Pangasinan language

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Pangasinan
Pangasinense
Native to Philippines
Region Ilocos Region and Central Luzon
Ethnicity Pangasinense people
Native speakers
1.2 million  (1990 census)[1]
9th most spoken native language in the Philippines
Latin;
Historically Baybayin
Official status
Official language in
Regional language in the Philippines
Regulated by Commission on the Filipino Language
Language codes
ISO 639-2 pag
ISO 639-3 pag
Glottolog pang1290[2]
Linguasphere 31-CGA-f
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Area where Pangasinan is spoken according to Ethnologue
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.

The Pangasinan language (Pangasinan: Salitan Pangasinan; Spanish: Idioma pangasinense) is an Austronesian language, which is one of the twelve major languages in the Philippines.

Pangasinan is the name for the language, people, and province. The Pangasinan language, also called "Pangasinense", its hispanicized name, is spoken by more than one and a half million Pangasinan people (indigenous speakers) in the province of Pangasinan alone. Pangasinan is also spoken in other Pangasinan communities in the Philippines, and by Pangasinan immigrants in the United States. Pangasinan is the primary language in the province of Pangasinan, located on the west central area of the island of Luzon along the Lingayen Gulf. It is the official regional language in the province of Pangasinan, with a total population of the province of 2,434,086 (National Statistics Office: 2000 Census).

Classification[edit]

The Pangasinan language belongs to the Malayo-Polynesian languages branch of the Austronesian languages family. [3][4] Pangasinan is similar to the Tagalog and Ilocano languages that are spoken in the Philippines, Indonesian in Indonesia, Malay in Malaysia, and Malagasy in Madagascar.[5] The Pangasinan language is very closely related to the Ibaloi language spoken in the neighboring province of Benguet and Baguio City, located north of Pangasinan. Pangasinan is classified under the Pangasinic group of languages. The Pangasinic languages are:

  • Pangasinan
  • Ibaloi
  • Karao
  • I-wak
  • Kalanguya
  • Keley-I
  • Kallahan
  • Kayapa
  • Tinoc

Pangasinan is spoken primarily in the provinces of Pangasinan and Benguet, and in some areas of the neighboring provinces of Zambales, Tarlac, Nueva Ecija, Aurora, Nueva Vizcaya, and Ifugao.

Pangasinan is an agglutinative language.

Distribution[edit]

Pangasinan is the Official language of the province of Pangasinan, located on the west central area of the island of Luzon along Lingayen Gulf. The people of Pangasinan are also referred to as Pangasinan. The province has a total population of 2,343,086 (2000), of which 1.5 million speak Pangasinan. Speakers of the language are concentrated mostly in central Pangasinan. Pangasinan is spoken in other Pangasinan communities in the Philippines, mostly in the neighboring provinces of Benguet, La Union, Nueva Ecija, Tarlac, and Zambales.

History[edit]

Austronesian-language speakers settled in Maritime Southeast Asia during prehistoric times, perhaps more than 5,000 years ago. The indigenous speakers of Pangasinan are descendants of these settlers, who were probably part of a wave of prehistoric human migration that is widely believed to have originated from Southern China via Taiwan between 10 and 6 thousand years ago.

The word Pangasinan, means “land of salt” or “place of salt-making”; it is derived from the root word asin, the word for "salt" in Pangasinan. Pangasinan could also refer to a “container of salt or salted-products”; it refers to the ceramic jar for storage of salt or salted-products or its contents.

Grammar[edit]

Sentence Structure[edit]

Like other Malayo-Polynesian languages, Pangasinan has a verb–subject–object word order. Pangasinan language is agglutinative language.

Pronouns[edit]

Personal[edit]

  Absolutive Independent Absolutive Enclitic Ergative Oblique
1st person singular siák ak -k(o) ed siak
1st person dual sikatá ita, ta -ta ed sikata
2nd person singular siká ka -m(o) ed sika
3rd person singular sikató -, -a to ed sikato
1st person plural inclusive sikatayó itayo, tayo -tayo ed sikatayo
1st person plural exclusive sikamí kamí mi ed sikami
2nd person plural sikayó kayó yo ed sikayo
3rd person plural sikara ira, ra da ed sikara

Affixes[edit]

a:-UM-
MAKAN-, AKAN-
PINAGKA-
INKA-
KA
KA-AN
-AN
SAN-
SANKA-
SANKA-AN
MA-
MAY-
MAY-EN
MANKA-, ANKA-, MANGA-
KI-AN
INKI-
KI-
NA-AN, A-AN
NI-AN
EN-
-IN-
I-
I-AN
IN-
INY-
IN-AN

Numbers[edit]

List of numbers from one to ten in English, Tagalog, Ilokano and Pangasinan.

