Pangasinan

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Pangasinan
Province
Flag of Pangasinan
Flag
Official seal of Pangasinan
Seal
Nickname(s): Heartland of the Philippines; Land of Miracles and Romance; Premier Province of the North
Map of the Philippines with Pangasinan highlighted
Map of the Philippines with Pangasinan highlighted
Coordinates: 15°55′N 120°20′E / 15.917°N 120.333°E / 15.917; 120.333Coordinates: 15°55′N 120°20′E / 15.917°N 120.333°E / 15.917; 120.333
Country Philippines
Region Ilocos (Region I)
Founded 1580
Capital Lingayen
Government
 • Type Province of the Philippines
 • Governor Amado Espino (NPC)
 • Vice Governor Jose Calimlim, Jr. (NPC)
Area[1]
 • Total 5,451.01 km2 (2,104.65 sq mi)
Area rank 17th out of 81
Population (2010)[2]
 • Total 2,779,862
 • Rank 3rd out of 81
 • Density 510/km2 (1,300/sq mi)
 • Density rank 11th out of 81
  including independent cities
Divisions
 • Independent cities 1
 • Component cities 3
 • Municipalities 44
 • Barangays 1,333
including independent cities: 1,364
 • Districts 1st to 6th districts of Pangasinan (shared with Dagupan City)
Time zone PHT (UTC+8)
ZIP code 2400 - 2447
Dialing code 75
ISO 3166 code PH-PAN
Official Language Bolinao, Pangasinan, English
Website www.pangasinan.gov.ph

Pangasinan is a province of the Philippines. Its official language is Pangasinan or Pangasinense and its provincial capital is Lingayen. Pangasinan is located on the western area of the island of Luzon along the Lingayen Gulf and South China Sea. It has a total land area of 5,451.01 square kilometres (2,104.65 sq mi).[1] According to the 2010 census, it has a population of 2,779,862 people.[2] The official number of registered voters in Pangasinan is 1,651,814.[3]

Pangasinan is the name for the province, the people, and the primary language spoken in the province. Indigenous Pangasinan speakers are estimated to number at least 1.5 million. The Pangasinan language is one of the officially recognized regional languages in the Philippines. Pangasinan is spoken as a second-language by many of the ethnic minorities in Pangasinan. The minority ethnic groups in Pangasinan are the Bolinao, Tagalog and Ilocano.

The name Pangasinan means "place for salt" or "place of salt-making"; it is derived from the prefix pang, meaning "for", the root word asin, meaning "salt”, and suffix an, signifying "location." The province is a major producer of salt in the Philippines. Its major products include "bagoong" ("salted-fish") and "agamang" ("salted-shrimp")

Pangasinan was founded by Austronesian-speakers who called themselves Anakbanwa by at least 2500 BC. A kingdom called Luyag na Kaboloan existed in Pangasinan before the Spanish conquest that began in the 15th century. The ancient Pangasinan people were skilled navigators and the maritime trade network that once flourished in ancient Southeast Asia connected Pangasinan with other peoples of Southeast Asia, India, China, and the Pacific.

Popular tourist attractions in Pangasinan include the Hundred Islands National Park and the white-sand beaches of Bolinao and Dasol. Dagupan City is known for its Bangus Festival ("Milkfish Festival"). Pangasinan is also known for its delicious mangoes and ceramic oven-baked Calasiao puto ("rice muffin").

Pangasinan occupies a strategic geo-political position in the central plain of Luzon, known as the rice granary of the Philippines. Pangasinan has been described as a gateway to northern Luzon and as the heartland of the Philippines.

History[edit]

Ancient history[edit]

The Pangasinan people, like most of the people in the Malay Archipelago, are descended from the Austronesian-speakers who settled in Southeast Asia since prehistoric times. Comparative genetics, linguistics, and archaeological studies locate the origin of the Austronesian languages in Sundaland, which was populated as early as 50,000 years ago by modern humans.[4][5][6] The Pangasinan language is one of many languages that belongs to the Malayo-Polynesian languages branch of the Austronesian languages family.

Southeast Asian maritime trade network[edit]

A vast maritime trade network connected the distant Austronesian settlements in Southeast Asia, the Pacific, and the Indian Ocean. The Pangasinan people were part of this ancient Austronesian civilization.

The ancient Austronesian-speakers were expert navigators. Their outrigger canoes and sailboats were capable of crossing the distant seas. The Malagasy sailed from the Malay archipelago to Madagascar, an island across the Indian Ocean, and probably reached Africa. The Polynesians settled the distant Pacific islands as far away as Hawaii and Easter Island, and probably reached the Americas. At least three hundred years before the arrival of Europeans, the Makasar and the Bugis from Sulawesi, in what is now Indonesia, as well as the Bajau of the Malay archipelago, carried out long-distance commerce with their prau or paraw ("sailboat") and established settlements in north Australia, which they called Marege.[7]

Pangasinan was founded by Austronesian-speakers who called themselves Anakbanwa during the Austronesian expansion from Taiwan in about 5000 - 2500 BC or the Austronesian dispersal from Sundaland at least 7,000 years ago after the last Ice Age. Anakbanwa means “child of banwa.Banwa (also spelled banua or vanua) is an Austronesian concept that could mean territory, homeland, habitat, society, civilization or cosmos. The Pangasinan people identified or associated banwa with the sun, which was their symbol for their banwa. The Pangasinan people are closely related to the Ibaloi in the neighboring province of Benguet and other peoples of Northern Philippines. The Anakbanwa established their settlements in the Agno River Valley and along the Lingayen Gulf. The coastal area came to be known as Pangasinan, and the interior area came to be known as Kaboloan. Eventually, the whole region and its people came to be known as Pangasinan. Archaeological evidence and early Chinese and Indian records show that the inhabitants of Pangasinan traded with India, China and Japan as early as the 8th century A.D.

