Pantsir-S1

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Pantsir-S1
NATO reporting name: SA-22 "Greyhound"
Bronnitsy - 01 - Pantsir-S1 SAM.jpg
Pantsir-S1 on 8x8 Truck KAMAZ-6560 TLAR
Type Transportable gun/SAM system
Place of origin  Russia
Service history
In service 2003–present (IOC since 1999)
Used by See list of operators
Production history
Designer KBP Instrument Design Bureau[1]
Designed 1994
Unit cost US$ 13.15[2]–14.67[3] million (export)
Produced 2008
Variants Pantsir-S (prototype), Pantsir-S1, Pantsir-S1-O (or Pantsir-S1E)
Specifications (Pantsir-S1)
Crew 3

Main
armament
57E6, 57E6-E
Secondary
armament
Two dual 2A38M 30 mm autocannon guns

Pantsir-S1 (Russian: Панцирь-С1, NATO reporting name SA-22 Greyhound) is a combined short to medium range surface-to-air missile and anti-aircraft artillery weapon system produced by KBP of Tula, Russia. The system is a further development of SA-19/SA-N-11 and represents the latest air defence technology by using phased-array radars for both target acquisition and tracking.

Design[edit]

It is a short to medium range ground based air defence system, wheeled, tracked or stationary with two to three operators. Its air defense consists of automatic anti-aircraft guns and surface-to-air-missiles with radar or optical target-tracking and radio-command guidance. Its purpose is protection of civil and military point and area targets, for motorised or mechanised troops up to regimental size or as defensive asset of higher ranking air defence systems like S-300/S-400. Aerial targets include everything with a minimum radar-cross-section of 1 cm2 and speeds up to a maximum of 1000 metre/second within a maximum range of 20,000 metres and heights up to 15,000 metres—including all types of aircraft, helicopters, unmanned aerial vehicles, cruise missiles and air-to-ground precision guided weapons. The system is able to defend against stealth aircraft,[4] and has capability for anti-munitions missions.

Development[edit]

An alternative mounting of antiaircraft complex Pantsir-S1 on a tracked GM-352 chassis

Development as Pantsir-S started in 1990 planned to be successor of Tunguska M1. A prototype was completed in 1994 and displayed at the MAKS-1995. Further development stopped due to the troubled economic situation in Russia. Final development of the Pantsir-S1 was funded by launch customer UAE in 2000. Delivery was postponed after the United Arab Emirates and KBP Instrument Design Bureau agreed to redesign the system.

Some sources[weasel words] refer to this redesign as Pantsir-S1-O or Pantsir-S1E but it is, as of August 2007, not offered by KBP as a separate variant. The system has two new radars with increased range, capable of tracking more air targets but also land targets and has an integrated IFF system. Within the cabin two new LCD multi-function displays have replaced the multiple CRT display and a new central computer system greatly decreased the reaction time, single operator operation can be achieved when needed. Due to the new technologies adopted, the overall volume of the weapon station is reduced by a third while the overall weight is reduced by half. The system also has enhanced missiles (from type 57E6 to type 57E6-E probably interchangeable) and guns (from type 2A72 to type 2A38M).

Live firing tests took place in June 2006 at the Kapustin Yar firing range, Astrakhan Region, Russia. Final test series prior to delivery in May 2007 at Kapustin Yar included a forced march of 250 km to an unprepared launch position simulating the accomplishing of a typical air-defence mission. Further tests will take place in the UAE.

Russia is developing a track-based Pantsir system to be more maneuverable with Russian Ground Forces and Airborne Troops. A next-generation Pantsir system is announced for 2017, with "absolutely superior" technical characteristics compared to the existing system.[5]

A version called the Pantsir-SM is projected with improved interception capabilities for unmanned aerial vehicles and shall be adapted to operate in Arctic climates.[6] It comprises a new missile with an extended engagement range from 20 km (12 mi) to 30 km (19 mi). The Pantsir-SM is to enter service in late 2014.[7]

Naval version[edit]

Pantsir systems will be deployed on the Russian aircraft carrier Admiral Kuznetsov.[citation needed] Russian destroyers and other large ships will be modernized to accommodate the system.[5]

Operations[edit]

The specific feature of the Pantsir-S1 system is the combination of a multiple-band target acquisition and tracking system in conjunction with a combined missile and gun armament creating a continuous target engagement zone from 5 m height and 200 m range up to 10 km height and 20 km range, even without any external support.