English Tagalog Ilokano Pangasinan
one isa maysa sakey, isa
two dalawa dua duara, dua
three tatlo tallo talora, talo
four apat uppat apatira, apat
five lima lima limara, lima
six anim innem anemira, anem
seven pito pito pitora, pito
eight walo walo walora, walo
nine siyam siam siamira, siam
ten sampu sangapulo samplora, samplo,sangapolo

Cardinal Numbers:

Pangasinan English
isa, sakey, san- one
dua, dua'ra (dua ira) two
talo, -tlo, talo'ra (talo ira) three
apat, -pat, apatira (apat ira) four
lima, lima'ra (lima ira) five
anem, -nem, anemira (anem ira) six
pito, pito'ra (pito ira) seven
walo, walo'ra (walo ira) eight
siam, siamira (siam ira) nine
polo, samplo (isa'n polo), samplo'ra (isa'n polo ira) tens, ten
lasus, sanlasus (isa'n lasus) hundreds, one hundred
libo, sakey libo thousands, one thousand
laksa, sanlaksa (isa'n laksa), sakey a laksa ten thousands, ten thousand

Ordinal Numbers:

Ordinal numbers are formed with prefix KUMA- (KA- plus infix -UM). Example: kumadua, second.

Associative Numbers:

Associative numbers are formed with prefix KA-. Example: katlo, third of a group of three.

Fractions:

Fraction numbers are formed with prefix KA- and an associative number. Example: kakatlo, third part.

Multiplicatives:

Multiplicative ordinal numbers are formed with prefix PI- and a cardinal number from two to four or PIN- for other numbers except for number one. Example: kaisa, first time; pidua, second time; pinlima, fifth time.

Multiplicative cardinal numbers are formed with prefix MAN- (MAMI- or MAMIN- for present or future tense, and AMI- or AMIN- for the past tense) to the corresponding multiplicative ordinal number. Example: aminsan, once; amidua, twice; mamitlo, thrice.

Distributives:

Distributive cardinal numbers are formed with prefixes SAN-, TAG-, or TUNGGAL and a cardinal number. Example: sansakey, one each; sanderua, two each.

Distributive multiplicative numbers are formed with prefix MAGSI-, TUNGGAL, or BALANGSAKEY and a multiplicative cardinal number. Example: tunggal pamidua, twice each; magsi-pamidua, each twice.

Phonology[edit]

Consonants[edit]

Bilabial Dental /
Alveolar
Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Stop voiceless p t k ʔ
voiced b d ɡ
Fricative s ʃ
Flap ɾ
Approximant l j w

Vowels[edit]

Front Central Back
Close i u
Mid ə
Open-Mid ɛ ɔ
Open a

Alphabet[edit]

Modern Pangasinan consists of 27 letters, which include the 26 letters of the basic Latin alphabet and the Pangasinan digraph ng:

Majuscule Forms (also called uppercase or capital letters)
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N NG O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Minuscule Forms (also called lowercase or small letters)
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n ng o p q r s t u v w x y z


