List of ancient tribes in Illyria

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This is a list of ancient tribes in the ancient territory of Illyria (Ancient Greek: Ἰλλυρία). The name Illyrians seems to be the name of a single Illyrian tribe that was the first to come into contact with the ancient Greeks, causing the name Illyrians to be applied to all people of similar language and customs.[1] The locations of Illyrian tribes/peoples prior to the Roman conquest are approximate, as sometimes many wholly different locations are given by ancient writers and modern authors (as in the case of the Encheleans).

After the Great Illyrian Revolt, the Romans deported,[2] split,[3] and resettled Illyrian tribes within Illyria itself and to Dacia, sometimes causing whole tribes to vanish and new ones to be formed from their remains, such as the Deraemestae and the Docleatae, some of them mixed with Celtic tries (see Celticization). Many tribal names are known from Roman civitates and the number of their decuriae,[4] formed of the dispersed tribes in Illyria.

Distribution of Illyrian tribes in antiquity in the borders with Greeks and Thracians
Illyrian tribes in antiquity (before Roman conquest)
Tribes in Illyricum and environs in AD 6, the year of the Great Illyrian revolt, post Roman conquest

Tribes[edit]

Illyrian[edit]

Albani[edit]

Main article: Albanoi

Albani or Albanoi (Greek: Ἀλβανοί) were an Illyrian tribe whose first historical account appears in a work of Ptolemy,.[5] the citizens of Albanopolis (Ἀλβανόπολις), in the region lying to the east of the Ionian sea, and in the center of modern Albania, near the city of Krujë. It is believed that they are related to the modern Albanians, but it is not at all certain.[6]

Ardiaei[edit]

Main article: Ardiaei

Ardiaei or Ouardiaei (Greek Ἀρδιαῖοι or Οὐαρδαῖοι; Latin Vardiaei[7]), was an Illyrian tribe, residing inland,[8] that eventually settled[9] on the Adriatic coast. The Ardiaei had 20 decuriae. The Ardiaean dynasty ruled over the Illyrian Kingdom.

Autariatae[edit]

Main article: Autariatae

Autariatae or Autariates (Greek Αὐταριάται) was an Illyrian tribe that became prominent between the 6th and 4th centuries BC. The tribe had been Celticized.[10]

Bathiatae[edit]

Bathiatae[11] was an Illyrian tribe.

Bylliones[edit]

Bylliones (Greek Βυλλίονες) was an Illyrian tribe[12] They were affected by a partial cultural Hellenisation.[13]

Deretini[edit]

Deretini or Derriopes (Greek Δερρίοπες) was an Illyrian tribe[14] in Narona conventus with 14 decuriae.

Cavii[edit]

Cavii (Latin Cavi) was an Illyrian tribe.[15] They lived close to lake Skodra. Their main settlement was Epicaria.[16] They are mentioned rarely by ancient writers.[17]

Chelidones[edit]

Chelidones (Greek Χελιδόνες) was an Illyrian tribe[18] whose name in Greek meant 'snail-men'.

Daorsi[edit]

Main article: Daorson

Daorsi or Duersi or Daorsii or Daorsei (Greek Δαόριζοι, Δαούρσιοι) was an Illyrian tribe.[19] Another name of the tribe was Daversi.[20] The Daorsi had suffered attacks[21] from the Delmatae that made them along with Issa[22] seek the aid of the Roman state. The Daorsi fought on the Roman side, providing them with their strong navy abandoning Caravantius. After the Illyrian Wars, the Daorsi were given immunity. Their most important city was Daorson. They had 17 decuriae.

Dassareti[edit]

Dassareti[23] (Greek Δασσαρῆται) was an Illyrian tribe. They were located between the Dardani and the Ardiaei.[24] Appian of Alexandria wrote in his Illyrian wars that according to the Ancient Greeks, Illyrius, the ancestor of the Illyrians, had a daughter, Dassaro, from whom sprang the Dassareti.[25]

Deuri[edit]

Deuri (Greek Δερβανοί)[26] was an Illyrian tribe.[27] Other possible names are Derrioi and Derbanoi.[28] The Deuri had 25 decuriae.

Dyestes[edit]

Dyestes or Dyestae (Greek Δυέσται[29]) was an Illyrian tribe[30] located around the silver mines of Damastion. Only Strabo passingly mentions this tribe.

Kinambroi[edit]

Kinambroi (Greek Κινάμβροι) was an Illyrian tribe.They surrendered to Octavian in 33 BC.[28]

Enchelei[edit]

The Enchelei or Sesarethii[31] (Greek Ἐγχελεῖς, Σεσαρηθίους (accusative of *Σεσαρήθιοι)[32]) were an Illyrian tribe.[33] Their name, given by the Greeks, meant "eel-men". In Greek mythology,[34] Cadmus and Harmonia ruled over them. Several locations are hypothesized for the Encheleans: around Lake Ohrid;[35] above Lake Ohrid or the region of Lynkestis south of the Taulantii.[36]

Main article: Enchele

Melcumani[edit]

Melcumani or Merromenoi or Melkomenioi (Greek Μελκομένιοι) was an Illyrian tribe.[37] The Melcumani had 24 decuriae.

Narensi[edit]

Narensi or Narensii or Narensioi (Greek Ναρήνσιοι[38]) or Naresioi or Naresii (Greek Ναρήσιοι) was the name of a newly[39] formed Illyrian tribe[40] from various peoples at the river Naron. The Narensi had 102 decuriae.

Penestae[edit]

Penestae (Greek: Πενέσται) was the name of an Illyrian tribe.[41] Their chief town was Uscana.

Sardeates[edit]

Sardeates or Sardiotai (Latin Sardeates) was an Illyrian tribe close to Jajce.[27] Sardeates were later settled in Dacia.[42] The Sardeates had 52 decuriae.

