|Type||Armoured Scout Car|
|Place of origin||France|
|Used by||See Operators|
|Wars||Portuguese Colonial War
Six Day War
Angolan Civil War
Lebanese Civil War
Salvadoran Civil War
Western Sahara War
Second Congo War
Second Sudanese Civil War
Operation Linda Nchi
|Weight||5.5 tonnes (6.1 short tons; 5.4 long tons)|
|Length||5.11 m (16 ft 9 in)|
|length||3.79 m (12 ft 5 in) (hull)|
|Width||1.97 m (6 ft 6 in)|
|Height||2.07 m (6 ft 9 in)|
|Crew||3 (commander, driver, gunner)|
|90mm GIAT F1 (20 rounds)
60mm Brandt mortar (53 rounds)
|7.62 mm MAS coaxial machine gun (2400 - 3800 rounds)|
|Engine||Panhard 1.99 l (121 cu in) Model 4 HD flat 4-cylinder air-cooled petrol
90 hp (67 kW) at 4,700 rpm
|Power/weight||16.36 hp/tonne (11.9 kW/tonne)|
|Fuel capacity||156 litres|
The Panhard AML-245 (Auto Mitrailleuse Légère, or "Light Gun Car") is a fast, long-ranged, and relatively cheap armoured car with excellent reconnaissance capability. Designed on a small, lightly armoured 4X4 chassis, it can carry a turret-mounted 90mm gun or a breech loading 60mm mortar for armament. The vehicle is considered a match for second-line and older tanks.
During the 1950s, the French Army used the Daimler Ferret in large numbers but decided to build their own armoured car and Panhard started the production of the AML in 1960. Since then over 4000 vehicles have been completed and manufacture continues for the export market. The AML 60/90 have been sold to over 30 countries. In addition to the French production, 1600 AML 60/90 were built under licence by South Africa under the name of Eland 60/90.
An armoured personnel carrier (APC) version was also introduced, the Panhard M3. The M3 and the AML share 95% of working parts, encouraging many countries to employ both the M3 and the AML in order to reduce operational costs.
Fitted with coil spring suspension and drum brakes, the AML lacks hydraulic assist on either brakes or steering; only front wheels steer. It also uses nitrogen-filled inner tubes (in this case Hutchinson V.P.-P.V.s), similar to the EBR, providing run-flat capability, on 16 in (41 cm)-diameter wheels; its 11 in (280 mm)-wide Michelin tires can be deflated to reduce ground pressure to as low as 70 to 110 kPa (10 to 16 psi).
At least 52 AML-90s were delivered to the Lebanese Army in 1970-72, and saw considerable action during the Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990). AMLs of the Irish Army (under UNIFIL) were also involved in actions against Lebanese factions at Atiri in South Lebanon in 1980. Two crew members received one of Ireland's highest military honours, the Military Medal for Gallantry, for their actions at Atiri.
In the Falklands War, the Argentines deployed 12 AML-90s from Escuadron de Exploracion Caballeria Blindada 181 (181st Armoured Cavalry Reconnaissance Squadron) and an unknown additional number from Escuadron de Exploracion Caballeria Blindada 10 near Port Stanley. During the Battle of Wireless Ridge the only armour versus armour engagement of the war was fought when these units encountered FV101 Scorpions and FV107 Scimitars of the Blues and Royals. The armoured cars were abandoned in Stanley after the conflict ended.
During the Toyota War, FANT's use of swift wheeled vehicles, including AML-90s, allowed Chadian forces to break through combined arms formations and cause severe damage before the slower Libyan tanks could track or engage their targets. The Panhards, deployed in concert with MILAN missile teams at strategic hill junctures, frequently ambushed T-55s at a range of under three hundred metres.
All the versions have a common configuration: the driver is seated in front with a two-seater turret on top. There is a door on each side and the power unit in the back.
- AML 60: 60 mm breech loading mortar and a 7.62 mm machine gun
- AML 60 HE 60-7: 60 mm breech loading mortar and 2 × 7.62 mm machine guns
- AML 60 HE 60-12: 60 mm breech loading mortar and a 12.7 mm machine gun
- AML 60 HE 60-20: 60 mm breech loading mortar and a 20 mm cannon
- AML 60 S530: self-propelled anti-aircraft weapon with dual 20 mm cannons used in Venezuela
- AML 90: Giat Industries' smoothbore 90 mm F1
- AML 90 Lynx: Hispano-Suiza designed turret with a rifled 90 mm GIAT F1 gun, night equipment of vision, and telemeters laser
- Eland 60: South African version of the AML 60 HE60-7
- Eland 90: South African version of the AML 90
- AML 20: Irish Army version which replaced the AML 60 armament with a 20mm cannon.