English - Pangasinan

  1. I - siak, ak
  2. you (singular) - sika, ka
  3. he - sikato (he/she), kato
  4. we - sikami, kami, mi, sikatayo, tayo, sikata, ta
  5. you (plural) - sikayo, kayo, yo
  6. they - sikara (sika ira)
  7. this - aya
  8. that - atan
  9. here - dia
  10. there - diman, ditan
  11. who - siopa, sio, si
  12. what - anto
  13. where - iner
  14. when - kapigan, pigan
  15. how - pano, panonto
  16. not - ag, andi, aleg, aliwa
  17. all - amin
  18. many - amayamay, dakel
  19. some - pigara (piga ira)
  20. few - daiset
  21. other - arom
  22. one - isa, sakey
  23. two - dua, duara (dua ira)
  24. three - talo, talora (talo ira)
  25. four - apat, apatira (apat ira)
  26. five - lima, limara (lima ira)
  27. big - baleg
  28. long - andokey
  29. wide - maawang, malapar
  30. thick - makapal
  31. heavy - ambelat
  32. small - melag, melanting, tingot, daiset
  33. short - melag, melanting, tingot, antikey, kulang, abeba
  34. narrow - mainget
  35. thin - mabeng, maimpis
  36. woman - bii
  37. man (adult male) - laki, bolog
  38. man (human being) - too
  39. child - ogaw
  40. wife - asawa, kaamong (spouse)
  41. husband - asawa, kaamong (spouse)
  42. mother - ina
  43. father - ama
  44. animal - ayep
  45. fish - sira, ikan
  46. bird - manok, siwsiw (chick)
  47. dog - aso
  48. louse - koto
  49. snake - oleg
  50. worm - biges (germ), alumbayar (earthworm)
  51. tree - kiew, tanem (plant)
  52. forest - kakiewan, katakelan
  53. stick - bislak, sanga
  54. fruit - bunga
  55. seed - bokel
  56. leaf - bolong
  57. root - lamot
  58. bark - obak
  59. flower - bulaklak
  60. grass - dika
  61. rope - singer, lubir, taker
  62. skin - baog, katat
  63. meat - laman
  64. blood - dala
  65. bone - pokel
  66. fat (n.) - mataba, taba
  67. egg - iknol
  68. horn - saklor
  69. tail - ikol
  70. feather - bago
  71. hair - buek
  72. head - olo
  73. ear - layag
  74. eye - mata
  75. nose - eleng
  76. mouth - sangi
  77. tooth - ngipen
  78. tongue - dila
  79. fingernail - koko
  80. foot - sali
  81. leg - bikking
  82. knee - pueg
  83. hand - lima
  84. wing - payak
  85. belly - eges
  86. guts - pait
  87. neck - beklew
  88. back - beneg
  89. breast - pagew, suso
  90. heart - puso
  91. liver - altey
  92. drink - inom
  93. eat - mangan, akan, kamot
  94. bite - ketket
  95. suck - sepsep, suso
  96. spit - lutda
  97. vomit - uta
  98. blow - sibok
  99. breathe - engas, ingas, dongap, linawa, anges
  100. laugh - elek
  101. see - nengneng
  102. hear - dengel
  103. know - amta, kabat
  104. think - nonot
  105. smell - angob
  106. fear - takot
  107. sleep - ogip
  108. live - bilay
  109. die - onpatey, patey
  110. kill - manpatey, patey
  111. fight - laban, kolkol, bakal
  112. hunt - managnop, anop, manpana, manerel (catch)
  113. hit - tira, nakna, pekpek
  114. cut - tegteg, sugat
  115. split - pisag, puter, paldua (half)
  116. stab - saksak, doyok
  117. scratch - gugo, gorgor, korkor
  118. dig - kotkot
  119. swim - langoy
  120. fly (v.) - tekyab
  121. walk - akar
  122. come - gala, gali, onsabi, sabi
  123. lie - dokol (lie down), tila (tell a lie)
  124. sit - yorong (i-orong)
  125. stand - alagey
  126. turn - liko, telek
  127. fall - pelag (drop), tumba
  128. give - iter, itdan (iteran)
  129. hold - benben
  130. squeeze - pespes
  131. rub - kuskos, gorgor, poyok
  132. wash - oras
  133. wipe - ponas
  134. pull - goyor
  135. push - tolak
  136. throw - topak
  137. tie - singer
  138. sew - dait
  139. count - bilang
  140. say - ibaga
  141. sing - togtog, kansiyon
  142. play - galaw
  143. float - letaw
  144. flow - agos
  145. freeze - kigtel
  146. swell - larag
  147. sun - agew, banua
  148. moon - bulan
  149. star - bitewen
  150. water - danum
  151. rain - uran
  152. river - ilog, kalayan
  153. lake - ilog, look
  154. sea - dayat, laot
  155. salt - asin
  156. stone - bato
  157. sand - buer
  158. dust - dabok
  159. earth - dalin
  160. cloud - lorem
  161. fog - kelpa
  162. sky - tawen
  163. wind - dagem
  164. snow - linew
  165. ice - pakigtel
  166. smoke - asiwek, asewek
  167. fire - apoy, pool (blaze), dalang (flame)
  168. ashes - dapol
  169. burn - pool, sinit
  170. road - dalan, basbas (path)
  171. mountain - palandey
  172. red - ambalanga, pula
  173. green - ampasiseng, pasiseng
  174. yellow - duyaw
  175. white - amputi, puti
  176. black - andeket, deket
  177. night - labi
  178. day - agew
  179. year - taon
  180. warm - ampetang, petang
  181. cold - ambetel, betel
  182. full - napsel (napesel), napno (napano)
  183. new - balo
  184. old - daan
  185. good - duga, maong, abig
  186. bad - aliwa, maoges
  187. rotten - abolok, bolok
  188. dirty - maringot, dingot, marutak, dutak
  189. straight - maptek, petek
  190. round - malimpek, limpek, tibokel
  191. sharp - matdem (matarem), tarem
  192. dull - mangmang, epel
  193. smooth - palanas, patad, patar
  194. wet - ambasa, basa
  195. dry - amaga, maga
  196. correct - duga, tua (true)
  197. near - asinger
  198. far - arawi
  199. right - kawanan
  200. left - kawigi
  201. at - ed
  202. in - ed
  203. with - iba
  204. and - tan
  205. if - no
  206. because - ta, lapu ed
  207. name - ngaran

