Duchy of Pannonia
Pannonian Croatia under Braslav
|Historical era||Middle Ages|
|Today part of|| Croatia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
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|History of Croatia|
The Duchy of Pannonia, often referred to as (the Principality of) Pannonian Croatia (Croatian: Panonska Hrvatska), or Southern Pannonia, Transsavian Croatia, or just Pannonia[note 1] was a medieval duchy from the 8th to the 10th century located in the Pannonian Plain approximately between the rivers Drava and Sava in today's Croatia, but at times also considerably to the south of the Sava. Its capital was Sisak. Eastern parts of principality extended to Syrmia region in present-day Serbia according to Hungarian historian Sándor Márki (1853-1925).
As early as in under the Roman emperor Diocletian (284-305), Pannonia was divided into 4 provinces, one of which was Pannonia Savia (or simply Savia). Its capital was Siscia (Sisak). Its northern border was constituted by the River Drava.
Slavs came to the territory of Savia in the late 6th century, as evidenced by many archeological finds. According to De administrando imperio, at the time of the rule of Emperor Herakleios (610-640), Croats arrived in Dalmatia, founded a duchy there and, shortly afterward, a part of them went to the north to Savia and founded another duchy there (Pannonian Croatia).
In the late 7th century or in the 8th century, Savia became vassalaged to/part of the Avar Khaganate, as archaeological finds suggest. After the defeat of the Avar Khaganate by Frankish troops, a certain Croat Vojnomir was assigned Savia as a vassal of the Frankish margrave of Friuli. Savia failed to end Frankish domination during a rebellion under local Croatian Duke Ljudevit Posavski in the early 9th century.
In 827, the Bulgarians invaded and conquered Savia and parts of territories to the north of Savia. In 829 they imposed a local Duke Ratimir as the new ruler of Pannonian Croatia in their name, the Franks however claimed the territory, which in their view belonged (since 827) to the March of Carantania and thus under the rule of Count Radbod, who had been head of the March of Pannonia and March of Carinthia since 828.
In 838, Ratbod deposed Ratimir and subordinated Savia to the Frankish March of Carantania. Another known ruler of Savia was Braslav, who ruled there in 880-898/900, still vassalaged to the Kingdom of East Francia.
- Vojnomir (c. 790 - c. 800 / 791 - c. 810)
- Ljudevit Posavski (810 - 823)
- Ratimir (829 - 838)
- Braslav (880 - c. 887/900)
- The term "Pannonian Croatia" (Panonska Hrvatska) has been used by older Croatian historians to describe this entity in a manner that emphasizes its Croatian nature. Contemporary sources did not actually use the Croatian name as such until the latter half of the 9th century, rendering the name anachronistic before then.
- Goldstein, Ivo (May 1985). "Ponovno o Srbima u Hrvatskoj u 9. stoljeću". Historijski zbornik (in Croatian) (Savez povijesnih društava Hrvatske, Faculty of Philosophy, Zagreb). XXXVII (1). Retrieved 2012-07-27.
- Gračanin, Hrvoje (June 2008). "Od Hrvata pak koji su stigli u Dalmaciju odvojio se jedan dio i zavladao Ilirikom i Panonijom: Razmatranja uz DAI c. 30, 75-78". History Teaching (in Croatian) (Croatian Historical Society) VI (11 (1)). ISSN 1334-1375. Retrieved 2012-07-27.