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Panhispanism is a political trend aimed to achieve social, economic, and political cooperation (at the extreme, unification) of the Spanish-speaking countries, principally those of Hispanic America, due to the distance between Spain and Equatorial Guinea. It focuses principally on the former Spanish Empire's territories in North, Central and South America. It has been present consistently in literature, revolutionary movements, and political institutions. The term may be also used to talk specifically about projects of Hispanic American unity held by Simón Bolívar and José de San Martín.
The Spanish colonization of America began in 1492, and ultimately was part of a larger historical process of world colonialism, through which various European powers incorporated a considerable amount of territory and peoples in the Americas, Asia, and Africa between the 15th and 20th centuries. Hispanic America became the main part of the vast Spanish Empire.
Napoleon's takeover of Spain in 1808 and the consequent chaos initiated the dismemberment of the Spanish Empire, as the American territories began their struggle for emancipation. By 1830, the only remaining Spanish American colonies were Philippine archipelago and the islands of Cuba and Puerto Rico, until the 1898 Spanish–American War.
- Fernando Ortiz y la polémica del panhispanismo y el panamericanismo en el siglo XX en Cuba (in Spanish)
- El Sueño de la Madre Patria, (The Dream of the Mother Country) written by Isidro Sepúlveda Muñoz (in Spanish)
- Portal de Mercosur