Pandiatonic is the adjective used to describe music using the concept of pandiatonicism (or pandiatonism), a term devised in 1938 by Nicolas Slonimsky to describe a technique of using the diatonic (as opposed to the chromatic) scale without the limitations of functional tonality.
The term "pandiatonicism" was coined by Nicolas Slonimsky in the second edition of Music since 1900 to describe the free use in chord formations of any number up to all seven degrees of the diatonic scale. Triads with added notes such as the sixth, seventh, or second (added tone chords), are the most usual (Anon. 2001; Kennedy 2006). According to Slonimsky's definition,
Pan-diatonicism sanctions the simultaneous use of any or all seven tones of the diatonic scale, with the bass determining the harmony. The chord-building remains tertian, with the seventh, ninth, or thirteenth chords being treated as consonances functionally equivalent to the fundamental triad. (The eleventh chord is shunned in tonic harmony because of its quartal connotations.) Pan-diatonicism, as consolidation of tonality, is the favorite technique of NEO-CLASSICISM. (Slonimsky 1938, xxii)
Pandiatonic music typically uses the diatonic notes freely in dissonant combinations without conventional resolutions and/or without standard chord progressions, but always with a strong sense of tonality due to the absence of chromatics. C major is in fact the key favored by most composers using the technique. Characteristic examples include the opening of Sergei Prokofiev's Piano Concerto No. 3, Alfredo Casella's Valse diatonique, and Igor Stravinsky's Pulcinella (Latham 1992). An opposed point of view holds that pandiatonicism does not project a clear and stable tonic (Simms 1986, 63–64). Pandiatonicism is also referred to as "white-note music" (Machlis 1979, 163), though in fact occasional accidentals may be present. Other composers who employed the technique are Maurice Ravel, Paul Hindemith, Darius Milhaud, Aaron Copland, and Roy Harris (Slonimsky 1947, iv).
Slonimsky later came to regard pandiatonicism as a diatonic counterpart of Arnold Schoenberg's twelve-tone technique, whereby melodies may be made up of seven different notes of the diatonic scale, and then be inverted, retrograded, or both. According to this system, "strict pandiatonic counterpoint" may use progressions of seven different notes in each voice, with no vertical duplication (Slonimsky 1947, iv).
The term "pandiatonicism" was coined in 1938 to describe the nonfunctional tonality of composers such as Igor Stravinsky (in his Russian and neoclassical periods; Jaffe, 1992[page needed]) and Aaron Copland (in his populist works; Jaffe, 1992). More recently, pandiatonicism has been used to describe the minimalist music by Steve Reich, Philip Glass, and John Adams, as well as the later works of Arvo Pärt (Dahlhaus et al. 2001; Jaffe 1992[page needed]) and Eric Whitacre (Jaffe, 1992[page needed]).
The following musical works include pandiatonicism.
- John Adams
- John Luther Adams
- Aaron Copland
- Claude Debussy
- George Gershwin
- Variations on "I Got Rhythm" (Schiff 1997, 81)
- Steve Reich
- Ned Rorem
- String Quartet No. 2 (Strassburg 1976)
- Déodat de Séverac
- "Temps de neige" (Waters 2008, 104)
- Igor Stravinsky
- Concerto for Piano and Wind Instruments (Machlis 1979, 163)
- Heitor Villa-Lobos
- String Quartet No. 10 (Daniels 1966)
- Anon. 2001. "Pandiatonicism". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. London: Macmillan Publishers.
- Dahlhaus, Carl, Julian Anderson, Charles Wilson, Richard Cohn, and Brian Hyer. 2001. Harmony. The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. London: Macmillan Publishers.
- Daniels, Arthur. 1966. "Heitor Villa-Lobos: String Quartet No. 10" (review). Notes, second series 22, no. 3 (March): 1108.
- Hepokoski, James A. 1984. "Formulaic Openings in Debussy". 19th-Century Music 8, no. 1 (Summer): 44-59.
- Jaffe, Stephen. "Conversation between SJ and JS on the New Tonality". Contemporary Music Review 1992, Vol. 6 (2), pp. 27–38.
- Kennedy, Michael. 2006. "Pandiatonicism". The Oxford Dictionary of Music, second edition, revised; edited by Joyce Bourne. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-861459-3.
- Latham, Alison (ed.). 1992. "Pandiatonicism [Pandiatonism]". The Oxford Companion to Music. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.
- Machlis, Joseph. 1979. Introduction to Contemporary Music, second edition. New York nd London: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-09026-4.
- Mann, William. "London". Times (December 27, 1963) via Companion
- [author missing]. May 26, 2002: 11:42 AM. Eyes That Can See in the Dark.[unreliable source?]
- Schiff, David. 1997. Gershwin: Rhapsody in Blue. Cambridge Music Handbooks. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521559539.
- Simms, Bryan R. 1986. Music of the Twentieth Century: Style and Structure. New York: Schirmer Books; London: Collier Macmillan Publishers. ISBN 0-02-872580-8.
- Slonimsky, Nicolas. 1938. Music since 1900, second edition. New York: W. W. Norton Company, Inc.
- Slonimsky, Nicolas, 1947. Thesaurus of Scales and Melodic Patterns. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons. ISBN 0-02-611850-5. Reprinted, Schirmer Trade Books, 1975. ISBN 978-0825614491.
- Strassburg, Robert. 1976. "Ned Rorem: String Quartet No. 2" (review). Notes, second series 33, no. 1 (September): 166.
- Waters, Robert Francis. 2008. Déodat de Séverac: Musical Identity in Fin de Siècle France. Aldershot, England and Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 9780754641056.