See also[edit]

Orthography[edit]

The ancient people of Pangasinan used an indigenous writing system. The ancient Pangasinan script, which is related to the Tagalog Baybayin script, was derived from the Javanese Kawi script of Indonesia and the Vatteluttu or Pallava script of South India.

The Latin script was introduced during the Spanish colonial period. Pangasinan literature, using the indigenous syllabary and the Latin alphabet, continued to flourish during the Spanish and American colonial period. Pangasinan acquired many Spanish and English words, and some indigenous words were Hispanicized or Anglicized. However, use of the ancient syllabary has declined, and not much literature written in it has survived.

Pangasinan Literature[edit]

Pangasinan was preserved and kept alive despite the propagation of the Spanish and English languages. Pangasinan written and oral literature flourished during the Spanish and American period. Writers like Juan Saingan, Felipe Quintos, Narciso Corpus, Antonio Solis, Juan Villamil, Juan Mejía, and María C. Magsano continued to write and publish in Pangasinan. Felipe Quintos, a Pangasinan officer of the Katipunan, wrote Sipi Awaray: Gelew Diad Pilipinas (Revolución Filipina), a history of the Katipunan revolutionary struggle in Pangasinan and surrounding provinces. Narciso Corpus and Antonio Solis co-wrote Impanbilay na Manoc a Tortola, a short love story.

Juan Villamil translated José Rizal's Mi Ultimo Adiós in Pangasinan. Pablo Mejia edited Tunong, a news magazine, in the 1920s. He also wrote Bilay tan Kalkalar nen Rizal, a biography of Rizal. Magsano published Silew, a literary magazine. Magsano also wrote Samban Agnabenegan, a romance novel. Pangasinan Courier published articles and literary works in Pangasinan. Pioneer Herald published Sinag, a literary supplement in Pangasinan. Many Christian publications in Pangasinan are widely available.

Many Pangasinan are multilingual and proficient in English, Tagalog, and Ilokano, a neighboring language. However, the spread and influence of the other languages is contributing to the decline of the Pangasinan. Some Pangasinan are promoting the use of Pangasinan in the print and broadcast media, Internet, local governments, courts, and schools in Pangasinan. In April 2006, the creation of Pangasinan Wikipedia was proposed, which the Wikimedia Foundation approved for publication in the Internet.

Malinac ya Labi (Original Version)[edit]

This Pangasinan folk love song was composed by Julian Velasco.

Malinac ya Labi
Oras ya mareen
Mapalpalnay dagem
Katekep to’y linaew
Samit day koguip ko
Binangonan kon tampol
Ta pilit na pusok ya sika'y amamayoen
(Repeat)

Refrain:
Lalo la no bilay
No sikalay nanengneng
Napunas ya ami'y
Ermen ya akbibiten
No nodnonoten ko ra'y samit na ogalim
Agtaka nalingwanan
Anggad kaayos na bilay
(Repeat Refrain)

Pangasinan Folk Song: Malinak lay Labi[edit]