Selepitani[edit]

Selepitani (Latin Selepitani) was an Illyrian tribe located below the Lake Scutari.

Dalmatae[edit]

Dalmatae were an ancient Illyrian tribe. They were later Celticized.[43][44] The Delmatae had 342 decuriae.

Main article: Dalmatae

Baridustae[edit]

Baridustae were an Illyrian tribe that was later settled in Dacia[42] along with Pirustae and Sardeates.The Baridustae was a Dalmatian tribe.[45]

Docleatae[edit]

Docleatae or Dokleatai (Greek: Δοκλεάται) were an Illyrian tribe that lived in what is now Montenegro. Their capital was Doclea[46] (or Dioclea), and they are called after the town. They had settle west of the Morača river, up to Montenegro's present-day borders with Herzegovina. The Docleatae were prominent for their cheese, which was exported to various Roman provinces within the Roman Empire.[47] They were composed of parts of the Taulantii, the Pleraei or Pyraei, Endirudini, Sasaei, Grabaei, Labeatae[28] that came together after the Great Illyrian revolt. The Docleatae had 33 decuriae.

Pleraei[edit]

Pleraei or Pyraei or Palarioi (Greek: Παλάριοι) was the name of an Illyrian tribe.[48]

Endirudini[edit]

Endirudini or Enderini Interphrourinoi (Greek: Ιντερφρουρῖνοι[49]) was the name of an Illyrian tribe that became part of the Docleatae.[28] They were located on the east of lake Scodra at Enderon near Niksic.[contradiction]

Sasaei[edit]

Sasaei was the name of an Illyrian tribe that became part of the Docleatae.[28]

Grabaei[edit]

Grabaei or Kambaioi (Greek: Καμβαῖοι[49]) were a minor Illyrian group that lived around Lake Scutari.[50]

Labeates[edit]

Labeates or Labeatae (Greek: Λαβεάται) was an Illyrian tribe that lived (after being defeated by Parmenio) around Scodra.[51]

Deraemestae[edit]

Deraemestae or Deraemistae (Latin Deraemistae) was the name of an Illyrian tribe.[52] The Deraemestae was composed of parts[53] of several other tribes such as the Ozuaei, Taulantii, Partheni, Hemasini, Arthitae and Armistae. The Deramestae had 30 decuriae.

Oxuaioi[edit]

Ozuaei or Oxuaioi (Greek: Ὀξυαῖοι[49]) was the name of one of the tribes comprising the Deramestae.[53]

Hemasini[edit]

Hippasinoi or Hemasini (Greek: Ἱππασῖνοι)[54] was the name of one of the tribes comprising the Deramestae.[53]

Arthitae[edit]

Arthitae was the name of one of the tribes comprising the Deramestae.[53]

Armistae[edit]

Armistae was the name of one of the tribes comprising the Deramestae.[53]

Taulantii[edit]

Tribes in southern Illyris and Epirus.
Main article: Taulantii
See also: Galaurus

Taulantii (Greek Ταυλάντιοι) was the name of a cluster[55] of Illyrian tribes. According to Greek mythology Taulas (Tαύλας), one of the six sons of Illyrius, was the eponymous ancestor of the Taulanti.[56] They lived on the Adriatic coast of Illyria (modern Albania), between to the vicinity[57] of the city of Epidamnus (modern Durrës). This tribe played an important role in Illyrian history of the 4th-3rd centuries BC,when King Glaukias (335 BC- 302 BC) ruled over them. This tribe had become bilingual being under the effects of an early Hellenisation.[13] Taulantii could prepare mead, wine from honey like the Abri.[58]

Abri[edit]

Abri (Greek: Ἄβροι) were an Illyrian tribe.[59] They could prepare mead, a wine from honey, and were known to the Greeks for that method. They were Taulantii and affected by Hellenisation.[13]

Parthini[edit]

The Parthini or Partheni or Peerthenetai (Greek Παρθῖνοι, Παρθηνοί) [60] were Illyrians, part of the Taulantii[61] who may be placed to the north in the mountainous[62] neighborhood of Epidamnus, and thus, next to the Taulantii. After the death of Philip, king of Macedon, they appear to have been added to the dominions of Pleuratus, an Illyrian prince allied to the Romans.[63] Their principal town was Parthus[64] which was taken by Caesar in the course of his campaign with Pompeius.[65] The double-hilled Dimale, the strongest among the Illyrian places, with two citadels on two heights, connected by a wall,[66] was within their territory. There is no indication, however, of its precise situation, which was probably between Lissus and Epidamnus. Livy (59 BC – 17 AD), mentions[67] two other fortesses: Eugenium and Bargulum. They had been affected by Hellenisation.[13]

Pannonian tribes[edit]

Dalmatians, Liburni, Venetic groups, Pannonian groups and Celts in Pannonia

Pannonians (Latin: Pannonii, Ancient Greek: Παννόνιοι) was a common name for a group of culturally similar tribes cognate to Illyrians, who inhabited the southern part of what was later known as Roman province of Pannonia, south of the river Drava (Dravus), and the northern part of the future Roman province of Dalmatia. The Pannonian tribes appear to have been Celticized.[68][69] Later, a number of Pannonians settled in Dacia.[70]

The Pannonians were not definitely subdued within the province of Illyricum until the Great Illyrian Revolt, which started in 6 AD when the Pannonians, together with the Dalmatians and other Illyrian tribes, revolted, and engaged the Roman Empire in a hard-fought campaign that lasted for three years, when they were finally overcome by the future emperor Tiberius and Germanicus in 9 AD. At that point, the province of Illyricum was dissolved, and its lands were divided between the new provinces of Pannonia in the north and Dalmatia in the south. The date of the division is unknown, most certainly after 20 AD but before 50 AD.

