition remained at Colonia Dublán indefinitely as a fixed-base operation to be a negative incentive to the Carranza government to take seriously its obligation to catch Villa. The Carranza government proved unequal to the task but nevertheless U.S. operations inside Mexico virtually ceased over the next six months.
A Joint High Commission for negotiations with the Carranza government was agreed upon in July, and the first of 52 sessions met on September 6. Although the commission reached accord on all issues, the negotiations failed to result in a formal agreement for withdrawal of U.S. forces signed by the Mexican government. Despite this, Pershing was ordered on January 18, 1917 to prepare the expedition for return to the United States, which was executed between January 28 and February 5. While the expedition made a dozen successful contacts with Villista groups in the first two months of the campaign, killing many of his important subordinates and 169 of his men, all of whom had participated in the attack on Columbus, it failed in its other major objective of capturing Villa. However, between the date of the American withdrawal and Villa's retirement in 1920, Villa's troops were unable to bring down the government or raid the United States, being hemmed in by American and Mexican federal troops and suffering money and arms blockades on both sides of the border.
National Guard call-ups
Between June 1915 and June 1916 raiders from Mexico attacked persons on American soil 38 times, resulting in the deaths of 26 soldiers and 11 civilians. Reacting to the Glenn Springs raid, the Army transferred three regiments of regulars (the 14th Infantry, 21st Infantry, and 6th Field Artillery) to the border and also called up state militia units from Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico on May 8. On June 15, 1916, another attempted raid by Mexican border-crossers, this at San Ygnacio, Texas, 30 miles downstream from Laredo, was repulsed by soldiers with casualties to both sides. As a result, using powers granted by passage of the National Defense Act of 1916, which established the United States National Guard, Wilson on June 18 fully mobilized Guard units from the remainder of the states and the District of Columbia for duty on the border. More than 140,000 National Guard troops were called up, but only two regiments, the 1st New Mexico Infantry and the 2nd Massachusetts Infantry, were assigned to the Mexican Expedition, and those to guard the base at Columbus. Historian Clarence Clendenen asserts that although no Guard units crossed into Mexico at any time, individuals from the two regiments at Columbus did enter the country to perform various tasks.
Wide differences in proficiency between various guard units existed in training, leadership, and equipment, and for the most part units came to the border with only basic drilling as experience. Units were initially assigned as static guards for railroad bridges and border crossing points, but as training made them more proficient, increasing responsibility for the patrolling the border resulted in encounters with smugglers and bandits who still posed an occasional threat. Records of the Utah National Guard indicate three skirmishes resulting in an exchange of fire after it arrived at Camp Stephen J. Little on the Arizona border in July 1916. The final action of the three, occurring January 26, 1917, resulted in an all-day border skirmish between Utah cavalrymen and Mexicans in which the guardsmen were reinforced and ten Mexicans were killed or wounded.[n 8] While incapable of conducting organized combat operations with other units, the border security mission proved an excellent training environment for the officers and men of the National Guard, who were again inducted into federal service after the United States declared war on the Germany in April 1917. Many National Guard leaders in both World Wars traced their first federal service to the Mexican Expedition. In their history of the call-up, Charles Harris and Louis Sadler reveal the significance of the call-up:
"Between June 1916 and April 1917 the guard received intensive field training. Units from different states were sometimes grouped into large provisional units. Not only did the men become more proficient, but many officers gained invaluable experience commanding large formations. At the same time the guard was receiving badly needed equipment and supplies. The great call-up transformed the national guard into a much more effective fighting force, for it was as close as the United States came to the large-scale military maneuvers in which European armies traditionally engaged."
After American forces were withdrawn in January 1917, Pershing publicly claimed the expedition to be a success, though he complained privately to his family that President Wilson had imposed too many restrictions, which made it impossible for him to fulfill his mission. He admitted to having been "outwitted and out-bluffed at every turn" and wrote that "when the true history is written, it will not be a very inspiring chapter for school children, or even grownups to contemplate. Having dashed into Mexico with the intention of eating the Mexicans raw, we turned back at the first repulse and are now sneaking home under cover, like a whipped curr with its tail between its legs."