Luyag na Kaboloan[edit]

An ancient kingdom or state called Luyag na Kaboloan (also spelled Caboloan), with Binalatongan as its capital, existed in the fertile Agno River valley. Around the same period, the Srivijaya and Majapahit empires arose in Indonesia that extended their influence to much of the Malay Archipelago. Urduja, a legendary woman warrior, is believed to have ruled in Pangasinan around the 14th century. The Luyag na Kaboloan expanded the territory and influence of Pangasinan to what are now the neighboring provinces of Zambales, La Union, Tarlac, Benguet, Nueva Ecija, and Nueva Vizcaya. Pangasinan enjoyed full independence until the Spanish conquest.

Anito and mana beliefs and practices[edit]

The ancient Pangasinan people, like other Austronesian peoples, practiced anito-worship. An anito was believed to be the spirit or divine power of an ancestor or the god or divine power in nature or natural phenomena. They believed in mana, an Austronesian concept which can be described as the divine power or vital or spiritual essence of every being and everything that exists. To the Pangasinan people, mana can be transferred, inherited or acquired, like from an ancestor, nature, or natural phenomena. Their belief or practice is similar to Shamanist or animist beliefs and rituals. They worshipped a pantheon of anito ("spirit" or "deity"). Their temples or altars were dedicated to a chief anito called Ama Kaoley (“Supreme Father”), who communicated through mediums or priests called manag-anito. These manag-anito wore special costumes when serving an anito and they made offerings of oils, ointments, essences, and perfumes in exquisite vessels.

Christianity[edit]

In 1324, Odoric of Pordenone, a Franciscan missionary from Friuli, Italy, is believed by some to have celebrated a Catholic Mass and baptized natives at Bolinao, Pangasinan. In July 2007, memorial markers were set up in Bolinao to commemorate Odoric's journey based on a publication by Luigi Malamocco, an Italian priest from Friuli, Italy, who claimed that Odoric of Perdenone held the first Catholic Mass in the Philippines in Bolinao, Pangasinan. That 1324 mass would have predated the mass held in 1521 by Ferdinand Magellan, which is generally regarded as the first mass in the Philippines, by some 197 years. However, historian William Henry Scott concluded after examining Oderic's writings about his travels that he likely never set foot on Philippine soil and, if he did, there is no reason to think that he celebrated mass.[8]

Spanish colonization[edit]

On April 27, 1565, the Spanish conquistador Miguel López de Legazpi arrived in the Philippine islands with about 500 soldiers to establish a Spanish settlement and begin the conquest of the archipelago. On May 24, 1570, the Spanish forces defeated Rajah Sulayman and other rulers of Manila and later declared Manila as the new capital of the Spanish East Indies. After securing Manila, the Spanish forces continued to conquer the rest of the island of Luzon, including Pangasinan.

Provincia de Pangasinan[edit]

In 1571, the Spanish conquest of Pangasinan began with an expedition by the Spanish conquistador Martín de Goiti, who came from the Spanish settlement in Manila through Pampanga. About a year later, another Spanish conquistador, Juan de Salcedo, sailed to Lingayen Gulf and landed at the mouth of the Agno River. Limahong, a Chinese pirate, fled to Pangasinan after his fleet was driven away from Manila in 1574. Limahong failed to establish a colony in Pangasinan, as an army led by Juan de Salcedo chased him out of Pangasinan after a seven-month siege.

By 1580, Pangasinan was made into an "Alcaldia Mayor" by the Spanish Governor of the Philippines. Roman Catholic Augustinian, Franciscan, and Dominican missionaries arrived with the conquistadors and most of the inhabitants of Pangasinan converted to Roman Catholicism. In 1611, Pangasinan became a Spanish colonial province, comprising the territories of Zambales and some areas of La Union and Tarlac. Lingayen was made the capital of the province (and still is to this day). Continued resistance to Spanish rule was forced to go underground or flee to the mountains.

Rebellion against the Spanish rule[edit]

Malong liberation[edit]

Andres Malong, a native chief of the town of Binalatongan (now named San Carlos City), liberated the province from Spanish rule in December 1660. The people of Pangasinan proclaimed Andres Malong Ari na Pangasinan ("King of Pangasinan"). Pangasinan armies attempted to liberate the neighboring provinces of Pampanga and Ilocos, but were repelled by a Spanish-led coalition of loyalist tribal warriors and mercenaries. In February 1661, the newly independent Kingdom of Pangasinan fell to the Spanish.

