|A panther chameleon at the Zurich Zoo|
The panther chameleon (Furcifer pardalis) is a species of chameleon found in the eastern and northern parts of Madagascar in a tropical forest biome. Additionally, it has been introduced to Réunion and Mauritius.
The panther chameleon was first described by French naturalist Georges Cuvier in 1829. Its generic name (Furcifer) is derived from the Latin root furci meaning "forked" and refers to the shape of the animal's feet. The specific name pardalis refers to the animals' markings, as it is Latin for "leopard" or "spotted like a panther".  The English word chameleon (also chamaeleon) derives from Latin chamaeleō, a borrowing of the Ancient Greek χαμαιλέων (khamailéōn), a compound of χαμαί (khamaí) "on the ground" and λέων (léōn) "lion". The Greek word is a calque translating the Akkadian nēš qaqqari, "ground lion". This lends to the common English name of "panther chameleon".
Male panther chameleons can grow up to 20 inches in length, with a typical length of around 17 in (45 cm). Females are smaller, at about half the size. In a form of sexual dimorphism, males are more vibrantly colored than the females. Coloration varies with location, and the different color patterns of panther chameleons are commonly referred to as 'locales', which are named after the geographical location in which they are found. Panther chameleons from the areas of Nosy Be, Ankify, and Ambanja are typically a vibrant blue, while those from Antsiranana and Sambava are red, green or orange. The areas of Maroantsetra and Tamatave yield primarily red specimens. Numerous other color phases, and patterns occur between and within regions. Females generally remain tan and brown with hints of pink, peach, or bright orange, no matter where they are found, but there are slight differences in patterns and colors among the different color phases.
Panther chameleons are zygodactylous: on each foot, the five toes are fused into a group of two and a group of three, giving the foot a tongs-like appearance. These specialized feet allow the panther chameleon a tight grip on narrow branches. Each toe is equipped with a sharp claw to gain traction on surfaces such as bark when climbing. The claws make it easy to see how many toes are fused into each part of the foot — two toes on the outside of each front foot and three on the inside.
Their eyes are the most distinctive among the reptiles and function like a gun turret. The upper and lower eyelids are joined, with only a pinhole large enough for the pupil to see through. They can rotate and focus separately to observe two different objects simultaneously; their eyes move independently from each other. It in effect gives them a full 360-degree arc of vision around their bodies. When prey is located, both eyes can be focused in the same direction, giving sharp stereoscopic vision and depth perception. They have keen eyesight for reptiles, letting them see small insects from a long (5–10-m) distance. Ultraviolet light is part of the visible spectrum for chameleons.
Panther chameleons have very long tongues (sometimes longer than their own body length) which they are capable of rapidly extending out of the mouth. The tongue extends at around 26 body lengths per second. The tongue hits the prey in about 0.0030 sec. The tongue of the chameleon is a complex arrangement of bone, muscle and sinew. At the base of the tongue, a bone is shot forward, giving the tongue the initial momentum it needs to reach the prey quickly. At the tip of this elastic tongue, a muscular, club-like structure covered in thick mucus forms a suction cup. Once the tip sticks to a prey item, it is drawn quickly back into the mouth, where the panther chameleon's strong jaws crush it and it is consumed.
Behaviour and ecology
It is a common misconception that chameleons of any kind can change colour to match any colour of their environments. All chameleons have a natural colour range with which they are born, and is dictated by their species. Colour change is, for the most part, subconscious. It is affected by temperature, mood, and light. If, for example, the colour purple is not within the range of colours to which their particular species can change, then they will never turn purple.
Like most species of chameleons, the panther chameleon is very territorial. It spends the majority of its life in isolation, apart from mating sessions. When two males come into contact, they will change color and inflate their bodies, attempting to assert their dominance. Often these battles end at this stage, with the loser retreating, turning drab and dark colors. Occasionally, the displays result in physical combat if neither contender backs down.
When kept as pets, they require a large enclosure and are fed crickets primarily but also wax worms, meal worms, and roaches – chameleons should have a varied diet. It should be noted that panther chameleons require fresh flowing air, so the use of an open air screen cage is necessary. A glass aquarium should not be used as it restricts airflow and can cause respiratory infections in the animal. Enclosure size is very important, a 2'×2'×4' mesh cage is perfect for a single adult although females could be kept in a 1.5'×1.5'×3' enclosure. A proper day and night light schedule is required along with a UVB bulb being present in the cage. The reptile requires UVB to replicate sunlight, and help its body process. A 5.0 UVB bulb should be on for 12 hours a day as well as a heat bulb to replicate the suns heat. Humidity is very important with chameleons, 50-60% humidity should be perfect for a panther chameleon, although it will not be fatal if this is not consistent. Panther Chameleons do however require the constant availability of water. When studying a Panther Chameleon you will notice that they do not drink from a dish as might be considered. A misting bottle should be used three times daily to properly hydrate the chameleon, this will also help maintain humidity, a water dripping system could be used so that water droplets form on the interior of the cage setup. The chameleon will sponge the water droplets from the surfaces of the cage using their tongue. It is very important that chameleons are not housed together as adults, there should be only one chameleon per cage. These rules could be slightly bent during breeding season by slowly introducing an opposite sex chameleon for short periods of time. Females should have many places available to lay eggs at all times, no matter what female chameleons will lay eggs, pregnant or not.
Panther chameleons reach sexual maturity at a minimum age of seven months.
When gravid, or carrying eggs, females turn dark brown or black with orange striping to signify to males they have no intention of mating. The exact coloration and pattern of gravid females varies depending on the color phase of the chameleon. This provides a way to distinguish between locales.
Females usually only live two to three years after laying eggs (between five and eight clutches) because of the stress put on their bodies. Females can lay between 10 and 40 eggs per clutch, depending on the food and nutrient consumption during the period of development. Eggs typically hatch in 240 days.
Panther chameleon at night in the Anjajavy Forest
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