Sumerian pandura from Eshnunna , Mesopotamia ,(modern Tell Asmar in Diyala Province, Iraq) 9-7th century BC
The name derives from pandur, a Sumerian term for long-necked lutes. Source of our knowledge about this instrument is since the ancient Greek Mantineia marble (4th century BC), now exhibited at National Archaeological Museum of Athens, depicting the mythical contest between Apollo and Marsyas, where Greek Pandouris is being played by a muse seated on a rock. Lutes have been present in ancient Greece. They were also present in Mesopotamia since the Akkadian era, or the third millennium BCE.
The ancient Greek pandoura was a medium or long-necked lute with a small resonating chamber. It commonly had three strings: such an instrument was also known as the trichordon (McKinnon 1984:10). Its descendants still survive as the Greek tambouras and bouzouki, the North African kuitra, the Eastern Mediterranean saz and the Balkan tamburica. Renato Meucci (1996) suggests that the some Italian Renaissance descendants of Pandura type were called chitarra italiana, mandore or mandola. In the 18th century the pandurina (mandore) was often referred to as mandolino napoletano.
A wide variety of similar instruments, often by the name tanbur, are found in areas ranging from Central Asia to Egypt.
In Georgia the panduri is a three-string fretted instrument widely spread in all regions of Eastern Georgia: such as Pshavkhevsureti, Tusheti, Kakheti and Kartli. A similar Georgian instrument is the chonguri.
- Not to be confused with pandora, pandore, bandura, a queer-shaped guitar of the 17th century; see: Willi Apel, Harvard Dictionary of Music, Taylor & Francis, 1970, p. 551.
- Erkut, Cumhur; T. Tolonen, M. Karjalainen, and V. Välimäki (July 1999). "Acoustical Analysis of Tanbur, a Turkish long-necked lute" (PDF). Proceedings of the Sixth International Congress on Sound and Vibration. Sixth International Congress on Sound and Vibration. vol. 1. Lyngby, Denmark. pp. 345–352. Retrieved 2007-06-30.
- National Archaeological Museum of Athens, e-book by Latsis Foundation, p.346
- Pandura, the first appearance in Greece.
- Scheherezade Qassim Hassan, R. Conway Morris, John Baily, Jean During. "Tanbūr", The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, ed. S. Sadie and J. Tyrrell (London: Macmillan, 2001), xxv, pp. 61-62.
- J.W. McKinnon "Pandoura" in New Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments Vol 3 p 10 ed S. Sadie (Macmillan Press, London 1984).
- Gill, Donald 1984. [title missing]
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Pandura.|