The Pannonian tribes inhabited the area between the river Drava and the Dalmatian coast. Early archaeology and onomastics show that they were culturally different from southern Illyrians, Iapodes, and the La Tene peoples commonly known as the Celts, though they were later Celticized. However, there are some cultural similarities between the Pannonians and Dalmatians. Many of the Pannonians lived in areas with rich iron ore deposits, so that iron mining and production was an important part of their economy before and after the Roman conquest. Apart from Segestica, the Pannonians did not have settlements of importance in pre-Roman times[71] that were actually Celtic. Ancient sources (Strabo, Pliny the Elder, Appian of Alexandria) mention few of the Pannonian[72] tribes by name, and historians and archaeologists have located some of them. Those tribes were:

Amantini[edit]

Amantini (Greek Ἄμαντες) was the name of a Pannonian[73] Illyrian tribe.[74] They greatly resisted the Romans but were sold as slaves after their defeat.[75] The Amantini were close to Sirmium[76] but the tribe was probably present in southern areas as well due to the existence of a city name Amantia.[77] This would make the southern Amantini the southernmost Illyrian tribe.

Breuci[edit]

Breuci (Greek Βρεῦκοι) were Illyrians of the subtribe of Pannonians.[72] They greatly resisted the Romans but were sold as slaves after their defeat.[75] They started receiving Roman citizenship during Trajan's rule. It is likely that the name of the north-eastern Bosnian city Brčko is derived from the name of this tribe.[78] A number of Breuci settled in Dacia.[79]

Bato of the Breuci tribe and Pinnes from Pannonia were among the leaders of the Great Illyrian Revolt, together with Baton of the Daesitiates from Dalmatia.[80]

Colapiani[edit]

Colapiani was the name of an Illyrian[81] tribe. The Colapiani were created from the Pannonian Breuci[82] along with the Osseriates and the Celtic Varciani.[citation needed] They lived in the central and southern White Carniola, along the Kupa river, and were mentioned by Pliny the Elder and Ptolemy.[83] The archeologists Jaro Šašel and Dragan Božič have attributed the Vinica material culture to Colapiani,[84] but opinions are divided.[85]

Daesitiates[edit]

Daesitiates or Daezitiates were an Illyrian tribe that lived in what is today Bosnia and Herzegovina during the time of the Roman Republic. Along with the Maezaei, the Daesitiates belonged to the Pannonians.[86] They were prominent from the end of the 4th century BC up until the beginning of the 3rd century AD. Evidence of their daily activities can be found in literary sources, as well as in the rich material finds that belong to the autochthonous Middle-Bosnian cultural group. Because the Daesitiates were present during Roman rule in the western Balkans, their name can be found in many inscriptions and historical works of ancient writers. During the 19th century, scientific interest in the Daesitiates materialized whereby research was focused in parts of Upper Bosnia. However, all research efforts have yet to provide a complete analysis of the Daesitiates. The Daesitiates were unquestionably one of the main components of the Illyrian ethno-cultural complex that stretched from the southern Adriatic to the Danube in the north. They specifically lived in the centre of the Illyrian West-Balkan and Pannonian world. The capital of the tribe was the modern day town of Breza located in Bosnia. One of the few buildings left that's left in Breza is the old Basilica.

After nearly three centuries of political independence, the Daesitiates (and their polity) were conquered by Roman Emperor Augustus. Afterwards, the Daesitiates were incorporated into the province of Illyricum with a low total of 103 decuriae.[87]

Ultimately, the widening gap between the Roman government and its subjects in Illyricum led to the Great Illyrian revolt, which began in the spring of 6 AD. The Daesitiates were the first to revolt under the leadership of Bato I and were soon joined by the Breuci. Other natives were recruited to fight against the Marcomanni while the rebellion swiftly overtook enormous areas of the western Balkans and the Danube region.[88] The role of the Daesitiates in the rebellion was immense, which contributed to their ultimate disappearance.

Pirustae[edit]

Pirustae or Peiroustai or Pyrissaioi or Piroustai[89] (Greek Πειροῦσται[90] or Πυρισσαῖοι[49]) were an Pannonian Illyrian[91] tribe that lived in modern Montenegro. According to some sources, they had also lived in territories outside of modern-day Montenegro, but the majority of archaeologists, including the famous British archaeologist Sir Arthur Evans, say that the Pirustae had lived in northern Montenegro, around present-day Pljevlja and that they were prominent miners. Their prominence in mining has been seen in epigraphic monuments from Dacia's mining regions.[92] Pirustae along with other Pannonians and Illyrians like the Sardeates were later settled in Dacia (modern-day Romania).[42][93]

Scirtari[edit]

Scirtari or Scirtones were an Illyrian tribe.[94] Scirtari were part of the Pirustae.[39] The Scirtari had 72 decuriae.

Glintidiones[edit]

Glintidiones or Glinditiones (Greek Γλιντιδίωνες) were an Illyrian[95] tribe. The Glintidiones may have been part of the Pirustae.[39] The Glintidiones had 44 decuriae.

Ceraunii[edit]

Ceraunii or Keraunioi (Greek Κεραύνιοι) was the name of an Illyrian tribe that lived close to the Pirustae[96] in modern Montenegro. The Ceraunii were part of the Pirustae.[39] They had 24 decuriae.[97]

Siculotae[edit]

Siculotae or Sikoulotai (Latin Siculotae) were an Illyrian tribe.[98] The Siculotae were part of the Pirustae.[39] The Siculotae had 24 decuriae.

Segestani[edit]

Segestani (Greek Σεγεστανοί) were Illyrians of the subtribe of Pannonians who inhabited the area around Segestica (modern-day Sisak in Croatia).[99]

In the 2nd century BC, the Segestani were attacked without lasting success by consuls Lucius Aurelius Cotta and an unidentified Cornelius.

In 35 BC, the Segestani were attacked by Augustus, who conquered and occupied Siscia.

