Pancreatic elastase

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Pancreatic elastase
Identifiers
EC number 3.4.21.36
CAS number 848900-32-3
Databases
IntEnz IntEnz view
BRENDA BRENDA entry
ExPASy NiceZyme view
KEGG KEGG entry
MetaCyc metabolic pathway
PRIAM profile
PDB structures RCSB PDB PDBe PDBsum
Gene Ontology AmiGO / EGO
Pancreatic elastase II
Identifiers
EC number 3.4.21.71
CAS number 75603-19-9
Databases
IntEnz IntEnz view
BRENDA BRENDA entry
ExPASy NiceZyme view
KEGG KEGG entry
MetaCyc metabolic pathway
PRIAM profile
PDB structures RCSB PDB PDBe PDBsum
Gene Ontology AmiGO / EGO
Pancreatic endopeptidase E
Identifiers
EC number 3.4.21.70
CAS number 68073-27-8
Databases
IntEnz IntEnz view
BRENDA BRENDA entry
ExPASy NiceZyme view
KEGG KEGG entry
MetaCyc metabolic pathway
PRIAM profile
PDB structures RCSB PDB PDBe PDBsum

Pancreatic elastase is a form of elastase that is formed in the pancreas. Elastases form a subfamily of serine proteases that hydrolyze many proteins in addition to elastin.

The first isozyme, pancreatic elastase 1 was initially thought to be expressed in the pancreas. However it was later discovered that it was the only chymotrypsin-like elastase that was not expressed in the pancreas. Hence this protein has been renamed elastase 1 (ELA1) or chymotrypsin-like elastase family, member 1 (CELA1).[1] For a period of time, it was thought that that ELA1 / CELA1 was not transcribed into a protein.[2] However it was later discovered that it was expressed in skin keratinocytes.[3]

Clinical literature that describes human elastase 1 activity in the pancreas or fecal material is actually referring to chymotrypsin-like elastase family, member 3B (CELA3B).[1]

Isozymes[edit]

Humans have five chymotrypsin-like elastase genes which encode the structurally similar proteins:

Family Gene symbol Protein name EC number
Approved Previous Approved Previous
chymotrypsin-
like
CELA1 ELA1 chymotrypsin-like elastase family, member 1 elastase 1, pancreatic EC 3.4.21.36
CELA2A ELA2A chymotrypsin-like elastase family, member 2A elastase 2A, pancreatic EC 3.4.21.71
CELA2B ELA2B chymotrypsin-like elastase family, member 2B elastase 2B, pancreatic EC 3.4.21.71
CELA3A ELA3A chymotrypsin-like elastase family, member 3A elastase 3A, pancreatic EC 3.4.21.70
CELA3B ELA3B chymotrypsin-like elastase family, member 3B elastase 3B, pancreatic EC 3.4.21.70

Use as diagnostic tests[edit]

The use of Pancreatic Elastase 1 (E1) in Laboratories to Diagnose Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency

Human pancreatic elastase 1 (E1) remains undegraded during intestinal transit. Therefore its concentration in feces reflects exocrine pancreatic function. During an inflammation of the pancreas, E1 is released into the bloodstream. Thus the quantification of pancreatic elastase 1 in serum allows diagnosis or exclusion of acute pancreatitis.[4]

Main indications:

  • Diagnosis/exclusion of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency caused by e.g. Chronic Pancreatitis, Cystic Fibrosis, Diabetes Mellitus, Cholelithiasis (Gallstones), “Failure to Thrive”, Pancreatic Cancer, Papillary Stenosis
  • Follow-up monitoring of patients with mild or moderate pancreatic insufficiency
  • Diagnosis/exclusion of pancreatic involvement in association with gastrointestinal symptoms, abdominal pain or osteoporosis, for example.[5]

Method of detection:

  • Sandwich ELISA with two monoclonal antibodies highly specific for human pancreatic elastase 1
  • The ELISA kit is based on a microtiter plate (96 well format) with 12 breakable single strips x 8 wells suitable for up to 42 samples in duplicate

Reference concentration: For adults and children after the first month of life

  • Values > 200 µg elastase/g stool indicate normal exocrine pancreatic function

Values < 200 µg elastase/g stool indicate exocrine pancreatic insufficiency.[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b EntrezGene 1990
  2. ^ Rose SD, MacDonald RJ (June 1997). "Evolutionary silencing of the human elastase I gene (ELA1)". Hum. Mol. Genet. 6 (6): 897–903. doi:10.1093/hmg/6.6.897. PMID 9175736. 
  3. ^ Talas U, Dunlop J, Khalaf S, Leigh IM, Kelsell DP (January 2000). "Human elastase 1: evidence for expression in the skin and the identification of a frequent frameshift polymorphism". J. Invest. Dermatol. 114 (1): 165–70. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1747.2000.00825.x. PMID 10620133. 
  4. ^ Stein J, Schoonbroodt D, Jung M, Lembcke B, Caspary WF (1996). "Mesure de l'élastase fécale par immunoréactivité: une nouvelle approche indirecte de la fonction pancréatique" [Measurement of fecal elastase 1 by immunoreactivity: A new indirect test of the pancreatic function]. Gastroentérologie Clinique et Biologique (in French) 20 (5): 424–9. PMID 8761139. 
  5. ^ Gonzales AC, Vieira SM, Maurer RL, e Silva FA, Silveira TR (2011). "Use of monoclonal faecal elastase-1 concentration for pancreatic status assessment in cystic fibrosis patients". J Pediatr (Rio J) 87 (2): 157–62. doi:10.2223/JPED.2075. PMID 21503378. 
  6. ^ Löser C, Möllgaard A, Fölsch UR (October 1996). "Faecal elastase 1: a novel, highly sensitive, and specific tubeless pancreatic function test". Gut 39 (4): 580–6. doi:10.1136/gut.39.4.580. PMC 1383273. PMID 8944569. 

External links[edit]

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.