Modes[edit]

Using a digital data link system up to six Pantsir-S1 combat vehicle can operate in various modes.

  • Stand alone combat operation: All the combat sequence from detecting a target to its engagement is fulfilled by a single Pantsir-S1 combat vehicle without employing other assets.
  • Operation within a battery ("master-slave"): One Pantsir-S1 operates both as combat vehicle and as "master" command post. 3 to 5 Pantsir-S1 combat vehicles acting as "slave" receive target designation data from the "master" and subsequently fulfil all the combat operation stages.
  • Operation within a command post: The command post sends target designations to the Pantsir-S1 combat vehicles and subsequently fulfill the designation order.
  • Operation within a battery with command post and early warning radar: The command post receives air situation picture from a connected early warning radar and sends target designations to the Pantsir-S1 combat vehicles and subsequently fulfil the designation order.

Prototypes[edit]

  • Pantsir-S prototype from 1994 was built on Ural-5323 8x8 truck.
  • Actual Pantsir-S1 is built on KAMAZ-6560 8x8 38t truck with 400 hp.
  • UAE Pantsir-S1 is built on German MAN SX 45 8x8 truck.
  • Pantsir-S1 is also proposed to be built on an MZKT-7930 8x8 truck with 680 hp from the Belarus company "Minsk Wheeled Tractor Plant"
  • A further Pantsir-S1 option is a tracked chassis type GM-352M1E from the Belarus company "Minsk Tractor Plant".
  • KBP offers also a stationary variant built on a container probably able to be mounted on ships also.

Armament[edit]

Missile[edit]

57E6
Pantsir-S1 missile maks2009.jpg
Type Surface-to-air missile
Place of origin  Russia
Production history
Variants 57E6, 57E6-E,[8] 57E6Y[9]
Specifications (57E6-E[8])
Weight 90 kg
Length 3.2 m
Diameter 0.17 m
Warhead frag-HE and multiple continuous rod
Warhead weight 20 kg
Detonation
mechanism
Contact and proximity

Propellant Solid-fuel rocket
Operational
range
20 kilometres (12 mi)
Flight altitude 15 kilometres (9.3 mi)
Boost time 2 s
Speed 1,300 m/s

Pantsir-S1 carries up to twelve 57E6 or 57E6-E two-stage solid fuel radio-command-guided surface-to-air missiles in sealed ready-to-launch containers. Missiles are arranged into two six-tube groups on the turret. The missile has a bicalibre body in tandem configuration. The first stage is a booster, providing rapid acceleration within the first 2 seconds of flight, after which it is separated from the sustainer-stage. The sustainer is the highly agile part of the missile and contains the high explosive multiple continuous rod and fragmentation warhead, contact and proximity fuses as also radio transponder and laser responder to be localised for guidance. The missile is not fitted with seeker to keep target engagement costs low. Instead high-precision target and missile tracking is provided via the system's multiband sensor system and guidance data is submitted via radio link for up to four missiles in flight. Missiles can be fired at up to four targets, but more often in salvos of two missiles at one target. Missile is believed to have a hit probability of 70–95% and have a 15 year storage lifetime in its sealed containers. Pantsir-S1 combat vehicles can fire missiles on the move.

Autocannon[edit]

Two dual 2A38M 30 mm autocannon guns are fitted with 700 rounds of a variety of ammunition—HE (High Explosive) fragmentation, fragmentation tracer, and armour-piercing with tracer. Ammunition type can be selected by the crew depending on the nature of the target. Maximum rate of fire is 2,500 rounds per minute per gun. Range is up to 4 km. The combined gun-missile system has an extremely low altitude engagement capability (targets as low as 0 m AGL can be engaged by this system).

Wheeled combat vehicles have to be jacked up to keep the machine in the horizontal position and be able to fire the gun. The KAMAZ-6560 has four oil hydraulic jacks for this purpose.

Gun:

  • Designation: 2A38M
  • Type: twin-barrel automatic anti-aircraft gun
  • Calibre: 30 mm
  • Maximum rate of fire: 2,500 rounds per minute per gun
  • Muzzle velocity: 960 m/s
  • Projectile weight: 0.97 kg
  • Ammunition: 700 rounds per gun
  • Minimum range: 0.2 m
  • Maximum range: 4 km
  • Minimum altitude: 0 m AGL
  • Maximum altitude: 3 km

Fire control[edit]

The Pantsir-S1 fire control system includes a target acquisition radar and dual waveband tracking radar (designation 1RS2-1E for export models), which operates in the UHF and EHF waveband. Detection range is 32–36 km and tracking range is 24–28 km for a target with 2 m2 RCS.[10] This radar tracks both targets and the surface-to-air missile while in flight.

As well as radar, the fire control system also has an electro-optic channel with long-wave thermal imager and infrared direction finder, including digital signal processing and automatic target tracking. A simplified, lower-cost version of Pantsir-S1 is also being developed for export, with only the electro-optic fire control system fitted.

The two independent guidance channels—radar and electro-optic—allow two targets to be engaged simultaneously. Maximum engagement rate is up to 10 targets per minute.

Support vehicles[edit]

In order to increase high operational readiness KBP has designed several vehicles to support Pantsir-S1 in the field.

  • Transporter-Loader: One Transloader per two combat vehicles ensures rapid replacement of ammunition during combat operations.
  • Mechanic Maintenance Vehicle: This Vehicle and its crew carries out maintenance and repair operations on the system's mechanical assemblies.
  • Electronic Maintenance Vehicle: Carries out maintenance and repair operations on the system's electronic units and devices.
  • Adjustment Vehicle: For adjustment operations on the system.
  • Spare Parts Vehicle: This vehicle carries the common kit of spare parts, tools and accessories for the system.
  • Mobile Trainer: Designed to train the combat vehicle crews in field conditions on the weapon system.

Multi-sensor system[edit]

Pantsir-S1 Weapon System. In the centre the EHF phased-array tracking radar. Two twin-barrel 2A38M automatic anti-aircraft guns and 12 ready to launch missile-containers each containing one 57E6-E command guided surface to air missile.

Target acquisition radar:

  • Type: phased-array
  • Coverage: 360°
  • Maximum detection range: at least 32 km, up to 36 km
  • Band: UHF

Target tracking radar:

  • Type: phased-array
  • Coverage: cone +/-45°
  • Maximum tracking range: at least 24 km, up to 28 km
  • Maximum number of targets can be tracked simultaneously: 20
  • Maximum number of targets can be engaged simultaneously: 3
  • Maximum number of missiles can be radio-controlled simultaneously: 4
  • Band: EHF
  • IFF: Separate or integrated upon customer's request

Autonomous Optoelectronic System:

  • Type: Detection, automatic acquisition and tracking of air and ground targets
  • Target tracking band: Infra Red 3–5 µm
  • Missile localisation band: Infra Red 0,8–0,9 µm
  • Maximum number of targets can be tracked simultaneously: 1
  • Maximum number of targets can be engaged simultaneously: 1
  • Maximum number of missiles can be localised simultaneously: 1

System:

  • Number of targets that can be simultaneously engaged: 4 (three by radar, one by EO)
  • Maximum number of targets engagement rate: 10 per minute
  • Crew: 1–2 operators for the air defense system and 1 driver
  • Reaction time: 4–6 seconds (including target acquisition and firing first missile), 1–2 seconds for autocannon engagement

Operational history[edit]

A Pantsir-S1 unit of the Syrian Armed Forces reportedly scored the first combat kill of the type by downing a Turkish Air Force RF-4E carrying out a reconnaissance flight over the Syrian coast near Latakia on 22 June 2012.[11][12]

On 19 October 2012, two missiles fired from a Pantsir shot down a live cruise missile in a test in Russia.[13]

Operators[edit]

  •  Brazil: Brazil's Defense Ministry is discussing plans to acquire 3 batteries, with six vehicles each.[16] The beginning of negotiations were authorized on 10 September 2013.[17] By mid-October, Brazil and Russia were in the final stages of talks for delivery of the Pantsir-S1 systems. The deal to purchase 18 vehicles is estimated to be worth $1 billion.[18][19]
  •  Iraq: 42–50 on order.[20] Deal was thought to be cancelled by the Iraqi government due to corruption concerns,[21] but the deal was later confirmed to be going ahead.[22]
  •  Jordan: According to what Jane's Defence Weekly reported in 2007[23] a complete Russian Pantsir-S1 short-range air-defence system was being field tested in Jordan and that the kingdom is set to place an order. It was reported that Jordan placed an order for an undisclosed number of systems.[24] Russia Today reported Jordan as being a customer for Pantsir-S1, and that they were likely to purchase between 50–75 combat vehicles.
  •  Russia: 35 units in service at December 2013.[25] It will eventually replace the Tunguska-M1 currently used by the Russian Air Force.[26] Six additional Pantsir-S units were delivered on 23 November 2012.[27][28][29]
  •  Syria: 36 to 50 on order;[30] signed 2006 as part of arms package worth about US$ 1 billion;[31] deliveries began in August 2007; Jane's Defence Weekly reported in May 2007 that 50 systems are on order by Damascus and that at least ten of those Pantsirs would be handed over to Iran by the end of 2008. According to Jane's Defence Weekly, Iran is reported to be the main sponsor of the deal and is paying Syria for its services as intermediary. Deliveries to Iran are categorically denied by a range of top Russian officials including First Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Ivanov.[32]
  •  United Arab Emirates: 50 on order;[33] Launch customer of Pantsir-S1. Ordered in May 2000, half of them tracked, the other half wheeled. Due to deliver in three batches by the end of 2005 – 12 in 2003, 24 in 2004 and 14 in 2005. Prices given where US$ 734 million ( including a US$ 100 million pay in advance to complete R&D ),[34] with the price per single unit being about US$ 15 million. Delivery postponed after new design decisions were taken and UAE is said to have paid additional US$ 66 Million to cover major improvements. All 50 systems will now be wheeled on MAN SX 45 8x8 trucks from Germany, as well as the support vehicles. Delivery of the prototype occurred in 2007. With that the MAN SX45 is the only "western" vehicle that can accommodate the S1 system and has a worldwide logistics and support network through their importer network. Delivery of the 50 systems ordered in 2000 began in 2007 with the first two serially produced systems. British Jane's Defence Weekly reported on October 30.;[35] delays in further deliveries. Based on test-firing data, some further optimisation of the systems is required. Deliveries will take place over the next three years under an amended schedule. As reported by Kommersant in June 2006 UAE has expressed interest in acquiring an additional 28 systems[36] and has likely signed an option for the delivery in 2009–2010.
  •  Vietnam: Some unconfirmed images cited on Chinese People's Daily have shown a Pantsir-S1 system which has been alleged to be operated by the Vietnamese Army.[37]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "KBP Instrument Design Bureau". Jane's Land-Based Air Defence. Jane's. 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-19. 
  2. ^ Interfax.ru
  3. ^ Newvesti.ru
  4. ^ "Russian Pantsir-S1 – best air defence money can buy". Prime Time Russia. 30 November 2007 (edited 20 March 2010). 
  5. ^ a b Russia to Arm Warships With Pantsir Air Defense System - Rian.ru, 11 September 2013
  6. ^ Russia to produce new modernized Pantsir-S air defense missile system able to intercept UAVs - Armyrecognition.com, 19 December 2013
  7. ^ Russian army to get new upgraded version of Pantsir-S1 air defense missile system Pantsir-SM - Armyrecognition.com, 29 April 2014
  8. ^ a b "KBP Instrument Design Bureau 96K6 Pantsyr-S1 self-propelled air-defence system". Jane's Information Group. 2008-04-02. Retrieved 2008-08-20. 
  9. ^ "Tunguska/Pantsir-S1 (SA-19 'Grison')". Jane's Information Group. 2008-02-13. Retrieved 2008-08-20. 
  10. ^ Rosoboronexport. Catalogues of products, missile and artillery systems
  11. ^ "Newly-supplied Russian Pantsyr-1 anti-air missile used to down Turkish warplane". DEBKAfile. 24 June 2012. Retrieved 24 June 2012. 
  12. ^ "Syria - Turkey tension: Conflicting arguments on Phantom". BBC News Middle East. 3 July 2012. Retrieved 9 February 2013. 
  13. ^ Russia’s Pantsir-S System Downs Cruise Missile in Test – Rian.ru, October 20, 2012
  14. ^ RIA Novosti, 29 March 2007, Algeria could become Russia's main military partner
  15. ^ Kommersant, 29/03/2007, Algeria Moves to First Place among Weapons Buyers
  16. ^ Brazil could buy Pantsir S1 and Igla MANPADS air defence missile systems - Armyrecognition.com, February 3, 2013
  17. ^ Brazil; MoD initiates Pantsir-S1 procuement negotiations - Dmilt.com, 10 September 2013
  18. ^ Russia and Brazil in the final stages of talks for the delivery of Russian Pantsir-S1 air defense system - Armyrecognition.com, 20 October 2013
  19. ^ "Russia expects a contract with Brazil to supply Pantsir-S1 short-range air defense system end 2014". August 13, 2014. 
  20. ^ Iraq is Buying Russian Weapons Again – Defenseindustrydaily.com
  21. ^ "Iraq cancels $4.2bn Russian arms deal over 'corruption'". BBC News. 10 November 2012. 
  22. ^ Iraq to go ahead with billion-dollar Russian arms deal - Globalpost.com, November 10, 2012
  23. ^ Jane's Defence Weekly, janes.com
  24. ^ Russiatoday.com
  25. ^ http://ria.ru/forces/20121204/913352340.html
  26. ^ http://www.aviaport.ru/digest/2007/04/12/119225.html
  27. ^ http://en.rian.ru/military_news/20121123/177681838.html
  28. ^ "Russian army to get new upgraded version of Pantsir-S1 air defense missile system Pantsir-SM". April 29, 2014. 
  29. ^ http://warfiles.ru/show-43952-vs-rf-do-konca-goda-poluchat-esche-odin-polk-s-400-i-18-pancirey-s.html
  30. ^ Ynetnews, 13 August 2007, IDF: Syria's antiaircraft system most advanced in world
  31. ^ Defenseindustrydaily.com, 22 June 2007, Syria Buying MiG-31s, MiG-35s for $1 billion
  32. ^ http://www.cedarsrevolution.net, 19 August 2007, SA-22 Greyhound to Syria: Could Russian Air Defense Units Sent to Syria End Up in Hizbullah Hands?
  33. ^ Eksport Vooruzheniy Journal, №1'2001 (January–February), Preliminary Estimates of Russian Performance in Military-Technical Cooperation with Foreign States in 2000
  34. ^ Kommersant, 29 March 2007, Russia Has Something To Offer
  35. ^ Jane's Defence Weekly, 30 October 2007, UAE must wait for Pantsirs
  36. ^ RIA Novosti quoting Kommersant, 30 June 2006, UAE to receive latest Russian air defense weapons
  37. ^ (Vietnamese) "Báo Trung Quốc: Việt Nam đã sở hữu 'mãnh thú' Pantsir-S1", soha.vn, retrieved on 12 June 2014.

External links[edit]