- Panhard M3: An armoured personnel carrier variant of the Panhard AML.
This section is about operators of the Panhard AML. For operators of the South African variant, see Eland Mk7.
- Algeria: 54 AML-60
- Argentina: 50 AML-90
- Bahrain: 23 AML-90
- Bosnia and Herzegovina: 10 AML-90
- Burkina Faso: 15
- Burundi: 30
- Cameroon: 31; ex-Bosnian Army
- Chad: 85; likely replaced by the Eland
- Côte d'Ivoire: 20
- Democratic Republic of the Congo
- Dominican Republic: 20 AML-90
- Djibouti: 24
- Gabon: 18
- Ecuador: 27
- El Salvador: 12 AML-90
- France: Over 1,000
- Iraq: 170 delivered between 1967 and 1976
- Kenya: 82; refurbished by an Israeli firm in 2007.
- Lebanon: 74
- Lesotho: 6 AML-90; 4 operational.
- Mauritania: 60, 39 AML-90 and 20 AML-60
- Morocco: 210
- Niger: 36
- Nigeria: 137
- Pakistan: AML-60
- Rwanda: 15
- Sahrawi Republic
- Saudi Arabia: 235; purchased from France in 1967 for $95,000,000.
- Senegal: 54
- Somalia: 15 AML-90
- Sudan: 6 AML-90
- Togo: 10
- Tunisia: 18
- United Arab Emirates: 90 AML-90
- Venezuela: 10
- Yemen: 15
- Amal Party: Inherited from the Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF).
- Angola: Likely captured from Portugal.
- Cambodia: 15 AML-60s in service between 1965 and 1975.
- FNLA: 1 AML-90; now on display at the Museu das Forças Armadas, Luanda.
- Ethiopia 56 AML-60
- FNLC: 1 AML-60, some AML-90s
- Ireland: All of the Irish Defence Forces' AML-90s were retired in 2013.
- Israel: 29 AML-90
- Lebanese Forces: 12 AML-90 inherited from the LAF.
- Libya: 20 AML-90
- Malaysia: 140 AML-60 and AML-90s
- Portugal: 56 AML-60, some AML-90s
- South Africa: 100 AMLs procured in 1962, swiftly replaced by Eland Mk2.
- Spain: 140 AML-60 and AML-90s
- UNITA: 4 AMLs acquired clandestinely through Zaire; saw service during the Angolan Civil War.
In popular culture
The Panhard AML has made some major film appearances, most notably in The Living Daylights, when two Moroccan army AML-90s were mocked up as Soviet reconnaissance vehicles pursuing Afghan Mujahadeen. These examples included mounted RPK machine guns and communications not dissimilar to those in the BRDM-2.
AMLs were first portrayed in the 1973 French thriller The Day of the Jackal, and 1974 Italian war film Finché c'è guerra c'è speranza, which featured an AML-90 of the Portuguese Armed Forces during the Guinea-Bissau War of Independence.
- Defence Update (International), 1984, Volume 1 Issue 48-58 p. 8.
- Tony Cullens. The Encyclopedia of World Military Weapons (1988 ed.). Crescent Books. p. 96. ISBN 978-0517653418.
- Christopher F. Foss. Jane's Tanks and Combat Vehicles Recognition Guide (2000 ed.). Harper Collins Publishers. p. 252. ISBN 978-0004724522.
- Christopher F. Foss. Jane's World Armoured Fighting Vehicles (1976 ed.). Macdonald and Jane's Publishers Ltd. p. 133. ISBN 0-354-01022 Check
- Ogorkiewicz, R. M. AFV Weapons Profile 039 Panhard Armoured Cars (Windsor, Berks: Profile Publications).
- David Miller. Conflict Iraq: Weapons and Tactics of the US and Iraqi Forces (2003 ed.). Salamander Books, Ltd. p. 88. ISBN 0-7603-1592-2.