Palaris liberation[edit]

On November 3, 1762, the people of Pangasinan proclaimed independence from Spain after a rebellion led by Juan de la Cruz Palaris overthrew Spanish rule in Pangasinan. The Pangasinan revolt was sparked by news of the fall of Manila to the British on October 6, 1762. However, after the Treaty of Paris on March 1, 1763 that closed the Seven Years' War between Britain, France and Spain, the Spanish colonial forces made a counter-attack. On January 16, 1765, Juan de la Cruz Palaris was captured and Pangasinan independence was again lost.

Philippine revolution against Spain[edit]

The Katipunan, a nationalist secret society, was founded on July 7, 1892 with the aim of uniting the peoples of the Philippines and fighting for independence and religious freedom. The Philippine Revolution began on August 26, 1896 and was led by Andres Bonifacio, the leader of the Katipunan. On November 18, 1897, a Katipunan council was formed in western Pangasinan with Roman Manalang as Presidente Generalisimo and Mauro Ortiz as General. General Emilio Aguinaldo proclaimed Philippine independence on June 12, 1898. Dagupan City, the major commercial center of Pangasinan, was surrounded by Katipunan forces by July 18, 1898. The Battle of Dagupan lasted from July 18 to July 23 of that year with the surrender of 1,500 soldiers of the Spanish forces under Commander Federico J. Ceballos and Governor Joaquin de Orengochea.

Andres Urdaneta monument, in front of the City Hall.

The Battle of Dagupan, fought fiercely by local Katipuneros under the overall command of General Francisco Makabulos, chief of the Central and Directive Committee of Central and Northern Luzon, and the last remnants of the once mighty Spanish Army under General Francisco Ceballos, led to the liberation of Pangasinan from the Spaniards. The five-day battle was joined by three local heroes: Don Daniel Maramba from Santa Barbara, Don Vicente Prado from San Jacinto and Don Juan Quezada from Dagupan. Their armies massed in Dagupan to lay siege on the Spanish forces, making a last stand at the brick-walled Catholic Church.

Grave of Don Daniel B. Maramba (Santa Barbara, Pangasinan).
Daniel B. Maramba Monument and 1970 NHI Marker

Maramba led the liberation of the town of Santa Barbara on March 7, 1898 following a signal for simultaneous attack from Makabulos. Hearing that Sta. Barbara fell into rebel hands, the Spanish forces in Dagupan attempted to retake the town, but were repulsed by Maramba's forces. Thus, after the setback, the Spaniards decided to concentrate their forces in Lingayen to protect the provincial capital. This enabled Maramba to expand his operations to Malasiqui, Urdaneta and Mapandan, taking them one after the other. He took one more town, Mangaldan, before proceeding to Dagupan to lay siege on the last Spanish garrison. Also on March 7, 1898, the rebels under the command of Prado and Quesada attacked convents in a number of towns in Zambales province, located west of Lingayen, which now constitute the western parts of Pangasinan.

Attacked and brought under Filipino control were Alaminos, Agno, Anda, Alos, Bani, Balincaguin, Bolinao, Dasol, Eguia and Potot. The revolt then spread to Labrador, Sual, Salasa and many other towns in the west. The towns of Sual, Labrador, Lingayen, Salasa and Bayambang were occupied first by the forces of Prado and Quesada before they proceeded to attack Dagupan.

At an assembly convened to organize a central governing body for Central and Northern Luzon on April 17, 1898, General Makabulos appointed Prado as politico-military governor of Pangasinan, with Quesada as his second in command. His appointment came a few days before the return of General Emilio Aguinaldo in May 1898 from his exile in Hong Kong following the signing of the Pact of Biac-na-Bato in December 1897. Aguinaldo's return gave fresh impetus to the renewal of the flame of the revolution. Thus, on June 3, 1898, General Makabulos entered Tarlac and from that day on, the fires of revolution spread.

So successful were the Filipinos in their many pitched battles against the Spaniards that on June 30, 1898, Spanish authorities decided to evacuate all their forces to Dagupan where a last stand against the rebels was to be made. Also ordered to go to Dagupan were all civilian and military personnel, including members of the volunteer locales of towns not yet in rebel hands. Those who heeded this order were the volunteer forces of Mangaldan, San Jacinto, Pozorrubio, Manaoag, and Villasis. Among those brought to Dagupan was the image of the Most Holy Rosary of the Virgin of Manaoag, which at that time was already the patron saint of Pangasinan.

When the forces of Maramba from the east and Prado from the west converged in Dagupan on July 18, 1898, the siege began. The arrival of General Makabulos strengthened the rebel forces until the Spaniards, holed up inside the Catholic Church, waved the flag of surrender five days later. Armed poorly, the Filipinos were no match at the very start with Spanish soldiers holed inside the Church. They just became mere sitting ducks to Spanish soldiers shooting with their rifles from a distance. But the tempo of battle changed when the attackers, under Don Vicente Prado, devised a crude means of protection to shield them from Spanish fire while advancing. This happened when they rolled trunks of bananas, bundled up in sawali, that enabled them to inch their way to the Church.

American colonization and the Philippine Commonwealth regime[edit]

Pangasinan and other parts of the Spanish East Indies were ceded to the Americans after the Treaty of Paris that closed the Spanish-American War. During the Philippine–American War, Lieutenant Col. Jose Torres Bugallon from the town of Salasa fought together with Gen. Antonio Luna to defend the First Philippine Republic against American colonization of Northern Luzon. Bugallon was killed in battle on February 5, 1899. The First Philippine Republic was abolished on 1901. In 1907, the Philippine Assembly was established and for the first time, five residents of Pangasinan were elected as its district representatives. In 1921, Mauro Navarro, representing Pangasinan in the Philippine Assembly, sponsored a law to rename the town of Salasa to Bugallon in order to honor General Bugallon.