Maezaei[edit]

Maezaei or Maizaioi or Mazaioi (Greek Μαζαῖοι) were Illyrians of the subtribe of Pannonians.[100] The Maizaioi had 269 decuriae.

Andizetes[edit]

Andizetes, also referred to as Andisetes (Greek Ἀνδιζήτιοι), was a small Illyrian tribe that lived in the territory of present day Bosnia and Herzegovina. Not much is known about this tribe except that it is found on the list of Illyrian tribes made by ancient Romans, against whom the Illyrians put up a heroic resistance, perhaps best portrayed during the Great Illyrian Revolt for freedom-the legendary Baton's uprising. The personal name of Andes, popular among the Illyrians of southern Pannonia and much of northern Dalmatia (corresponding roughly with modern Bosnia and Herzegovina), as it seems, derived from the name of this tribe. Another variant of this widespread personal Illyrian name is Andis.[101] They started receiving Roman citizenship during Trajan's rule.[102] They were Pannonians.[103][104]

Azali[edit]

Azali (Greek: Ἄζαλοι) was the name of an Illyrian[105] tribe. After the Great Illyrian Revolt the Azali were deported by the Romans.[2] They were Pannonians.

Ditiones[edit]

Ditiones (Greek: Διτίωνες) were Illyrians of the subtribe of Pannonians.[72] The Ditiones had 239 decuriae.

Jasi[edit]

Jasi was the name of an Illyrian tribe[74][106] subtribe of Pannonians.

Oseriates[edit]

Osseriates[107] (Latin Oseriates), along with the Celtic Varciani and the Colapiani, were created from the Pannonian Breuci.

Illyrii Proprie Dicti[edit]

Illyrii Proprie Dicti[108] were the Illyrians proper, so called by Pliny (23–79 AD) in his Natural History. They later formed the Docleatae. They were the Taulantii, the Pleraei or Pyraei, the Endirudini, Sasaei, Grabaei, Labeatae. Illyrians proper were also some of the native communities of Roman Dalmatia.[109]

Thracian-Illyrian[edit]

Dardanians prior to Roman conquest

Atintani[edit]

"Atintani" redirects here. For the ancient Greek tribe, see Atintanians.

Atintani (Greek: Ατιντάνι) were a tribe in Illyria, north of Via Egnatia. Appian (95 – 165 AD) mentions them close to Epidamnus.[110] During the Illyrian Wars, the Atintani went over to the Romans and, according to Appian, Demetrius of Pharos tried to detach them from Roman authority. The Atintani seem to have originated from the obscure, perhaps Thracian Tynteni, only attested in coins.[111] The Atintani were ruled by the Thracian dynasty of the Peresadyes.[112]

Phrygian[edit]

Celtic[edit]

Dacian[edit]

Greek[edit]

Liburnian[edit]

In the early historical sources from the 8th century BC, the Liburnians were recorded by name or as separate ethnic groups; and as early as the 6th century BC, Hecateus noted that the Liburnians were also composed of Caulici, Mentores, Syopii and Hythmitae, probably narrow tribal communities. Later, in the 3rd century BC, Callimachus mentioned Mentores, Hymanes, Enchealae and Peucetias as those who once had been a part of them, Ismeni were also recorded as one of their communities.[129]

Messapic[edit]

These tribes (Iapygian or Messapic tribes) did not dwell in Illyria, but in the heel of southern Italy. They could have had Illyrian origins[130] or some sort of link with Illyria.