- David Jordan. The History of the French Foreign Legion: From 1831 to Present Day (2005 ed.). Amber Books Ltd. p. 181. ISBN 1-59228-768-9.
- Christopher F. Foss. The illustrated encyclopedia of the world's tanks and fighting vehicles: a technical directory of major combat vehicles from World War I to the present day (1977 ed.). Chartwell Books. p. 93. ISBN 978-0890091456.
- Tokarev, Andrei; Shubin, Gennady. Bush War: The Road to Cuito Cuanavale : Soviet Soldiers' Accounts of the Angolan War (2011 ed.). Jacana Media (Pty) Ltd. pp. 128–130. ISBN 978-1-4314-0185-7.
- Zaloga, Tank battles of the Mid-East Wars (2003), p. 52.
- Otto Lehrack. America's Battalion: Marines in the first Gulf War (2005 ed.). The University of Alabama Press. pp. 188–89. ISBN 2004016593 Check
- Van der Bijl, Nicholas (2005) , Argentine Forces in the Falklands, Osprey Publishing, p. 23, ISBN 1-85532-227-7
- John Guzman. Reflections behind the Retina (2011 ed.). Xlibris Corporation. pp. 1–612. ISBN 9-781-4653-0943-3.
- Mario J. Azevedo. The Roots of Violence: A History of War in Chad (1998 ed.). Gordon and Breach Publishers. p. 90. ISBN 90-5699-583-9.
- "Trade Registers". Armstrade.sipri.org. Retrieved 2013-06-20.
- Double Misfortune - Deepening Human Rights Crisis in Chad
- "Panhard AML 60/90 Light Scout Car". militaryfactory.com. Retrieved 2013-05-02.
- AML-90 Véhicule blindé léger (Egypte)
- Quelques Idees, Plus Ou Moins Non-Conformistes, Sur Les Far/FDR
- Israeli arms transfers to sub-Saharan Africa
- Lesotho defence force gets new chief
- Pakistan: Military takes security of Airports, Prisons and Defence Installations
- Panhard AML 60/90 Light Armored Scout Car (1960)
- IISS Military Balance 1989-90, Brassey's for the IISS, 1989, 113.
- "Panhard AFV Family". Jason W. Henson. Retrieved 2013-06-20.
- Richard Lobban, Jr. Global Security Watch: Sudan (2010 ed.). Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 182. ISBN 978-0-313-35332-1.
- Micheletti, Bataille d'artillerie, RAIDS magazine (1989), p. 34.
- Collelo, Thomas. Angola: A Country Study. pp. 237–317.
- Culture Clash: The Influence of Behavioural Norms on Military Performance in Asymmetric Conflicts
- Selected Short Stories from Billy
- Gilbert, Adrian. Voices of the Foreign Legion: The History of the World's Most Famous Fighting Corps. Skyhorse Publishing 2010. ISBN 978-1616080327
- Nachum Baruchy: The Hare'l (10th) Armoured Brigade In The Six Day War. Ariel Publishing, Jerusalem. 2010 (In Hebrew). Baruchy States that the 10th Brigade had one company (9 vehicles) of Panhard AML's.
- Military Operations in Selected Lebanese Built-Up Areas, 1975 - 1978
- Willem Steenkamp. Borderstrike! South Africa Into Angola 1975-1980 (2006 ed.). Just Done Productions. p. 35. ISBN 1-920169-00-8.
- Stephen Zaloga. T-34-85 Medium Tank 1944-94 (2011 ed.). Osprey Publishing. p. 40. ISBN 1-85532-535-7.
- Nortje, Piet (2003). 32 Battalion. Zebra Press. p. 97. ISBN 978-1-86872-914-2.
- Christopher F. Foss, Jane's Tank and Combat Vehicle Recognition Guide, HarperCollins Publishers, London 2002. ISBN 0-00-712759-6
- Ogorkiewicz, R. M. AFV Weapons Profile 039 Panhard Armoured Cars. Windsor, Berks: Profile Publications.
- Peter Gerard Locke & Peter David Farquharson Cooke, Fighting Vehicles and Weapons of Rhodesia 1965-80, P&P Publishing, Wellington 1995 ISSN 0-473-02413-6
- Steven J. Zaloga, Tank battles of the Mid-East Wars (2): The wars of 1973 to the present, Concord Publications, Hong Kong 2003. ISBN 962-361-613-9
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