Duchy of Pannonia

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790–925(?) Coats of arms of None.svg
Pannonian Croatia under Braslav
Capital Siscia
Government Duchy
Historical era Middle Ages
 -  Established 790
 -  Disestablished 925(?)
Today part of  Croatia
 Bosnia and Herzegovina
Pannonian Croatia under Braslav (among other Slavic states) according to Hungarian historian Dr. Márki Sándor
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The Duchy of Pannonia, often referred to as (the Principality of) Pannonian Croatia (Croatian: Panonska Hrvatska), or Southern Pannonia, Transsavian Croatia, or just Pannonia[note 1] was a medieval duchy from the 8th to the 10th century located in the Pannonian Plain approximately between the rivers Drava and Sava in today's Croatia, but at times also considerably to the south of the Sava. Its capital was Sisak. Eastern parts of principality extended to Syrmia region in present-day Serbia according to Hungarian historian Sándor Márki (1853-1925).[3]


As early as in under the Roman emperor Diocletian (284-305), Pannonia was divided into 4 provinces, one of which was Pannonia Savia (or simply Savia). Its capital was Siscia (Sisak). Its northern border was constituted by the River Drava.


Slavs came to the territory of Savia in the late 6th century, as evidenced by many archeological finds. According to De administrando imperio, at the time of the rule of Emperor Herakleios (610-640), Croats arrived in Dalmatia, founded a duchy there and, shortly afterward, a part of them went to the north to Savia and founded another duchy there (Pannonian Croatia).

In the late 7th century or in the 8th century, Savia became vassalaged to/part of the Avar Khaganate, as archaeological finds suggest. After the defeat of the Avar Khaganate by Frankish troops, a certain Croat Vojnomir was assigned Savia as a vassal of the Frankish margrave of Friuli.[4] Savia failed to end Frankish domination during a rebellion under local Croatian Duke Ljudevit Posavski in the early 9th century.

In 827, the Bulgarians invaded and conquered Savia and parts of territories to the north of Savia. In 829 they imposed a local Duke Ratimir as the new ruler of Pannonian Croatia in their name, the Franks however claimed the territory, which in their view belonged (since 827) to the March of Carantania and thus under the rule of Count Radbod, who had been head of the March of Pannonia and March of Carinthia since 828.

In 838, Ratbod deposed Ratimir and subordinated Savia to the Frankish March of Carantania. Another known ruler of Savia was Braslav, who ruled there in 880-898/900, still vassalaged to the Kingdom of East Francia.

In the 10th century, under Prince/King Tomislav, Pannonian Croatia was united with Dalmatian Croatia to form the Kingdom of Croatia.[5]


See also[edit]


  1. ^ The term "Pannonian Croatia" (Panonska Hrvatska) has been used by older Croatian historians to describe this entity in a manner that emphasizes its Croatian nature.[1] Contemporary sources did not actually use the Croatian name as such until the latter half of the 9th century, rendering the name anachronistic before then.[1][2]


  1. ^ a b Gračanin, 2008
  2. ^ Goldstein, 1985, pp. 241–242
  3. ^ Map of Central Europe based on Sándor Márki's work
  4. ^ Mediaeval Academy of America (1945). Speculum. University of California. p. 230. 
  5. ^ "Opća enciklopedija JLZ". Yugoslavian Lexicographical Institute (Zagreb). 1982. 


External links[edit]