Venetic[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ J. J. Wilkes, The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, p. 92
  2. ^ a b c J. J. Wilkes, The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, p. 217.
  3. ^ Alan Bowman, The Cambridge Ancient History, Vol. 10: The Augustan Empire, 43 BC – AD 69, ISBN 0-521-26430-8, 1996, p. 579.
  4. ^ Decuriae was a Roman term used by Elder Pliny in his Natural History completed in 70 AD based on official registers. Each civitas had a number of decuriae assigned to it as an indication of its size. A Roman division of native peoples. (J. J. Wilkes, The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, p. 215.)
  5. ^ William Smith, LLD, Ed., Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, 1854
  6. ^ "The genesis of the Balkan Peoples", Vladimir Georgiev, The Slavonic and East European Review 44, no. 103, 1960, pp. 285-297
  7. ^ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, page 216, "The Ardiaei, or Vardaei as they were known to the Romans, `once the ravagers of Italy' and now reduced to a mere"
  8. ^ Appian and Illyricum by Marjeta Šašel Kos, " The Ardiaei were certainly also settled in the hinterland, along the Naro River at least as far as the Konjic region..."
  9. ^ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, page 188, "probably the result of pressure from new Illyrian groups, including the Ardiaei and Delmatae, moving towards the Adriatic..."
  10. ^ Dalmatia Tome 2 of History of the provinces of the Roman Empire by J. J. Wilkes, 1969, page 400
  11. ^ Appian: Roman History, Vol. IV, The Civil Wars, Books 3.27-5 (Loeb Classical Library No. 5) by Appian and Horace White, 1979, Index: 69, 71; IL 4, 22. Bastitani, Spanish tribe, Sp. Mi. Bathiatae, Illyrian tribe
  12. ^ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, page 97, "Beginning in the south the first Illyrians near the coast were the Bylliones beyond the river Aous in the hinterland of Apollonia. Their hill-settlement developed later into the town of Byllis..."
  13. ^ a b c d The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume 6: The Fourth Century BC by D. M. Lewis (Editor), John Boardman (Editor), Simon Hornblower (Editor), M. Ostwald (Editor), ISBN 0-521-23348-8, 1994, page 423, "Through contact with their Greek neighbors some Illyrian tribe became bilingual (Strabo Vii.7.8.Diglottoi) in particular the Bylliones and the Taulantian tribes close to Epidamnus..."
  14. ^ Dalmatia Tome 2 of History of the provinces of the Roman Empire by J. J. Wilkes, 1969, page 157
  15. ^ The central Balkan tribes in pre-Roman times: Triballi, Autariatae, Dardanians, Scordisci and Moesians by Fanula Papazoglu, 1978, ISBN 90-256-0793-4, page 247, "...which appears in the name of the Illyrian tribe of the Cavii..."
  16. ^ The classical gazetteer: a dictionary of ancient geography, sacred and profane by William Hazlitt, 1851, "Epicaria a town of the Cavii in Illyria..."
  17. ^ Rome and the Mediterranean: books XXXI-XLV of The history of Rome from its foundation by Livy, Henry Bettenson, ISBN 0-14-044318-5, 1976, page 580
  18. ^ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, page 98, "...named by the sixth-century writer Hecataeus as neighbours of the Chelidones, the 'snail-men', who may have lived on their northern borders towards the Mat or Drin valleys."
  19. ^ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, From back matter: "Surveys of ships on coins of the Daors tribe..."
  20. ^ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, page 216, "...to the Romans, 'once the ravagers of Italy' and now reduced to a mere 20 decuriae, and the Daorsi or Daversi..."
  21. ^ I greci in Adriatico, Volume 2 by Lorenzo Braccesi, Mario Luni, page 152, "The Daorsi suffered directly from the attacks of the Delmatae and were understandably one of the first peoples to have left Gentius' half brother Caravantius and sought protection from the Roman state, placing their armed forces at the disposal of the Romans. After the war, they were rewarded by having been given immunity..."
  22. ^ The magistrates of the Roman Republic. Thomas Robert Shannon Broughton, 1960:446, "Head of a commission sent, after the receipt of complaints from Issa and the Daorsi, to observe conditions in Illyria and Dalmatia..."
  23. ^ The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume 6: The Fourth Century BC by D. M. Lewis (Editor), John Boardman (Editor), Simon Hornblower (Editor), M. Ostwald (Editor), 1994, ISBN 0-521-23348-8, page 423, "These Dassareti not to be confused with the Greek speaking Dexari or Dessaretae..."
  24. ^ The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume 6: The Fourth Century BC by D. M. Lewis (Editor), John Boardman (Editor), Simon Hornblower (Editor), M. Ostwald (Editor), 1994, ISBN 0-521-23348-8, page 423, "These Dassareti not to be confused with the Greek speaking Dexari or Dessaretae lay between the Dardani and the coastal people of the Ardiaei..."
  25. ^ Appian's History of Rome: The Illyrian Wars §2
  26. ^ Appianus, Illyrica, "...και Δερβανοί προσιόντα τον Καίσαρα συγγνώμην..."
  27. ^ a b Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, page 216, "...of southwest Bosnia, the Maezaei (269) of the Sana and Vrbas valleys, and the Sardeates (52) around Jajce and the Deuri (25) around Bugojno, both in the Vrbas valley."
  28. ^ a b c d e The Cambridge Ancient History, Vol. 10: The Augustan Empire, 43 BC-AD 69 (Volume 10) by Alan Bowman, Edward Champlin, and Andrew Lintott, 1996, page 577
  29. ^ VII.7.5, "...περί α Δυέσται συνεστήσαντο την δυναστείαν και Εγχέλειοι ους και Σεσαρέθιους καλούσι..."
  30. ^ Macedonia, Thrace and Illyria: their relations to Greece from the earliest... by Stanley Casson, page 321
  31. ^ Strabo, Geography (ed. H.C. Hamilton, Esq., W. Falconer, M.A.), book 7, chapter 7: "...had established their sway, and Encheleii, who are also called Sesarethii. Then come the Lyncestia, the territory Deuriopus, Pelagonia-Tripolitis..."
  32. ^ Strabo Geography, Book 7.7
  33. ^ John J. Wilkes, The Illyrians, 1996, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, p. 96: "The Enchelei are an Illyrian people, who inhabit the land after Rhizon. From Bouthoe to Epidamnus, a Greek city...".