Pershing was permitted to bring into New Mexico 527 Chinese refugees who had assisted him during the expedition, despite the ban on Chinese immigration at that time under the Chinese Exclusion Act. The Chinese refugees, known as "Pershing's Chinese", were allowed to remain in the U.S. if they worked under the supervision of the military as cooks and servants on bases. In 1921, Congress passed Public Resolution 29, which allowed them to remain in the country permanently under the conditions of the 1892 Geary Act. Most of them settled in San Antonio.
Order of battle
United States Army:
|A graphical timeline is available at
Timeline of the Mexican Revolution
Company A, First Arkansas Infantry, in a "skirmish line" near Deming, New Mexico, during the 1916 Mexican Expedition
- The entire squadron was forced to land before reaching Colonia Dublán because of darkness. One of the Jennies came down in the desert south of Casas Grandes and was so severely vandalized that only the engine could be salvaged. The second arrived the next morning but crashed in a cross-wind while landing.
- The 5th Cavalry and the 17th and 24th Infantry Regiments. The infantry was used as "line of communication" troops to protect the logistical network.
- Villa himself was shot in the lower leg during the earlier attack by a captured Carrancista impressed into service. The wound left him severely hobbled for months, so that when he reached Santa Cruz de Herrera in the far south of Chihuahua, he went into hiding there until the end of May.
- Pershing's report (p. 14) states that the wounded Villa had left Guerrero the night before the battle because he was unable to ride a horse. The nearest Villa actually came to capture appears to have been on April 11, when the "picked squadron" of the 11th Cavalry under Howze was conducting a house-to-house search for him in Santa Cruz de Herrera near Parral while he was actually in hiding outside the pueblo only one-half mile away. (Pershing report, pp. 109-110)
- This decentralization of operations and distribution of forces in small groups over a five-district area is similar to that Pershing successfully used in his last year (1913) as military governor of the Moro Province.
- Division headquarters was at Dublán while the three brigade headquarters were at El Valle. The regimental dispositions were: the 5th Cavalry, 6th and 16th Infantry, and the bulk of the artillery at El Valle; the 7th, 11th, and two squadrons of the 10th Cavalry at Dublán along with the 24th Infantry and two batteries of artillery; the 13th Cavalry between the camps at Angostura; and the 3rd Squadron 10th Cavalry at Ojo Frederico along the supply line back to Columbus. The 17th Infantry was distributed along the supply line, with a battalion in Columbus and another in Ojo Frederico.
- Pershing's report states there were nine U.S. dead. However it also lists three enlisted men missing in action, who are not included in accounts based on the report. The missing were later found to have been killed in action, bringing the total dead to 12.
- The exact details of this "battle" are in dispute. Roberts, citing Utah National Guard records, calls it "The Battle of Casa Piedra" (stone house), prominent ruins on the border with Mexiico five miles south of Ruby, Arizona. In his account the Mexicans are cattle rustlers who opened fire on the Utah guardsmen when discovered. However according to the Arizona Daily Star of January 27, 1917, the Mexicans were Carrancista cavalrymen on the Mexican side of the border who fired at six American cowboys on the United States side trying to keep their cattle from straying across the line. 14 guardsmen responded from their camp camp at Arivaca, Arizona, and were later reinforced by 18 more, in what the Daily Star called "The Battle of Ruby." The only agreement between the accounts is that it involved Troop E, 2nd Squadron Utah Cavalry, and there were no American casualties.
- "Mexican Expedition Campaign". History.army.mil. Retrieved 2013-01-23.
- Yockelson, Mitchell. "The United States Armed Forces and the Mexican Punitive Expedition: Part 1", Prologue Magazine, Fall 1997, Vol. 29, No. 3. Retrieved 5 Mar 2015
- Finley, James P., director and editor (1993). "Buffalo Soldiers at Huachuca: Military Events in the American Southwest from 1910-1916", Huachuca Illustrated: A Magazine of the Fort Huachuca Museum Volume 1, pp. 72-73
- Page, Walter Hines; Page, Arthur Wilson (April 1916). The World's Work. Doubleday, Page & Co. pp. 584–593. Retrieved 24 March 2014.
- de Quesada, Alejandro (2012). The Hunt for Pancho Villa - The Columbus Raid and Pershing's Punitive Expedition 1916-17, Osprey Publishing, ISBN 978-1849085687, p. 21
- Marcovitz, Hal (March 2002). Pancho Villa. Infobase Publishing. p. 66. ISBN 978-0-7910-7257-8. Retrieved 18 March 2011.
