|Colonies of Pandorina morum from Smith (1920, p. 201)|
Bory de Saint-Vincent, 1824
Pandorina is a genus of green algae composed of 8, 16, or sometimes 32 cells, held together at their bases to form a sack globular colony surrounded by mucilage. The cells are ovoid or slightly narrowed at one end to appear keystone- or pear-shaped. Each cell has two flagella with two contractile vacuoles at their base, an eyespot, and a large cup-shaped chloroplast with at least one pyrenoid.
The colonies coordinate their flagellar movement to create a rolling, swimming motion. Pandorina shows the beginnings of the colony polarity and differentiation seen in Volvox since the anterior cells have larger eyespots. Molecular sequencing has shown that Pandorina is paraphyletic with respect to Volvulina.
Asexual reproduction is by simultaneous division of all cells of the colony to form autocolonies that are liberated by a gelatinization of the colonial envelope. Sexual reproduction occurs by division of each cell of the colony into 16-32 zoogametes. Zoogametes show indications of heterogamy, a slight difference in the size and motility of the pairs that fuse to form the smooth walled zygote. (Smith, 1920, p. 95).
- Smith, GM. Phytoplankton of Inland Lakes of Wisconsin, Part I, Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey, Madison, WI. (1920).
- Nozaki, H.; Yamada, T. K.; Takahashi, F.; Matsuzaki, R.; Nakada, T. (2014). "New "missing link" genus of the colonial volvocine green algae gives insights into the evolution of oogamy". BMC Evolutionary Biology 14: 37. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-14-37.
- Nozaki, H.; Takahara, M.; Nakazawa, A.; Kita, Y.; Yamada, T.; Takano, H.; Kawano, S.; Kato, M. (2002). "Evolution of rbcL group IA introns and intron open reading frames within the colonial Volvocales (Chlorophyceae)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 23 (3): 326. doi:10.1016/S1055-7903(02)00030-1.
- Coleman, A. W. (2001). "Biogeography and Speciation in the Pandorina/volvulina (Chlorophyta) Superclade". Journal of Phycology 37 (5): 836. doi:10.1046/j.1529-8817.2001.01043.x.
- Pandorina - description with pictures
- Encyclopedia of Life on Pandorina
- algaebase on Pandorina
- BIOGEOGRAPHY AND SPECIATION IN THE PANDORINA/VOLVULINA (CHLOROPHYTA) SUPERCLADE Journal of Phycology, Volume 37, Number 5, October 2001, pp. 836–851(16) [sic]