  34. ^ Cadmus: "After having many children, Cadmus and Harmonia left Thebes in order to defend the Encheleans, a people living in southern Illyria, which is the region north of Epirus, and there defeated the Illyrian intruders..."
  35. ^ John J. Wilkes, The Illyrians; 1996, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, p. 98.
  36. ^ John J. Wilkes, The Illyrians, 1996, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, p. 99.
  37. ^ The Cambridge Ancient History by John Boardman, ISBN 0-521-26430-8, 1923, page 578, "Since they are listed among those peoples who submitted in 33 B.C. the Melcumani (24) are not likely to have lived any great distance from the coast. It has been suggested that they may..."
  38. ^ Gaius Plinius Secundus' Historiae naturalis, Liber 3
  39. ^ a b c d e The Cambridge Ancient History, Vol. 10: The Augustan Empire, 43 BC-AD 69 (Volume 10) by Alan Bowman, Edward Champlin, and Andrew Lintott, 1996, page 578
  40. ^ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5 page 216, "...destination of one of the military roads constructed from Salona after the end of the war in AD 9. The Narensi (102) of the same conventus are likely to be named from the river Naron/Narenta..."
  41. ^ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5 page 172
  42. ^ a b c ALBURNUS MAIOR (Roşia Montană) Alba, Romania., "An important settlement, center of gold mining in Roman Dacia Superior, in the Apuseni mountains. In the hills of Cetatea Mare and Cetatea Mică, traces are preserved of ancient Roman mines. Under Trajan, Dalinatian colonists (Pirustae, Baridustae, Sardeates) settled here, each tribe dwelling in a separate village or quarter."
  43. ^ The Oxford Classical Dictionary by Simon Hornblower and Antony Spawforth, 2003, page 426
  44. ^ A dictionary of the Roman Empire Oxford paperback reference, ISBN 0-19-510233-9, 1995, page 202, "...contact with the peoples of the Illyrian kingdom and at the Celticized tribes of the Delmatae..."
  45. ^ Roman Dacia: the making of a provincial society by W. S. Hanson, Ian Haynes, 2004, page 22, "Outside the main urban centres, the best attested group of civilian immigrants is members of the Dalmatian tribes such as the Baridustae..."
  46. ^ DOCLEA (Duklja) Crna Gora, Yugoslavia.
  47. ^ Istorijski leksion Crne Gore: Č-J ISBN 86-7706-167-3
  48. ^ Dalmatia Tome 2 of History of the provinces of the Roman Empire by J. J. Wilkes, 1969, page 32
  49. ^ a b c d Appianus, Illyrica, "Οξυαίους μεν δη και Περθεηνάτας, και Βαθιάτας και Ταυλαντίους, και Καμβαίους, και Κινάμβρους, και Μερρομένους, και Πυρισσαίους, είλε δι’ όλης πείρας, έργω δε μείζονι ελήφθησαν, και φόρους όσους εξέλιπον ηναγκάσθησαν αποδουναι, Δοκλεάται τε και Κάρνοι και Ιντερεφρουρίνοι και Ναρήσιοι και Γλιντιδίωνες και Ταυρίσκοι."
  50. ^ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, page 121, "...though some have suggested Grabus was his son and successor. His name suggests some connection with the Grabaei, a minor Illyrian people who lived on the southern Adriatic near the Lake of Shkodër."
  51. ^ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, page 172, "...area, including Oaneum on a river Aratus, which controlled the route leading west to the kingdom of Gentius among the Labeates around Scodra."
  52. ^ J. J. Wilkes, The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, p. 257: "In Popovopolje the Deraemestae may have been incorporated within the new municipium at Diluntum (Ljubinje). Several cities were created in the more remote regions"
  53. ^ a b c d e Alan Bowman, Edward Champlin, and Andrew Lintott, The Cambridge Ancient History, Vol. 10: The Augustan Empire, 43 BC – AD 69, 1996, p. 577: "...figure in the warfare of the second century B.C. The Deraemestae (30) were a new formation from several smaller peoples in the hinterland of Epidaurum including the Ozuaei, Partheni, Hemasini, Arthitae and Armistae."
  54. ^ J. J. Wilkes, Dalmatia, Tome 2 of History of the Provinces of the Roman Empire, 1969, p. 482.
  55. ^ The Cambridge ancient history,Tome 6 by John Boardman, ISBN 0-521-85073-8, 1994, page 423
  56. ^ Appian, The Foreign Wars, III, 1.2
  57. ^ Thucydides, The Peloponnesian War, 1.24.1, "The city of Epidamnus stands on the right of the entrance of the Ionic gulf. Its vicinity is inhabited by the Taulantians, an Illyrian people. The place is a colony from Corcyra, founded by Phalius, son of Eratocleides, of the family of the Heraclids, who had according to ancient usage been summoned for the purpose from Corinth, the mother country..."
  58. ^ Food in the Ancient World (Food through History) by Joan P. Alcock, ISBN 0-313-33003-4, 2005, page 91, "Aristotle described the process of making it by the Taulantii of Illyria, and Pliny commented on hydromeli made in Phrygia."
  59. ^ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, page 98, "...who may have belonged to the Taulantii, known to Greeks for their method of preparing mead from honey, were the Abri..."
  60. ^ Greek: Παρθηνοί, Παρθινοί, Παρθῖνοι, Strabo vii; Appian, Illyr. 1; Dio Cassius xli. 49; Cicero in Pis. 40; Pomponius Mela, ii. 3. § 11; Pliny iii. 26)
  61. ^ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, page 98, "North of Dassaretis in the middle and upper valley of the Genusus was the territory of the Illyrian Parthini, likely to have been part of the Taulantii until they first appear as Roman allies late in the third century..."
  62. ^ ugustus: The Life of Rome's First Emperor by Anthony Everitt,2006, page 144, "...he faced two challenges The first was posed by the Parthini an Illyrian tribe that occupied rough and mountain ous country..."
  63. ^ Polybius xviii. 30; Livy xxx. 34, xliv. 30.
  64. ^ Πάρθος, Stephanus of Byzantium s. v..
  65. ^ (Julius Caesar Commentarii de Bello Civili iii. 41.
  66. ^ Polybius iii. 18, vii. 9.
  67. ^ Liv. 29 12
  68. ^ Simon Hornblower and Antony Spawforth, The Oxford Classical Dictionary, 2003, p. 1106.
  69. ^ A. Mocsy, S. Frere, "Pannonia and Upper Moesia", A History of the Middle Danube Provinces of the Roman Empire, p. 152: "As already seen on Chapter 3 the Celtic and Celticized natives of Pannonia."
  70. ^ Ion Grumeza, Dacia: Land of Transylvania, Cornerstone of Ancient Eastern Europe, ISBN 0-7618-4465-1, 2009, p. 51: "In a short time the Dacians imposed their conditions on the Anerati, Boii, Eravisci, Pannoni, Scordisci..."