During the Philippine Commonwealth regime, Manuel L. Quezon was inaugurated as the first president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines under the collaboration from the United States of America on November 15, 1935.

The 21st Infantry Division, Philippine Commonwealth Army, USAFFE was found military establishment and built of the general headquarters was active on July 26, 1941 to June 30, 1946 and they stationed in Pangasinan during the pre-World War II era. From the conflict engagements of the Anti-Japanese Imperial military operations included the fall of Bataan and Corregidor and aiding the USAFFE ground force from January to May 1942 and the Japanese Insurgencies and Allied Liberation in Pangasinan from 1942 to 1945 and some parts in North-Central Luzon and helps local guerrillas and American forces against the Japanese.

Philippine Republic[edit]

National[edit]

1946-1986[edit]

After the declaration of Independence in Manila on July 4, 1946, Eugenio Perez, a Liberal Party congressman representing the fourth district of Pangasinan, was elected Speaker of the lower Legislative House. He led the House until 1953, when the Nacionalista Party became the dominant party.

Pangasinan, which was historically part of the Central Luzon region, was made part of the Ilocos Region (or Region I) in the gerrymandering of the Philippines by Ferdinand Marcos, despite the fact that Pangasinan has a distinct primary language, which is Pangasinan. The political classification of Pangasinan as part of the Ilocos Region has generated confusion among some Filipinos that the residents of Pangasinan are Ilocanos. Pangasinan has a distinct primary language and culture, its economy is bigger than the predominantly Ilocano provinces of Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, and La Union, and its population is more than 50 percent of the population of Region 1. Many people of Pangasinan prefer to have their own Pangasinan Region.

1986-present[edit]

In February 1986, Vice Chief of Staff General Fidel V. Ramos, head of the Philippine Integrated National Police and a native of Lingayen, Pangasinan, became one of the instrumental figures of the EDSA people power revolution that led to the overthrow of President Ferdinand Marcos.

After the downfall of Marcos, all local government unit executives in the Philippines were ordered by President Corazon Aquino to vacate their posts. Some local executives were ordered to return to their seats as in the case of Mayor Ludovico Espinosa of Dasol, where he claims he joined the UNIDO, Mrs. Aquino's party during the height of the EDSA Revolution. Fidel Ramos was appointed as AFP Chief of Staff and later as Defense Secretary replacing Juan Ponce Enrile. Oscar Orbos, a congressman from Bani, Pangasinan, was appointed by Aquino as head of the Department of Transportation and Communications and later as Executive Secretary.

On May 11, 1992, Fidel V. Ramos ran for the position of President. He was elected and became the first Pangasinan President of the Philippines. Through his leadership, the Philippines recovered from a severe economy after the oil and power crisis of 1991. His influence also sparked the economic growth of Pangasinan when it hosted the 1995 Palarong Pambansa (Philippine National Games). Jose de Venecia, who represented the same district as Eugenio Perez, was the second Pangasinan to be Speaker of the House of Representatives in 1992. He was reelected for the same position in 1995. De Venecia was selected by the Ramos' administration party Lakas NUCD to be its presidential candidate in 1998. De Venecia ran but lost to Vice President Joseph Estrada. Oscar Orbos, who served as Pangasinan governor from 1995, ran for Vice President, but lost to Senator Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, whose mother, former First Lady Evangelina Macaraeg-Macapagal, hails from Binalonan, Pangasinan.

Arroyo later ascended to the presidency after the second EDSA Revolution when President Joseph Estrada was overthrown.

On May 2004, actor-turned-politician Fernando Poe, Jr., whose family is from San Carlos City, Pangasinan, ran for President against incumbent Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo during the Philippine general election in 2004. The Pangasinan vote was almost evenly split by the two presidential candidates who both have Pangasinan roots. Arroyo was elected President, but her victory was tainted by charges of electoral fraud and vote-buying.

The state of crisis of the national government in Manila, corruption in Malacañang, widespread poverty, and the slow pace of economic development is forcing many Pangasinans to seek opportunities in Metro Manila, work in other countries or emigrate to wealthier countries, like the United States.

Geography[edit]

Pangasinan Provincial Capitol in Lingayen

Subdivisions[edit]

Political map of Pangasinan

The province of Pangasinan is subdivided into 44 municipalities, 4 cities, and 1,364 barangay (which means "village" or "community"). There are six congressional districts in Pangasinan.

The capital of Pangasinan is Lingayen. In ancient times, the capital of Pangasinan was Binalatongan, now San Carlos City.