- Hurst, James W. (2008). Pancho Villa and Black Jack Pershing: the Punitive Expedition in Mexico. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 122. ISBN 978-0-313-35004-7. Retrieved 18 March 2011.
- Finley, p. 96
- Urwin, Gregory J. W. (1983). The United States Cavalry: An Illustrated History, 1776-1944. University of Oklahoma Press, ISBN 978-0806134758, p. 177
- "The Early Days of Motorized Military Vehicles". Military.com. Retrieved 2013-01-23.
- Pershing report, October 1916, p. 20
- John Pike. "2nd Battalion, 7th Cavalry Regiment". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2013-01-23.
- Boot, pg. 199
- Beede, pg. 218-219
- Saturday, 22 August 2009 Michael Duffy (2009-08-22). "Primary Documents - General Pershing on Military Operations in Mexico, 30 March 1916". First World War.com. Retrieved 2013-01-23.
- Finley, pp. 106-107
- Boot, pg. 201-203
- "History: World War I — City of Albuquerque". Cabq.gov. Retrieved 2013-01-23.
- Annual Reports of the Secretary of War. United States War Deptartment. 1916. pp. 279–280. Retrieved 24 March 2014.
- Cyrulik, John M. (2003). A Strategic Examination of the Punitive Expedition Into Mexico, 1916 - 1917, US Army Command and General Staff College, pp. 46-48.
- Pershing report, October 1916, pp. 25-26
- "The Hearts of the Children - Mexican Expedition 1916-1917". Freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com. Retrieved 2013-01-23.
- John Pike. "Cavalry Lasts - The Last Cavalry Charge". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2013-01-23.
- Katz, pg. 575
- Harris, Charles H. and Sadler, Louis R. (2015). The Great Call-Up: The Guard, the Border, and the Mexican revolution. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 97808061495, pp. 18-19
- "GLENN SPRINGS RAID | The Handbook of Texas Online| Texas State Historical Association (TSHA)". Tshaonline.org. Retrieved 2013-01-23.
- Beede, pg. 203-204
- "OUR CAVALRY KILL 5 BANDITS, SEIZE 2; RESCUE CAPTIVES; Ringleaders in Glenn Springs Raid Overtaken 135 Miles South of Border. PAINE AND DEEMER FREED Langhorne's Men Ride Day and Night and 30 Volunteers Make Final Dash. PRISONER POSED AS GERMAN Deemer Says Outlaw Told of Order to Protect Germans as Supporters of Brigands". The New York Times. May 18, 1916.
- Cardena's Family Saw Him Die at Bay; Shot Four Times, Villa Captain Fought Before Mother, Wife, and Daughter, New York Times, May 23, 1916 at 5.
- "Patton Headquarters website timeline". Pattonhq.com. 1919-11-11. Retrieved 2013-01-23.
- "Punitive Expedition - Pancho Villa Punitive Expedition". Militaryhistory.about.com. Retrieved 2013-01-23.
- "In Pursuit of Pancho Villa 1916-1917". Hsgng.org. Retrieved 2013-01-23.
- Pierce, Frank C. (1917). A Brief History of the Lower Rio Grande Valley. George Banta publishing company., pg. 87
- "George S.Patton". Patton-mania.com. 1941-12-07. Retrieved 2013-01-23.
- Elser, Frank B. (June 4, 1916). "APACHE SCOUTS KILL OUTLAW IN SKIRMISH; Lieut. Shannon's Detail Routs Band and Follows Trail to 100 Hidden Rifles". The New York Times.
- Harris and Sadler, p. 20
- Pershing report, October 1916, p. 53
- Pershing report, October 1916, p. 28
- Pershing report, October 1916, p. 59
- Pershing report, p. 92
- Pershing report, October 1916, p. 94
- Hurst, James W. Pancho Villa and Black Jack Pershing Westport, Connecticut: Praeger, 2008. ISBN 0-313-35004-3
- Pierce, pg. 87-88
- Cyrulik, pp. 45, 60
- Cyrulik, pp. 62-65
- Cyrulik, pp. 51, 60
- Cyrulik, p. 67
- Cyrulik, p. 66
- Cyrulik, pp. 67-68
- Pershing report, October 16, 1916, pp. 94. 96-97
- Yockelson, Mitchell. "The United States Armed Forces and the Mexican Punitive Expedition: Part 2", Prologue Magazine, Winter 1997, Vol. 29, No. 4. Retrieved 24 Feb 10
- Harris and Sadler, p. 58
- War Department, Annual Report of the Secretary of War for the Fiscal Year, 1916, Vol. 1 (1916)
- Cyrulik, p. 60
- Harris and Sadler, p. 5
- Clendenon, Clarence C. (1969). Blood on the Border: The United States Army and the Mexican Irregulars. London: Macmillan, ASIN B0036RKIGK, p. 296
- Harris and Sadler, p. 6
- Roberts, Legacy, pp. 96-97
- Harris and Sadler, p. 8
- West, Elizabeth (2012). Santa Fe: 400 Years, 400 Questions : Commemorating the 400th Anniversary of the Founding of Santa Fe, New Mexico in 1610. Sunstone Press. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-86534-876-9. Retrieved 24 March 2014.