Malinak lay Labi
A night of calm
Oras la’y mareen
An hour of peace

Mapalpalna’y dagem
A gentle breeze
Katekep to’y linaew
Along with it is the dew

Samit da’y kugip ko
So sweet is my dream
Binangonan kon tampol
Suddenly I awake

Lapu’d say limgas mo
Because of your beauty
Sikan sika’y amamayoen
You are the only one I will love

Lalo la bilay
Best of all, my life
No sika la’y nanengne'ng
When it's you that I see

Napunas lan amin
All are wiped away
So ermen ya akbibiten
The sorrows that I bear

No nanonotan
When I remember
Ko la'y samit day ugalim
Of your sweet kindness

Ag ta ka nalingwanan
I will not forget you
Angga’d kauyos na bilay
Until life is gone

Our Father in Pangasinan[edit]

Ama mi wala ka'd tawen Nagalang so ngaran Mo Onsabi'd sikami panarian Mo Onorey linawam diad dalin onung ed tawen. Say kanen min inagew-agew Iter mo'd sikami ed agew aya Tan paandien Mo ray utang mi Onung na panamaandi mi'y utang day akautang ed sikami Tan ag Mo kami iter ya onabuloy ed tukso Ilaban Mo kami ed mauges. amen

List of foreign words[edit]

Most of the loan words in Pangasinan are Spanish, as the Philippines was ruled by Spain for more than 300 years. Examples are lugar (place), podir (power, care), kontra (from contra, against), birdi (verde, green), ispiritu ("espíritu", spirit), and santo (holy, saint).

Dictionaries and further reading[edit]

The following is a list of some dictionaries and references:

  • Lorenzo Fernández Cosgaya. Diccionario pangasinán-español and Vocabulario Hispano-pangasinán (Colegio de Santo Tomás, 1865). This is available in the Internet at the University of Michigan's Humanities Text Initiative.
  • Anastacio Austria Macaraeg. Vocabulario castellano-pangasinán (1898).
  • Mariano Pellicer. Arte de la lengua pangasinán o caboloan (1904).
  • Felixberto B. Viray. The Sounds and Sound Symbols of the Pangasinan Language (1927).
  • Corporación de PP. Dominicos. Pasion Na Cataoan Tin JesuChristo (U.S.T. Press, 1951).
  • Paciencia E. Versoza. Stress and Intonation Difficulties of Pangasinan Learners of English (1961).
  • Paul Morris Schachter. A Contrastive Analysis of English and Pangasinan (1968).
  • Richard A. Benton. Pangasinan Dictionary (University of Hawaii Press, 1971).
  • Richard A. Benton. Pangasinan Reference Grammar (University of Hawaii Press, 1971).
  • Richard A. Benton. Spoken Pangasinan (University of Hawaii Press, 1971).
  • Richard A. Benton. Phonotactics of Pangasinan (1972).
  • Ernesto Constantino. English-Pangasinan Dictionary (1975).
  • Julio F. Silverio. New English-Pilipino-Pangasinan Dictionary (1976).
  • Alta Grace Q. Garcia. Morphological Analysis of English and Pangasinan Verbs (1981).
  • Philippine Bible Society. Say Santa Biblia (Philippine Bible Society, 1982).
  • Philippine Bible Society. Maung A Balita Para Sayan Panaon Tayo (Philippine Bible Society and United Bible Societies, 1983).
  • Mario "Guese" Tungol. Modern English-Filipino Dictionary (Merriam Webster, 1993).
  • Church of Christ. Say Cancanta (Church of Christ, n.d.). Includes translations of English songs like "Joy to the World," and "What A Friend We Have in Jesus."
  • Emiliano Jovellanos. Pangasinan-English English-Pangasinan Dictionary (2002). The compilation has 20,000 entries.
  • Mel V. Jovellanos. Pangasinan-English English-Pangasinan Language Dictionary (Corpuz Press, Calasiao, Pangasinan, March 2007).
  • Traditional Folk Song. Malinak Lay Labi (Calm is the Night).

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Philippine Census, 2000. Table 11. Household Population by Ethnicity, Sex and Region: 2000
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Pangasinan". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  3. ^ Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.), 2005. "Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition.". 
  4. ^ Fox, James J. (August 19–20, 2004). "Current Developments in Comparative Austronesian Studies" (PDF). 
  5. ^ Greenhill, S. J., Blust. R, & Gray, R.D. (2003-2008). "The Austronesian Basic Vocabulary Database.". 

External links[edit]