  71. ^ John T. Koch (2006). Celtic Culture. p. 1662. ISBN 1-85109-440-7.
  72. ^ a b c Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, page 203, "Papirius Carbo. Strabo (7.5, 3) identifies the Pannonian peoples as Breuci, Andizetes, Ditiones, Pirustae, Maezaei and Daesitiates."
  73. ^ Dalmatia Tome 2 of History of the provinces of the Roman Empire by J. J. Wilkes, 1969, page 534
  74. ^ a b Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, page 218, "Except for the Latobici and Varciani, whose names are Celtic, the civitates of Colapiani, Jasi, Breuci, Amantini and Scordisci were Illyrian."
  75. ^ a b Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, page 207, "The war was a savage affair and the main resistance to the Romans came from the Breuci and Amantini in the Sava valley. The young males were rounded up and sold as slaves in Italy, a quite exceptional action"
  76. ^ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, page 81, "the Breuci with Scilus Bato, Blaedarus, Dasmenus, Dasius, Surco, Sassaius, Liccaius and Lensus, and the Amantini and Scordisci around Sirmium with Terco and Precio, Dases and Dasmenus"
  77. ^ In An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis by Mogens Herman, ISBN 0-19-814099-1, 2004, page 342
  78. ^ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, page 256, "...reign of Trajan (AD 98-117), does the Roman citizenship begin to appear among the Illyrian communities of southeast Pannonia, the Andizetes, Scordisci and Breuci."
  79. ^ Dacia: Land of Transylvania, Cornerstone of Ancient Eastern Europe by Ion Grumeza, ISBN 0-7618-4465-1,2009, page 51, "Many Scordisci and Breuci settled in Dacia nevertheless and were eventually absorbed into the local population."
  80. ^ The Cambridge Ancient History, Vol. 10: The Augustan Empire, 43 BC-AD 69 (Volume 10) by Alan Bowman, Edward Champlin, and Andrew Lintott, 1996, page 176, "Daesitiates was soon matched by rebellion of the Breuci in Pannonia, headed by Pinnes and another Bato."
  81. ^ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, page 81, "In Roman Pannonia the Latobici and Varciani who dwelt east of the Venetic Catari in the upper Sava valley were Celtic but the Colapiani of the Colapis (Kulpa) valley were Illyrians..."
  82. ^ The Cambridge Ancient History, Vol. 10: The Augustan Empire, 43 BC-AD 69 (Volume 10) by Alan Bowman, ISBN 0-521-26430-8, 1996, page 579
  83. ^ Oto Luthar (2008). "Prehistory: History Created by Archaeology". The Land Between: A History of Slovenia. Peter Lang. p. 36. ISBN 978-3-631-57011-1. 
  84. ^ "Ljudje ob Krki in Kolpi v latenski dobi" [People Along Krka and Kolpa in the La Tène Period]. Arheološki vestnik (in Slovene, with a German and English abstract) (Institute of Archaeology, Slovenian Academy of Arts and Sciences) 52: 181–198. 2001. 
  85. ^ Weiss, Janez (2007). "Sprehod po zgodovini Črnomlja od konca bronaste dobe do novega veka" [The Walk Through the History of Črnomelj from the End of the Bronze Age to the Modern Era]. Črnomelj.si (in Slovene). Municipality of Črnomelj. 
  86. ^ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992, p. 80, ISBN 0-631-19807-5. Among the Pannonians within Roman Dalmatia the western groups, including the Maezaei and Daesitiates, exhibit few outside connections, and those are with Delmatae immediately to the south, though in Alföldy's view the two groups...
  87. ^ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, page 216
  88. ^ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992, p. 207, ISBN 0-631-19807-5. The rising began among the Daesitiates of central Bosnia under their leader Bato but they were soon joined by the Breuci. The four-year war which lasted...
  89. ^ Dalmatia Tome 2 of History of the provinces of the Roman Empire by J. J. Wilkes, 1969, page 155
  90. ^ Strabo's Geography 4.3
  91. ^ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, page 207, "...the imperial triumphs over individual peoples. Among the several Illyrian groups singled out were Japodes, Dardanians , Pannonian Andizetes and Pirustae."
  92. ^ Istorijski Leksilon Crne Gore: Č-J ISBN 86-7706-167-3
  93. ^ The Cambridge Ancient History Part 1 The Prehistory of the Balkans, the Middle East and the Aegean World, Tenth to Eighth Centuries BC, 2nd Edition, by John Boardman ISBN 978-0-521-22496-3 | ISBN 0-521-22496-9
  94. ^ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5 page 217, "... whose name deriving from the Greek for`thunderbolt' links them with high mountains, Siculotae (24), Glintidiones (44) and Scirtari, who dwelt along the border with Macedonia. In northeast Bosnia the Dindari are located by the record of one of..."
  95. ^ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, page 217, "...with high mountains, Siculotae (24), Glintidiones (44) and Scirtari, who dwelt along the border with Macedonia. In northeast Bosnia the Dindari are located by the record of one of their chiefs (principes) in the Drina valley..."
  96. ^ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, page 217, "Pirustae, who inhabited the high valleys of southeast Bosnia and northern Montenegro, seem to have been divided between the Ceraunii (24 decuriae)..."
  97. ^ Dalmatia Tome 2 of History of the provinces of the Roman Empire by J. J. Wilkes, 1969, page 485
  98. ^ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5 page 217, "...whose name deriving from the Greek for`thunderbolt' links them with high mountains, Siculotae (24), Glintidiones (44) and Scirtari, who dwelt along the border with Macedonia. In northeast Bosnia the Dindari are located by the record of one of ..."
  99. ^ Rome and the Barbarians, 100 B.C.--A.D. 400 by Thomas S. Burns, ISBN 0-8018-7306-1, 2003, page 200, "... Appian's account depicts a situation in which the inhabitants of Siscia (Σεγεστική Segestike, therefore "the Segestani") appealed in vain for aid from fellow Pannonians in their vicinity, but these people were reluctant to get involved, preferring..."
  100. ^ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, page 80, "Among the Pannonians within Roman Dalmatia the western groups, including the Maezaei and Daesitiates, exhibit few outside connections, and those are with Delmatae immediately to the south, though in Alföldy's view the two groups..."