Name Type and
Income Class[9]
District Population
(2010)[10]
Area
(km²)[9]
Alaminos 4th class component city 1st 85,025 164
Dagupan 2nd class independent
component city
4th 163,676 37
San Carlos 3rd class component city 3rd 175,103 169
Urdaneta 2nd class component city 5th 125,451 100
Agno 3rd Class municipality 1st 27,508 170
Aguilar 3rd Class municipality 2nd 39,529 195
Alcala 3rd Class municipality 5th 41,077 46
Anda 3rd Class municipality 1st 37,011 75
Asingan 2nd Class municipality 6th 56,353 67
Balungao 4th Class municipality 6th 26,678 73
Bani 2nd Class municipality 1st 45,758 180
Basista 4th Class municipality 2nd 30,385 24
Bautista 4th Class municipality 5th 30,193 46
Bayambang 1st Class municipality 3rd 111,521 144
Binalonan 1st Class municipality 5th 52,832 48
Binmaley 1st Class municipality 2nd 78,702 119
Bolinao 1st Class municipality 1st 74,545 197
Bugallon 2nd Class municipality 2nd 64,253 190
Burgos 4th Class municipality 1st 18,315 131
Calasiao 1st Class municipality 3rd 91,109 48
Dasol 3rd Class municipality 1st 26,991 167
Infanta 3rd Class municipality 1st 23,455 254
Labrador 4th Class municipality 2nd 21,149 91
Laoac 4th Class municipality 5th 29,456 41
Lingayen 1st Class municipality 2nd 98,740 63
Mabini 3rd Class municipality 1st 24,011 291
Malasiqui 1st Class municipality 3rd 123,566 131
Manaoag 1st Class municipality 4th 64,578 56
Mangaldan 1st Class municipality 4th 98,905 48
Mangatarem 1st Class municipality 2nd 69,969 318
Mapandan 3rd Class municipality 3rd 34,439 30
Natividad 4th Class municipality 6th 22,713 134
Pozorrubio 1st Class municipality 5th 66,111 135
Rosales 1st Class municipality 6th 59,687 66
San Fabian 1st Class municipality 4th 77,899 81
San Jacinto 1st Class municipality 4th 37,737 44
San Manuel 1st Class municipality 6th 46,875 129
San Nicolas 3rd Class municipality 6th 34,108 210
San Quintin 3rd Class municipality 6th 32,626 116
Santa Barbara 1st Class municipality 3rd 76,637 61
Santa Maria 4th Class municipality 6th 31,091 70
Santo Tomas 5th Class municipality 5th 14,406 13
Sison 3rd Class municipality 5th 43,979 82
Sual 1st Class municipality 1st 31,216 130
Tayug 3rd Class municipality 6th 40,018 51
Umingan 1st Class municipality 6th 67,534 258
Urbiztondo 3rd Class municipality 2nd 47,831 82
Villasis 1st Class municipality 5th 59,111 76

Physical[edit]

Pangasinan is located on the west central area of the island of Luzon in the Philippines. Pangasinan borders La Union and Benguet to the north, Nueva Vizcaya and Nueva Ecija to the east, and Zambales and Tarlac to the south. To the west of Pangasinan is the South China Sea. The province also encloses the Lingayen Gulf.

The land area of Pangasinan is 5,451.01 square kilometres (2,104.65 sq mi).[1] The province is 170 kilometers (105.633 mi) north of Manila, 50 kilometers (31.0685 mi.) south of Baguio City, 115 kilometers (71.4576 mi.) north of Subic International Airport and Seaport, and 80 kilometers (49.7096 mi.) north of Clark International Airport. At the coast of Alaminos, The Hundred islands have become a fmous tourist spot.

The Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) reported several inactive volcanoes in Pangasinan: Amorong, Balungao, Cabaluyan, Cahelietan, Candong, and Malabobo. PHIVOLCS reported no active or potentially active volcanoes in Pangasinan. A caldera-like landform is located between the towns of Malasiqui and Villasis with a center at about 15° 55′ N and 120° 30′ E near the Cabaruan Hills.

Demographics[edit]

Population census of Pangasinan
Year Pop.   ±% p.a.  
1990 2,020,273 —    
1995 2,178,412 +1.52%
2000 2,434,086 +2.24%
2007 2,645,395 +1.20%
2010 2,779,862 +1.67%
Source: National Statistics Office[2]

Population[edit]

The Pangasinan people (Totoon Pangasinan) are called Pangasinan or the hispanicized name Pangasinense, or simply taga-Pangasinan, which means "from Pangasinan". Pangasinan is the third most populated province in the Philippines. The estimated population of the indigenous speakers of the Pangasinan language in the province of Pangasinan is 1.5 million and is projected to double in about 30 years. According to the 2000 census, 47 percent of the population are Totoon Pangasinan and 44 percent are Ilocanos. Sambal settlers from Zambales also predominate in the westernmost municipalities of Bolinao and Anda. The Pangasinan people are closely related to the Austronesian-speaking peoples of the Philippines, Malaysia, and Indonesia.

Languages[edit]

Languages Spoken (2000)[11]
Language Speakers in '000
Pangasinan
  
1,158
Ilokano
  
1,076
Tagalog
  
92
Bolinao
  
48

The Pangasinan language or Pangasinense is an agglutinative language. It belongs to the Malayo-Polynesian languages branch of the Austronesian languages family and is the primary language of the province of Pangasinan. The Pangasinan language is similar to the other Malayo-Polynesian languages of the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia and Madagascar. It is closely related to the Ibaloi language spoken in the neighboring province of Benguet and Baguio City, located north of Pangasinan. The Pangasinan language is classified under the Pangasinic group of languages. The Pangasinic languages are:

  • Pangasinan or Pangasinense
  • Ibaloi
  • Karao
  • I-wak
  • Kalanguya
  • Keley-I
  • Kallahan
  • Kayapa
  • Tinoc

Other languages are spoken in some areas of the neighboring provinces of Benguet, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, and Ifugao.