- "Chinese in Texas". Tshaonline.org. Retrieved 2013-01-23.
- AR 600-8-22 MILITARY AWARDS 2/25/1995, p. 70
- Boot, Max (2003). The Savage Wars of Peace: Small Wars and the Rise of American Power. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 046500721X. LCCN 2004695066.
- Beede, Benjamin R. (1994). The War of 1898, and U.S. interventions, 1898-1934: an encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0-8240-5624-8.
- Clendenon, Clarence C. (1969). Blood on the Border: The United States Army and the Mexican Irregulars. London: Macmillan, ASIN B0036RKIGK
- de Quesada, Alejandro (2012). The Hunt for Pancho Villa - The Columbus Raid and Pershing's Punitive Expedition 1916-17, Osprey Publishing, ISBN 978-1849085687
- Eisenhower, John S. D. (1995). Intervention!: The United States and the Mexican Revolution, 1913-1917. W>W> Norton, ISBN 978-0393313185
- Finley, James P., director and editor (1993). "Buffalo Soldiers at Huachuca: Military Events in the American Southwest from 1910-1916", Huachuca Illustrated: A Magazine of the Fort Huachuca Museum Volume 1.
- Harris, Charles H. and Sadler, Louis R. (2015). The Great Call-Up: The Guard, the Border, and the Mexican Revolution. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 9780806149547
- Hurst, James W. (2007). Pancho Villa and Black Jack Pershing: The Punitive Expedition in Mexico, Praeger. ISBN 978-0313350047
- Katz, Friedrich (1978). "Pancho Villa and the Attack on Columbus, New Mexico". American Historical Review 83 (1): 101–130. doi:10.2307/1865904. in JSTOR (subscription required)
- Katz, Friedrich (1981). The Secret War in Mexico: Europe, the United States, and the Mexican Revolution University of Chicago Press, ISBN 978-0226425887
- Katz, Friedrich (1998). The Life and Times of Pancho Villa. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-3046-6.
- Pershing, John J.(1916). "Report of operations of Punitive Expedition to June 30, 1916", October 10, 1916
- Pierce, Frank C. (1917). A Brief History of the Lower Rio Grande Valley. George Banta Publishing Company.
- Roberts, Richard C. "The Utah National Guard on the Mexican Border in 1916", Utah Historical Quarterly, Vol. 46 No. 3 (Summer 1978)
- —(2003), Legacy, History of the Utah National Guard, Salt Lake City: National Guard Association of Utah, ISBN 978-09728-490-67
- Urban, Andrew. "Asylum in the Midst of Chinese Exclusion: Pershing's Punitive Expedition and the Columbus Refugees from Mexico, 1916–1921," Journal of Policy History Vol 23 (2011): 204-229.  (subscription required)
- Urwin, Gregory J. W. (1983). The United States Cavalry: An Illustrated History, 1776-1944. University of Oklahoma Press, ISBN 978-0806134758
- White, E. Bruce and Francisco Villa, "The Muddied Waters of Columbus, New Mexico," The Americas Vol 32 Nbr 1 (July 1975), pp. 72–98, Academy of American Franciscan History. in JSTOR (subscription required)
- Yockelson, Mitchell (1997). "The United States Armed Forces and the Mexican Punitive Expedition: Part 1", Prologue Magazine, Fall 1997, Vol. 29, No. 3
- —"The United States Armed Forces and the Mexican Punitive Expedition: Part 2", Prologue Magazine, Winter 1997, Vol. 29, No. 4
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pancho Villa Expedition.|