Location of Panzhihua in Sichuan
|Country||People's Republic of China|
|• Total||7,440.398 km2 (2,872.754 sq mi)|
|Elevation||1,157 m (3,796 ft)|
|• Density||155/km2 (400/sq mi)|
|Time zone||China Standard (UTC+8)|
Panzhihua (Chinese: 攀枝花; pinyin: Pānzhīhūa; Wade–Giles: P'an-chih-hua) is a prefecture-level city located in the far south of Sichuan province, People's Republic of China, on the confluence of the Jinsha and Yalong Rivers. It has an administrative area of 7,440.398 square kilometres (2,872.754 sq mi), and a total population of 1,100,800 as of 2007.
It is the only city in China having a name of a flower. Its economy relies almost entirely on its giant mine, one of the biggest nationally. Activity in Panzhihua is mainly centered on natural resource development, exploitation and industry. The city houses a notable number of migrants. It is a mountain city. In 2005 Panzhihua won the "China Excellent Tourist City" title, in 2008 it won the "National Health City" and the "China Vanadium, Titanium" titles.
Geography and climate
Panzhihua is a treasure of natural resources, but remained a wasteland until 1960. It was founded on a remote headwater of the Yangtze River in 1966 as a steel production center. It grew rapidly as it remained relatively prosperous while the rest of the country was undergoing the Cultural Revolution. The city is home to the Panzhihua Iron and Steel (Group) Co, called "Pangang 攀钢", the leading steel company in southwest China. There remains a remnant population of the ancient cycad forests which were once home to the giant panda.
The area has a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cwa), with short, mild (almost warm), very dry winters, and long, hot, and humid summers. Highs drop to 21 °C (70 °F) in December and January, quickly rebounding during the dry springs, and peak in May and June, unlike much of the rest of the province. Much of the annual rainfall occurs from June to September.
|Climate data for Panzhihua (1988−2007)|
|Average high °C (°F)||21.8
|Average low °C (°F)||6.9
|Rainfall mm (inches)||5.5
|Source: National Meteorological Centre|
Panzhihua lies in the Yangtze River basin, with more than 95 streams within the territory, belonging to the Jinsha River, Yalong River, confluence of two rivers in the basin have larger control Anning River, Sanyuan River, three tributaries of the river. Annual runoff volume of 110.2 billion cubic meters of transit, have larger watershed control Anning River, Sanyuan River, the three major river tributaries. The city can be developed hydropower capacity 700 million kilowatts, installed capacity of 3.474 million kilowatts have been developed (including two beach at 330 million kilowatts, while the salt water 88,000 kilowatts of small, small hydropower Miyi 86,000 kilowatts), there are 3.5 million kilowatts installed capacity of hydropower can be for development.
The city has proven iron ore (mainly vanadium-titanium magnetite) 73.8 million tons of proven iron ore reserves in Sichuan Province accounted for 72.3%, which is one of the four biggest iron ore. The end of 2007, the city's reserves of vanadium-titanium magnetite 6.694 billion tons, of which: to maintain reserves of 425 million tons associated with titanium, accounting for 93% of the country, ranking first in the world; associated vanadium reserves of 10.38 million tons, accounting for 63% in the nation, the world's third. Cobalt reserves of 746 million tons, in addition to chromium, gallium, scandium, nickel, copper, lead, zinc, manganese, platinum and other rare metals, a number of projects have been included for the Association of World Records the world. Non-metallic minerals, coal reserves 708 million tons, crystalline graphite reserves of 15.4 million tons, but Ju Yan reserves of 20.98 million tons, the solvent to maintain reserves of 295 million tons of limestone, metallurgical dolomite reserves of 363 million tons of cement sand retention reserves of 11.94 million tons, 10.32 million tons reserves of refractory clay, diatomite reserves of 16.5 million tons, reserves of 83.75 million cubic meters of granite, marble reserves of 53.99 million cubic meters.
Bronze Age Bronze Agecultural remains are representative of various types of bronze. Under the jurisdiction of Panzhihua City in Yanbian, Miyi and Renhe District, has collected nearly 20 bronze. Most of them excavated sites specifically for the tombs of ancient funerary objects. Mostly found in the production of bronze, life practical objects, can be divided into three categories, there are weapons like bronze swords, bronze spears, bronze Ge, copper ax, tools, copper axes, copper knives, copper hoe, Decorations only see copper bracelets, which the largest number of weapons. Copper bronze smelting system processes mature, decoration features prominent, revealing a very strong culture color. 90% with the shape similar bronze western Yunnan, cultural landscape, indicating that activity in the Panzhihua mountain national territory with the same ethnic group in western Yunnan Department of the main ethnic group members. A small number of significant cultural features of the Bronze Shu, Shu cultural impact produced by the Department of imitation. These two thousand years ago (the equivalent of Central China during the Warring States ~ Western Han) bronze cultural relics, established the Panzhihua Bronze Age history. Culture there are different cultural factors converge phenomenon, reflecting the ancient western Yunnan and Sichuan of national long-standing economic and cultural exchanges, but also Yunnan, Sichuan Road communication of important examples. Therefore, the Jinsha River in the study of bronze culture plays an important role.
Panzhihua City West across the mountain range, east big Liang Mountains, north of the Snowy Mountains, south to Jinsha River. Terrain northwest to southeast. Panzhihua City's eastern Xiaoxiangling - Luoji - Lunan mountains, central mountains to Yak - Long elbow mountain, west Jinpingshan - Berlin mountain, near the mountains to north and south. The highest point within the territory of Yanbian, north-west mountains piercing sub-Braun, elevation 4195.5 m; lowest point is the southeastern town of Renhe District teacher plains village, 937 meters above sea level. Urban areas in 1000–1200 meters above sea level, elevation of the main agricultural areas in the 1000 to 1800 meters. Jinsha, Yalong, Anning River, river, river and its tributaries, three sources embedded deep in the mountains, forming the majestic canyon southwest Sichuan area. Landscape dominated by natural landscape areas, has established a red cell spa, large scenic Montenegro, Cave Stone Forest, the Jinsha River and other scenic tourist area. Hai lake scenery especially the region's tourism resources.
Ertan Hydropower Station
Ertan Hydropower Station Ertan Dam is located in Panzhihua City, Sichuan Province and Yanbian Miyi on the territory of the Yalong River downstream from downtown Panzhihua, 46 km (29 mi). Hydropower is the utilization of hydro-based power generation. Normal reservoir water level elevation of 1,200 m (3,900 ft), with a total capacity of 5.8 billion m3 (1.5 trillion gallons). Installation of six stand-alone power plant 550,000 kilowatts of hydroelectric generating set, with a total installed capacity of 3.3 million kilowatts, annual average generating capacity of 17 billion kilowatts hours. The main station building, including: high 240 m (790 ft), 775 m (2,543 ft) arc length of overflow crest arch dam, built when the dam height of dam in the same type of ranking first in Asia and third in the world; 6 9m diameter of the pressure of water pipelines and long 280.3 m (920 ft), width 25.5 m (84 ft), 63.9 m (210 ft) high and the underground plant main transformer room, tailrace surge chamber, tailrace tunnel, bus transportation into the factory holes and holes and other underground caverns; the right bank of two sections 13m × 13.5m, respectively, 881 m (2,890 ft) and 1,218 m (3,996 ft) length of spillway; left bank of the l of width 15 m (49 ft), 7 m (23 ft) long 1,200 m (3,900 ft) high over the water tunnel, installation of one vertically integrated transport, timber capacity of over 600,000 m (2,000,000 ft) 3; power plant with five back 500kV outlet, switch the station into the ground by the Sichuan power grid. September 14, 1991 starting the main project started; November 26, 1993 closure of success; August 18, 1998 the first unit and power generation; a total investment of 28.554 billion, of which the World Bank loan $930 million, is China's single project to introduce the World Bank loan projects. From the end of 1998 to the present, tourists attractions close to one million.
Natural cycas forest
Cycas first appeared in the back some 280 million years ago Earth Paleozoic Permian. It vicissitudes, with several ups and downs. Existing cycads, only one Section 10 is about 110 species of plants known as "living fossils." In 1971, Sichuan Agricultural Science and the original forest vegetation Panzhihua aerial survey, found that an area of 300 hectares, a total of 10 more than 100,000 Sutie Lin. It is the world's highest latitude ever discovered, the largest and most plants, the most concentrated distribution of the original Su Tielin. Was identified, confirmed that this is a rare new species of Cycas, known as "Panzhihua Cycad" and given the botanical name Cycas panzhihuaensis. Turner International Cycad experts after their visit to this amazing: "This is China's wealth, the wealth of the world! Panzhihua Sutie Qi, also odd in it but each bud, mid-flowering, flowering female plants can be two years time, this can not be said it was not a strange world every year 3 to 6 months, I saw Su Tielin into tens of thousands of yellow buds dry contests, and plant such as the Buddha holding beads, forest floor like carpet color since 1990, named Cycas Panzhihua to organize Cycas watch the annual trade fair-cum-materials, Panzhihua cycad name has spread like wildfire, famous the world over. Panzhihua cycad and Zigong Dinosaur, Ping Wu panda known as the "Sichuan Ruin."
|#||Name||Hanzi||Hanyu Pinyin||Population (2004 est.)||Area (km²)||Density (/km²)|
|1||Dong District||东区||Dōng Qū||320,000||167||1,916|
|2||Xi District||西区||Xī Qū||160,000||124||1,290|
|3||Renhe District||仁和区||Rénhé Qū||200,000||1,727||116|
|4||Miyi County||米易县||Mǐyì Xiàn||200,000||2,153||93|
|5||Yanbian County||盐边县||Yánbiān Xiàn||200,000||3,269||61|
Panzhihua is a highly industrialized area, which is dominated by gigantic mining operations. Most of the land not in use for mining is taken up by subsistence farming.
- Panzhihua University
- The city's top high schools are the No.3 Panzhihua high school (located downtown) and the no.7 high school (located in the western district (Qinxiangping))
- "Nature Resources of Panzhihua" (in Chinese). Official website of Panzhihua Government. Retrieved 2008-08-30.
- "Demographics of Panzhihua" (in Chinese). Official website of Panzhihua Government. Retrieved 2008-08-30.
- "Search: kapok". Longdo Dictionary.
- Wen Chihua (18 January 2010). "Mao statues fashionable again after four decades". China Daily.
- "Roughly: Part III of emergency response to the M6.1 earthquake at the border of Renhe-Huili, Sichuan: Seismic formation background. (四川攀枝花市仁和区-凉山州会理县交界6.1级地震现场应急工作系列报道之三地震构造背景)" (in Chinese). China Earthquake Administration, CEA (中国地震局门户网). 2008-09-02. Retrieved 2008-09-07.