Kumar Gandharva

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Kumar Gandharva
Pandit Kumar Gandharva.jpg
Background information
Birth name Shivaputra Siddramayya Komkalimath
Born (1924-04-08)April 8, 1924
Sulebhavi, Belgaum District, Karnataka, India
Died January 12, 1992(1992-01-12) (aged 67)
Dewas, India
Genres Hindustani classical music
Occupations singer

Kumar Gandharva or Shivaputra Siddharamayya Komkalimath (pronunciation:[kumɑːr ɡən̪d̪ʱərʋ ə] कुमार् गन्धर्व )in Kannadaಕುಮಾರ ಗಂಧರ್ವ (8 April 1924 - 12 January 1992) was a Hindustani classical singer, well known for his unique vocal style and his refusal to be bound by the tradition of any gharana. The name Kumar Gandharva is a title given to him when he was a child prodigy; a Gandharva is a musical spirit in Hindu mythology.[1]

Early life and education[edit]

Gandharva was born in Sulebhavi near Belgaum, Karnataka, India. He studied music under the well-known Prof B. R. Deodhar.

He married Bhanumati Kans in April 1947 and moved to Dewas, Madhya Pradesh. Soon after moving there, he was stricken with tuberculosis. Luckily, the wonder drugs which cure TB had only recently been discovered. Gradually, helped by excellent medical support and care from wife Bhanumati, Kumar Gandharva recovered and began singing again. However, his voice and singing style would always bear the scars of his surgery, which are evident to any person who listens to his songs such as 'Runanubandhachya" from the drama "Dev Dina Ghari Dhavla".

Career[edit]

Bhanumati Kans, who was learning music first under Deodhar and later under Kumar Gandharva himself, nursed him through his illness. His first mehfil after recovery from illness took place in 1953. The illness greatly affected Kumar's singing in later years – he was to be known for powerful short phrases and his very high voice.

Kumarji also experimented with other forms of singing such as Nirguni bhajans (Devotional songs), folk songs, and with both ragas and presentation, often going from fast to slow compositions in the same raga. He is remembered for his great legacy of innovation, questioning tradition without rejecting it wholesale, resulting in music in touch with the roots of Indian culture, especially the folk music of Madhya Pradesh. His innovative approach towards music led to the creation of new ragas from combinations of older ragas.

His style of singing attracted considerable controversy. Veteran singer Mogubai Kurdikar did not consider his vilambit (slow tempo) singing interesting and his own teacher Deodhar criticised some aspects of Kumar's singing but their relationship was strained from 1940s when Kumar Gandharva married Bhanumati. According to Pandharinath Kolhapure's book on Kumar Gandharva, Deodhar was against the match. But the criticism mostly centred around his vilambit gayaki. His singing in faster tempos, particularly his mastery over madhya-laya, was widely revered.

Kumar Gandharva's first son, Mukul Shivputra, was born around 1955. After Bhanumati's death in 1961 during second child's birth, Kumar married Vasundhara Shrikhande, another of his fellow-students at Deodhar School. Vasundhara Komkalimath formed a memorable duo with him in bhajan singing. She also provided vocal support to his classical renditions quite often. Their daughter Kalapini Komkalimath would later accompany both her parents on tanpura.

Some of Kumar Gandharva's ideology is carried forward by his son and daughter, as well as students such as Madhup Mudgal, Shubha Mudgal, Vijay Sardeshmukh and Satyasheel Deshpande. Kumarji's grandson Bhuvanesh (Mukul Shivaputra's son) has also made a name for himself as classical singer.

For a long spell, Kumar Gandharva's activities as a musician were managed by his friend and tabla accompanist Vasant Acharekar. Acharekar was Vasant Desai's assistant in the 1950s but later devoted himself fully to his role as an accompanist to classical singing until his death in late 1970s. His son Suresh Acharekar is also a tabla player, and has accompanied Kumar Gandharva and other artists. Kumarji had friendly relations with noted Marathi literary couple Pu La Deshpande and Sunita Deshpande.

Kumar Gandharva was awarded the Padma Vibhushan award in 1990.

The 4th movie in the series of 4 movies in the Kabir Project by Shabnam Virmani features the life of Kumar Gandharva and his disciples, his career and his journey into "Nirgun" singing. His song 'Sunta Hai' actually forms the title of the movie 'Koi Sunta Hai'.[2]

'Hans Akela'[3] is a 1 hour 18 minute documentary on Pandit Kumar Gandharva made by Films Division Govt. of India with interviews with various people - wife, friends, students.

'Mukkam Vashi'is a book made on notes collected during a 2 day workshop of the same name. It collected together the thoughts of Pandit Kumar Gandharva on the nature of music at a fundamental level.

Raghav R. Menon has written a document on the quest of Pandit Kumar Gandharva for the meaning behind Swara as told in Marga Sangeet[4]

Pt. Kumar Gandharva was a musicologist as well. During his period of illness, when he was advised a complete rest, he used to spend time contemplating on different aspects of music. He had his own thoughts about many different Ragas, styles of rendition and different types of composition. His remarks about composite Ragas, Thumri and Tarana are quite different from the conventional ones.[5]

References[edit]

An Appreciation of Kumar Gandharva [4]