The educated Pangasinans are mostly proficient in English and Tagalog, as well as their native language. Pangasinan is mostly spoken in the central part of the province in the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and is the second language in other parts of Pangasinan. Ilocano is widely spoken in the western and eastern part of Pangasinan in the 1st, 5th and 6th districts, and Bolinao is widely spoken in the western tip of the province in the Municipality of Bolinao and Anda. Tagalog is now widely spoken or understood as a second language throughout Pangasinan.

Religion[edit]

The religion of the people of Pangasinan is predominantly Christian and mostly Roman Catholic, although few are strict believers and continue to practice their indigenous anito beliefs and rituals, like most of the people of the Philippines. Spanish and American missionaries introduced Christianity to Pangasinan. Prior to the Spanish conquest in 1571, the predominant religion of the people of Pangasinan was similar to the indigenous religion of the highland Igorot or the inhabitants of the Cordillera Administrative Region on the island of Luzon, who mostly retained their indigenous culture and religion. A translation of the Bible in the Pangasinan language by Fr. Nicolas Manrique Alonzo Lallave, a Spanish Dominican friar, was the first translation of the Bible in a Philippine language. Pangasinan was also influenced by Hinduism and Buddhism before the introduction of Christianity.

Economy[edit]

Commercial Salt Industry in Dasol

Pangasinan has export earnings of around $5.5 million.

Energy[edit]

The 1200 megawatt Sual Coal-Fired Power Plant, and 345 megawatt San Roque Multi-Purpose Dam, located in the municipalities of Sual and San Manuel respectively, are the primary sources of energy of the province.

Marine[edit]

Pangasinan is a major fish supplier in Luzon, and a major producer of salt in the Philippines. It has extensive fishponds, mostly for raising bangus, or "milkfish", along the coasts of the Lingayen Gulf and the South China Sea. Pangasinan's aquaculture includes oyster and sea urchin farms.

Agriculture[edit]

The major crops in Pangasinan are rice, mangoes, corn, and sugar cane. Pangasinan has a land area of 536,819 hectares, and 44 percent of the total land area of Pangasinan is devoted to agricultural production.

Financial[edit]

Pangasinan has 593 banking and financing institutions.

Labor[edit]

Pangasinan has a labor force of about 1.52 million, and 87 percent of the labor force are gainfully employed.

Investment[edit]

The Department of Trade and Industry in the Philippines has identified the following potential investment areas in Pangasinan:

  • Maguey production and handicraft center
  • Santiago Island Marine Park
  • Oyster processing facility
  • Bagoong technology and processing center
  • Tannery and leather production center
  • Oyster and aquaculture farming
  • Seaweed farming
  • Bamboo production
  • Handicraft and furniture making
  • Manufacture of construction bricks
  • Tourism development

Health and education[edit]

There are thousands of public schools and hundreds of private schools across the province for primary and secondary education. Many Pangasineneses go to Metro Manila and the United States for tertiary and higher education. The state and private colleges and universities in Pangasinan include the following:

  • Pangasinan National High School (PNHS)
  • Oakridge International School of Young Leaders
  • AMA Computer College
  • Asian Institute Of E-Commerce
  • Colegio de Dagupan
  • Colegio San Jose De Alaminos
  • Dagupan Colleges Foundation
  • Golden West Colleges
  • Kingfisher School of Business and Finance
  • Lyceum Northern Luzon
  • Lyceum Northwestern University
  • Luzon Colleges of Science and Technology
  • Palaris College
  • Pangasinan State University
  • Pangasinan Merchant Marine Academy
  • Panpacific University Northern Philippines
  • Philippine College of Science and Technology
  • Pimsat Colleges
  • Saint Columban's College
  • San Carlos College
  • Saint Therese of the Child Jesus College Foundation
  • St. Camillus College of Manaoag Foundation, Inc.
  • STI College
  • University of Luzon
  • University of Pangasinan
  • Urdaneta City University
  • University Of Perpetual Help – Jonelta Foundation (Pangasinan Campus)
  • Virgen Milagrosa University Foundation
  • WCC Aeronautical and Technological College
  • Gospel of Christ Montessori School (GCMS
  • Precious Minds Montessori and High School (PMMHS)
  • Calasiao Comprehensive National High School (CCNHS)
  • Daniel Maramba National High School (DMNHS)
  • Cipriano P. Primicias National High School (CPPNHS)

Pangasinan has 51 hospitals and clinics and 68 rural health units (as of July 2002). Although some residents go to Manila and the United States for extensive medical tests and treatment, most Pangasinenses go to the medical centers in the cities of Dagupan, San Carlos City, and Urdaneta.

Culture[edit]

The culture of Pangasinan is a blend of the indigenous Malayo-Polynesian and western Hispanic and American cultures, with some Indian and Chinese influences. Today, Pangasinan is very much westernized. The main centers of Pangasinense culture are Lingayen, San Carlos City, Dagupan, and Manaoag.

Sports and entertainment[edit]

  • Urdaneta City Sports and Cultural Complex
  • Urdaneta Coliseum
  • Dagupan City People's Astrodome
  • Narciso Ramos Sports and Civic Center
  • Virgen Milagrosa University Foundation Sports Complex
  • CSI STADIA (Jimmy Fernandez Complex)
  • Orient Pacific Center, Perez Blvd. Dagupan City
  • East Gate Plaza, A.B Fernandez East, Dagupan City
  • Robert B. Estrella, Sr. Memorial Stadium, Rosales

Places of interest[edit]

Religious[edit]

The Shrine of Our Lady of Manaoag is famous throughout the country for its supposed miraculous powers. Catholic devotees frequent the shrine, especially on the feast days on the first of October and the 18th day after Easter Sunday.
  • Salasa Church in Bugallon
  • Sanctuario de Senor Divino Tesoro in Calasiao
  • St. John Cathedral Garden Dagupan City
  • Sts. Peter and Paul Parish, Calasiao, Pangasinan
  • St. James The Great Parish, Bolinao

Natural attractions[edit]

Sunny white beach at Rock Garden Resort, Bolinao, Pangasinan
The "Treasurers of Bolinao", Pangasinan
  • Lisland Rainforest Resort, San Vicente, Urdaneta City
  • Gold Land Resort, Cayambanan, Urdaneta City
  • Antong Falls in Sison
  • Beach Walk in Lingayen
  • Bolinao Caves (Wonderful Cave, Cindy's Cave, Enchanted Cave)
  • Ilog-Malino River, Brgy. Ilog-Malino Bolinao
  • Puerto Del Sol Resort, Brgy. Ilog-Malino, Bolinao
  • Punta Riviera Resort, Brgy. Ilog-Malino, Bolinao
  • Villa Carolina Resort, Brgy. Ilog-Malino, Bolinao
  • Garden Paradise Resort, Brgy. Ilog-Malino, Bolinao
  • Ilog-Malino Beach Resort, Brgy. Ilog-Malino, Bolinao
  • Cocos Beach Resort, Brgy. Ilog-Malino, Bolinao
  • Bonuan Blue Beach in Dagupan City
  • Binmaley Blue-Gray Beach
  • Binmaley Blue-Green, Museum Park (including Triangle "Estasyon" Park)
  • Cape Bolinao Lighthouse in Bolinao
  • Cacupangan Cave in Mabini
  • Cabongaoan Beach in Burgos
  • Hundred Islands National Park and Marine Sanctuary in Alaminos City
  • Mount Balungao in Balungao
  • Manleluag Spring National Park in Mangatarem
  • Pantal River Boat ride in Dagupan City
  • Rock Garden Resort in Bolinao
  • San Juan River in San Carlos City
  • Suasalito Viewdeck in Sual
  • Tambobong White Beach in Dasol
  • Tondol Beach in Anda
  • Umbrella Rocks of Agno
  • White Beach in San Fabian

Educational[edit]

  • Bolinao Museum in Bolinao
  • Lingayen Gulf War Museum in Lingayen
  • Oceanographic Marine Laboratory in Alaminos City

Festivities[edit]

  • Bagoong Festival, Lingayen
  • Dumayo Festival, Urdaneta City
  • Mango-Bamboo Festival, San Carlos City
  • Pandan Festival, Mapandan
  • Bangus Festival in Dagupan City
  • Patupat Festival in Pozorrubio
  • Pistay Dayat (Feast of the Sea) all over Pangasinan
  • Mangunguna Festival, Bolinao
  • Sigay Festival, Binmaley
  • Puto Festival, Calasiao
  • Malangsi Fishtival, Bayambang
  • Galicayo Festival, Manaoag
  • Goat Festival, Balungao
  • Talong Festival, Villasis
  • Corn Festival, Sto. Tomas
  • Pindang Festival (Beef Festival), Mangaldan
  • Festival of the North all over Pangasinan

Structures[edit]

  • Provincial Capitol, Lingayen
  • Red Arrow Marker of the WWII 32nd US Infantry Division in San Nicolas
  • Narciso Ramos Sports and Civic Center in Lingayen
  • Plaza Pergola in Pozorrubio
  • San Carlos City Plaza
  • Urduja House in Lingayen
Sibblings Margaret F. Celeste, Cong. Jesus 'Boying' F. Celeste (Representative, Pangasinan, 1st District, House of Representatives, Quezon City), former Cong. Arthur F. Celeste, Pangasinan, 1st, Lakas-Kampi-CMD, 14th Congress of the Philippines), and Mayor Alfronso F. Celeste.

Government[edit]

The current governor of Pangasinan is Amado Espino, Jr.. Among those who served as Governor of Pangasinan include Tito Primicias, Vicente Millora and Daniel Maramba.

Provincial Board Members:

  • 1st District: Napoleon C. Fontelera Jr., Anthony D. Sison

Media[edit]

There are at least 20 local newspapers and magazines published in Pangasinan. At least seventeen local newspapers and magazines are published weekly.

  • Balon Silew (Pangasinan)
  • Ilocano Observer (English and Ilocano)
  • Luzon Examiner (English)
  • Luzon Island Bulletin (English)
  • Luzon Standard Country Mail (English)
  • Media Eye Tiempo (English)
  • Northern Courier (English)
  • Northern Journal (English)
  • Northern Times (English)
  • PangalaTALK.com (English & Pangasinan)
  • Pangasinan News (English)
  • Pangasinan Post (English)
  • Pangasinan Star Online (English and Pangasinan)
  • Pangasinan Today (English)
  • Pangasinan Sentinel (English) (Mangaldan Publication)
  • People’s Digests (English)
  • Sun Star – Pangasinan (English)
  • Sunday Punch (English)
  • The Midweek Punch (English)
  • The Regional Examiner (English)
  • NORTHERN WATCH (English and Filipino)
  • The Weekly Forum (English)
  • The Weekly Guardian (English)

Other publications that circulate in Pangasinan include:

  • Northwest Luzon Times
  • Pangasinan Pinoy Journal
  • Weekly Luzon Times
  • News Time
  • The Pangasinan Post
  • Classyfied Mag

The only magazine published monthly is the Traveler Magazine.

Television and radio[edit]

Television Networks:

FM Radio Stations:

  • DWIZ - 89.3 DWIZ News Radio FM (formerly DWQT - 89dot3 Home Radio Dagupan)
  • DWYS - 104.1 YES FM! Urdaneta City
  • DWAI - 92.1 I FM Urdaneta City
  • DWKT - 90.3 Energy FM
  • DWTL - 93.5 Campus Radio
  • DWEC - 94.3 MOR For Life!
  • DWID - 98.3 Love Radio
  • DWTJ - 99.3 Spirit FM (from Alaminos City)
  • DWHY - 100.7 Star FM
  • DWON - 104.7 i FM
  • DWHR - 106.3 Hot FM
  • DWHT - 107.9 RMN Dagupan (CLOSED)

AM Radio Stations:

  • DWCM - 1161 Aksyon Radyo
  • DWDH - 1140 kHz (DZRH Manila Feed)
  • DZWN - 1125 Bombo Radyo, Dagupan City (Pangasinan language)
  • DWPR - 1296 Power Radio (RADYO ASENSO)
  • DZRD - 981 DZRD 981 Sonshine Radio
  • DZSD - 1548 Super Radyo (Relay Station only)
  • DWIN - 1125 Eagle Radio (Relay Station only)

DZMQ Radyo Ng Bayan-Dagupan 576 kHz. AM (Government Radio Station under the Office of the Press Secretary)

Notable people from Pangasinan[edit]

Some prominent people of Pangasinan heritage (though not necessarily ethnic identification) include:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "List of Provinces". PSGC Interactive. Makati City, Philippines: National Statistical Coordination Board. Retrieved 11 February 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c "Population and Annual Growth Rates for The Philippines and Its Regions, Provinces, and Highly Urbanized Cities". 2010 Census and Housing Population. National Statistics Office. Retrieved 13 February 2013. 
  3. ^ "Pangasinan voters already 1,651,814," Sunday Punch. December 10, 2012
  4. ^ New DNA evidence overturns population migration theory in Island Southeast Asia - University of Oxford
  5. ^ New research forces U-turn in population migration theory
  6. ^ Mark Donohue; Tim Denham (April 2010). "Farming and Language in Island Southeast Asia : Reframing Austronesian History". Current Anthropology 51 (2). 
  7. ^ PLoS ONE: The History of Makassan Trepang Fishing and Trade
  8. ^ Scott, William Henry (1984). Prehispanic source materials for the study of Philippine history. New Day Publishers. pp. 81–82. ISBN 978-971-10-0226-8. 
  9. ^ a b "Province: PANGASINAN". PSGC Interactive. Makati City, Philippines: National Statistical Coordination Board. Retrieved 6 January 2014. 
  10. ^ "Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay: as of May 1, 2010". 2010 Census of Population and Housing. National Statistics Office. Retrieved 13 February 2013. 
  11. ^ Table 4. Household Population by Ethnicity and Sex: Pangasinan, 2000
Bibliography
  • Agoncillo, Teodoro A. History of the Filipino People. (Quezon City: Garotech Publishing, Eighth Edition, 1990).
  • Cortes, Rosario Mendoza. Pangasinan, 1572-1800. (Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 1974; New Day Publishers, 1975).
  • Cortes, Rosario Mendoza. Pangasinan, 1801-1900: The Beginnings of Modernization. (Cellar Book Shop, April 1991).
  • Cortes, Rosario Mendoza. Pangasinan, 1901-1986: A Political, Socioeconomic, and Cultural History. (Cellar Book Shop, April 1991).
  • Cortes, Rosario Mendoza. The Filipino Saga: History as Social Change. (Quezon City: New Day Publishers, 2000).
  • Craig, Austin. "Lineage Life and Labors of Jose Rizal". (Manila: Philippine Education Company, 1913).
  • Mafiles, Victoria Veloria; Nava, Erlinda Tomelden. The English Translations of Pangasinan Folk Literature. (Dagupan City, Philippines: Five Ed Printing Press, 2004).
  • Quintos, Felipe Quintos. Sipi Awaray Gelew Diad Pilipinas (Revolucion Filipina). (Lingayen, Pangasinan: Gumawid Press, 1926).
  • Samson-Nelmida, Perla. Pangasinan Folk Literature, A Doctoral Dissertation. (University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City: May 1982).

External links[edit]