  101. ^ Wilkes,John; The Illyrians, Oxford
  102. ^ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, page 256, "...reign of Trajan (AD 98-117), does the Roman citizenship begin to appear among the Illyrian communities of southeast Pannonia, the Andizetes,Scordisci and Breuci."
  103. ^ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, page 207
  104. ^ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, page 203: "...Papirius Carbo. Strabo (7.5, 3) identifies the Pannonian peoples as Breuci, Andizetes, Ditiones, Pirustae, Maezaei and Daesitiates"
  105. ^ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, p. 81: "in the northeast around Brigetio. These are likely to represent a people called the Azali, Illyrians transported there from southern Pannonia during the wars of conquest is Alföldy 1974 (Illyrian in Noricum)"
  106. ^ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, page 257, "Pannonian Illyrians include that of the Jasi..."
  107. ^ The Cambridge Ancient History, Vol. 10: The Augustan Empire, 43 BC-AD 69 (Volume 10) by Alan Bowman, Edward Champlin, and Andrew Lintott, 1996, page 579,
  108. ^ J. J. Wilkes, The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, p. 216.
  109. ^ J. J. Wilkes, The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, p. 92.
  110. ^ Appian, Illyrian Wars, App. Ill. 2.
  111. ^ The Cambridge Ancient History: Persia, Greece and the Western Mediterranean ... by John Boardman, 1988, ISBN 0-521-22804-2, page 496, "The issuing authorities were tribes as far afield as the 'Tynteni' (later Atintani)... "
  112. ^ A History of Macedonia: 550-336 B.C
  113. ^ The Illyrians (The Peoples of Europe) by John Wilkes, 1996, ISBN 978-0-631-19807-9, page 111.
  114. ^ A. Mocsy and S. Frere, Pannonia and Upper Moesia. A History of the Middle Danube Provinces of the Roman Empire. p. 14.
  115. ^ Körpergräber des 1.-3. Jahrhunderts in der römischen Welt: internationales Kolloquium, Frankfurt am Main, 19.-20. November 2004 by Andrea Faber, ISBN 3-88270-501-9, p. 144.
  116. ^ Rimska vojska u Sremu by Velika Dautova-Ruševljan, Miroslav Vujović, 2006, p. 131: "...extended as far as Ruma whence continued the territory of another community named after the Celtic tribe of Cornacates..."
  117. ^ Noricum Tome 3 of History of the provinces of the Roman Empire by Géza Alföldy, 1974, p. 69.
  118. ^ The Cambridge Ancient History, Vol. 10: The Augustan Empire, 43 BC-AD 69 (Volume 10) by Alan Bowman, Edward Champlin, and Andrew Lintott, 1996, page 580, "...580 I3h. DANUBIAN AND BALKAN PROVINCES Tricornenses of Tricornium (Ritopek) replaced the Celegeri, the Picensii of Pincum..."
  119. ^ Dubravka Balen-Letunič, 40 godina arheoloških istraživanja u sjeverozapadnoj Hrvatskoj, 1986, p. 52: "...and the Celtic Serretes..."
  120. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) William Smith, LLD, Ed. ,The following are the principal tribes noticed by the ancients in Pannonia; some of them, it must be observed, are decidedly Celtic. In Upper Pannonia we meet with the AZALI, CYTNI, BOII, COLETIANI, OSERIATES, SERRETES, SERRAPILLI
  121. ^ John T. Koch, Celtic culture: a historical encyclopedia, ISBN 1-85109-440-7, 2006, p. 907.
  122. ^ a b J. J. Wilkes, The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, p. 81: "In Roman Pannonia the Latobici and Varciani who dwelt east of the Venetic Catari in the upper Sava valley were Celtic but the Colapiani of ..."
  123. ^ J. J. Wilkes, The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, p. 140: "...Autariatae at the expense of the Triballi until, as Strabo remarks, they in their turn were overcome by the Celtic Scordisci in the early third century..."
  124. ^ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, page 217, "...with high mountains, Siculotae (24), Glintidiones (44) and Scirtari, who dwelt along the border with Macedonia. In northeast Bosnia the Dindari are located by the record of one of their chiefs (principes) in the Drina valley..."
  125. ^ Population and economy of the eastern part of the Roman province of Dalmatia, 2002, ISBN 1-84171-440-2, p. 24, "...the Dindari were a branch of the Scordisci..."
  126. ^ J. J. Wilkes, Dalmatia, Tome 2 of History of the Provinces of the Roman Empire, 1969, pp. 154 and 482.
  127. ^ Charles Anthon, A Classical Dictionary: Containing The Principal Proper Names Mentioned In Ancient Authors, Part One, 2005, p. 539, "...elevated, a mountain. (Strabo, 293)"; "the Iapodes (Strabo, 313), a Gallo-Illyrian race occupying the valleys of..."
  128. ^ J. J. Wilkes, The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, p. 79: "...along with the evidence of name formulae, a Venetic element among the Japodes. A group of names identified by Alföldy as of Celtic origin: Ammida, Andes, Iaritus, Matera, Maxa,..."
  129. ^ Š. Batović, Liburnska kultura, Matica Hrvatska i Arheološki muzej Zadar, Zadar, 2005, UDK: 904 (398 Liburnija), ISBN 953-6419-50-5, pages 64-66
  130. ^ The Oxford Classical Dictionary by Simon Hornblower, ISBN 0-19-860641-9, 2003, page 431
  131. ^ a b Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, page 183, "We may begin with the Venetic peoples, Veneti, Carni, Histri and Liburni, whose language set them apart from the rest of the Illyrians..."
  132. ^ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, page 81, "In Roman Pannonia the Latobici and Varciani who dwelt east of the Venetic Catari in the upper Sava valley were Celtic but the Colapiani of the Colapis (Kulpa) valley were Illyrians..."
  133. ^ Structure and Scale in the Roman Economy by Richard Duncan-Jones,2002, page 164, "This allowed the city to draw on the Carni and Catali (tribes `attributed' to Tergeste by Augustus) for new supplies of..."
  134. ^ The classical gazetteer: a dictionary of ancient geography, sacred and profane by William Hazlitt, 1851, page 311, "SECUSSES, a people of Histria"
  135. ^ The Cambridge Ancient History by Alan K. Bowman, ISBN 0-521-26430-8, page 575

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainSmith, William, ed. (1854–1857). "article name needed". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray.