Papal conclave, 1370

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Papal conclave
December 1370
Sede vacante.svg
Coat of arms during the vacancy of the Holy See
Dates and location
Palais des Papes, Avignon
Key officials
Dean Guy de Boulogne
Camerlengo Arnaud Aubert
Protodeacon Pierre Roger de Beaufort
Elected Pope
Pierre Roger de Beaufort
(Name taken: Gregory XI)
PopeGregoryXI.jpg

The Papal conclave of 1370 (December 29–30, 1370), held after the death of Pope Urban V, elected as his successor cardinal Pierre Roger de Beaufort, who under the name Gregory XI became seventh and the last Pope of the period of Avignon Papacy.

List of participants[edit]

Pope Urban V died on December 20, 1370, at Avignon. He was the first Pope who resided in Rome since 1304, although only for a short time (1367 until the beginning of 1370, when he returned to Avignon). At the time of his death, there were 20 living Cardinals. 18 of them participated in the conclave:[1]

Elector Cardinalatial Title Elevated Elevator Notes[2]
Guy de Boulogne Bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina; commendatario of S. Cecilia and S. Crisogono September 20, 1342 Pope Clement VI Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals
Raymond de Canillac, C.R.S.A. Bishop of Palestrina December 17, 1350 Pope Clement VI (Cardinal-nephew)
Guillaume de la Sudrie, O.P. Bishop of Ostia e Velletri September 18, 1366 Pope Urban V
Gilles Aycelin de Montaigu Bishop of Frascati September 17, 1361 Pope Innocent VI
Philippe de Cabassole Bishop of Sabina September 22, 1368 Pope Urban V
Pierre de Monteruc Priest of S. Anastasia December 23, 1356 Pope Innocent VI (Cardinal-nephew) Archpriest of the Sacred College of Cardinals; Vice-Chancellor of the Holy Roman Church
Guillaume de la Jugié Priest of S. Clemente 1342, September 20 Pope Clement VI (Cardinal-nephew) Cardinal-protector of the Order of Franciscans
Jean de Blauzac Priest of S. Marco September 17, 1361 Pope Innocent VI
Guillaume d'Aigrefeuille, O.S.B. Priest of S. Stefano al Monte Celio May 12, 1367 Pope Urban V Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals
Stephen Langham Priest of S. Sisto September 22, 1368 Pope Urban V
Bernard du Bosquet Priest of SS. XII Apostoli September 22, 1368 Pope Urban V
Jean de Dormans Priest of SS. IV Coronati September 22, 1368 Pope Urban V Chancellor of the Kingdom of France
Etienne de Poissy Priest of S. Eusebio September 22, 1368 Pope Urban V Grand penitentiary
Francesco Tebaldeschi Priest of S. Sabina September 22, 1368 Pope Urban V
Pietro Corsini Priest of S. Lorenzo in Damaso 1370, June 7 Pope Urban V
Pierre Roger de Beaufort

(elected Pope Gregory XI)

Deacon of S. Maria Nuova 1348, May 28 Pope Clement VI (Cardinal-nephew) Protodeacon of the Sacred College of Cardinals; Archpriest of the patriarchal Lateran Basilica and of the patriarchal Liberian Basilica; Cardinal-protector of the Kingdom of Naples
Rinaldo Orsini Deacon of S. Adriano 1350, December 17 Pope Clement VI Archpriest of the patriarchal Vatican Basilica
Hugues de Saint-Martial Deacon of S. Maria in Portico 1361, September 17 Pope Innocent VI

Nine electors were created by Pope Urban V, five by Clement VI and four by Innocent VI.

Post of the Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, the most important during sede vacante, was occupied by Arnaud Aubert,[3] archbishop of Auch and nephew of Pope Innocent VI (but not a Cardinal).

Absentees[edit]

Two Cardinals, both created by Urban V, did not participate in this conclave, because they were in Italy:[1]

Elector Cardinalatial Title Elevated Elevator Notes[2]
Angelic de Grimoard, C.R.S.A. Bishop of Albano 1366, September 18 Pope Urban V (Cardinal-nephew) Papal Vicar in Italy
Pierre d’Estaing, O.S.B. Priest of S. Maria in Trastevere 1370, June 7 Pope Urban V (Cardinal-nephew) Rector of the Duchy of Spoleto

The election of Pope Gregory XI[edit]

Eighteen cardinals present in Avignon entered the conclave on December 29. In the first ballot on the next day in the morning Cardinal Pierre Roger de Beaufort, nephew of Clement VI, protodeacon of the Sacred College, was unanimously elected Pope.[4] He initially opposed his election but eventually accepted and took the name of Gregory XI. On January 2, 1371 he was ordained to the priesthood, and on January 3 he was consecrated bishop of Rome by the dean of the College of Cardinals Guy de Boulogne, and crowned by the new protodeacon Rinaldo Orsini in the cathedral Notre Dame des Doms in Avignon.[5]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Salvador Miranda List of participants of papal conclave of 1370.
  2. ^ a b Notes according to biographical entries of the respective cardinals on The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church: consistories of the 14th Century by Salvador Miranda
  3. ^ Niccolò del Re, La Curia romana: lineamenti storico giuridici, Città del Vaticano, 1998, p. 296
  4. ^ G. Mollat The Popes at Avignon 1305-1378, London 1963, p. 59
  5. ^ S. Miranda Cardinal Pierre Roger de Beaufort (Pope Gregory XI)

Sources[edit]

  • G. Mollat, The Popes at Avignon 1305-1378, London 1963