Papal conclave, 1431

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Papal conclave
March 1431
Sede vacante.svg
Coat of arms during the vacancy of the Holy See
Dates and location
2–3 March 1431
Santa Maria sopra Minerva, Papal States
Key officials
Dean Giordano Orsini
Protopriest Antonio Panciera
Protodeacon Alfonso Carillo de Albornoz
Election
Ballots 1
Elected Pope
Gabriele Condulmer
(Name taken: Eugene IV)
PapstEugen.jpg

Papal conclave 1431 (March 2–3, 1431) convened after the death of Pope Martin V, elected as his successor cardinal Gabriele Condulmer, who took the name Eugene IV. It was the first papal conclave held after the end of the Great Western Schism.

List of participants[edit]

Pope Martin V died on February 20, 1431. At the time of his death, there were 20 publicly known members of the College of Cardinals, but only 18 were considered to be valid electors. 14 of them participated in the conclave:[1]

Elector Nationality Cardinalatial Title Elevated Elevator Notes
Giordano Orsini Roman Bishop of Albano 1405, June 12 Pope Innocent VII Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals; Grand penitentiary
Antonio Correr, O.C.R.S.A. Venetian Bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina 1408, May 9 Pope Gregory XII (Cardinal-nephew) Archpriest of the patriarchal Vatican Basilica
Antonio Panciera Friuli Priest of S. Susanna 1411, June 6 Antipope John XXIII Protopriest of the Sacred College of Cardinals; Administrator of the suburbicarian see of Frascati
Gabriel Condulmer, O.C.R.S.A. (elected Pope Eugene IV) Venetian Priest of S. Clemente 1408, May 9 Pope Gregory XII (Cardinal-nephew)
Branda da Castiglione Duchy of Milan Priest of S. Clemente 1411, June 6 Antipope John XXIII
Jean de La Rochetaillée French Priest of S. Lorenzo in Lucina 1426, May 24 Pope Martin V Administrator of Rouen and of Besançon; Archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian Basilica
Louis Aleman, O.C.R.S.J. French Priest of S. Cecilia 1426, May 24 Pope Martin V Administrator of Arles
Antonio Cassini Siena Priest of S. Marcello 1426, May 24 Pope Martin V Administrator of Grosseto
Juan de Cervantes Castilian Priest of S. Pietro in Vincoli 1426, May 24 Pope Martin V Administrator of Tui
Alfonso Carillo de Albornoz Castilian Deacon of S. Eustachio 1408, September 22 Antipope Benedict XIII Protodeacon of the Sacred College of Cardinals; Archpriest of the patriarchal Lateran Basilica; Administrator of Osma and of Sigüenza
Lucido Conti Roman Deacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin 1411, June 6 Antipope John XXIII Cardinal-protector of the Teutonic Order; Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals
Hugues Lancelot de Lusignan Kingdom of Cyprus Deacon of S. Adriano 1426, May 24 Pope Martin V Administrator of Nicosia
Ardicino della Porta Duchy of Milan Deacon of SS. Cosma e Damiano 1426, May 24 Pope Martin V
Prospero Colonna Roman Deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro 1426, May 24, published on November 8, 1430 Pope Martin V (Cardinal-nephew)

The Council of Constance confirmed the cardinalatial creations of the all three obediences of the time of Schism. Seven participants were creatures of Pope Martin V, three – of "Pisan" Antipope John XXIII, two of "Roman" Pope Gregory XII, one by "Roman" Pope Innocent VII and one of Antipope Benedict XIII of Avignon.

Absentees[edit]

Four electors did not participate in this conclave:

Elector Nationality Cardinalatial Title Elevated Elevator Notes
Pierre de Foix, O.F.M. French Cardinal-Priest of S. Stefano al Monte Celio September, 1414 Antipope John XXIII Legate in Avignon; administrator of Comminges
Niccolo Albergati, O.Carth. Bolognese Priest of S. Croce in Gerusalemme 1426, May 24 Pope Martin V Administrator of Bologna; Papal legate in France
Henry Beaufort English Priest of S. Eusebio 1426, May 24 Pope Martin V Administrator of Winchester; legate a latere in England
Giuliano Cesarini Roman Deacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria 1426, May 24, published on November 8, 1430 Pope Martin V Papal legate in Germany

All the absentee electors were created by Martin V, except Pierre de Foix, who was elevated by Pisan Antipope John XXIII.

Non-electors[edit]

Pope Martin V initiated the custom of creating cardinals without publishing their names at the time (similar to in pectore).[citation needed] At the time of his death the names of two of his secret nominees remained unpublished and, therefore, they were not regarded as members of the Sacred College. They were Juan Casanova, administrator of Elne, and Guillaume Ragenel de Montfort, bishop of Saint-Malo, and they both were later created again by Eugene IV. However, also two cardinals created initially in pectore but later published were not allowed to participate in this conclave, because some necessary rites had not been accomplished at the death of Martin V:

Elector Nationality Cardinalatial Title Elevated Elevator Notes
Domingo Ram, O.C.R.S.A. Catalonian Priest of SS. Giovanni e Paolo 1426, May 24, published on November 8, 1430, but without finishing the rite of his investiture as cardinal Pope Martin V Administrator of Lerida
Domenico Capranica Capranica Prenestina, Papal States Deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata 1426, May 24, published on November 8, 1430, but without finishing the rite of his investiture as cardinal Pope Martin V Administrator of Fermo; Governor of Perugia and of the Duchy of Spoleto

The election of Pope Eugene IV[edit]

On March 2 all cardinals present in Rome entered the conclave in Santa Maria sopra Minerva. Initially, the electors prepared and subscribed the conclave capitulation. The terms of the capitulation were following:

• Half of papal revenue was to be shared with the College of Cardinals

• No major issues were to be decided without the consent of the College

The first scrutiny took place on the following day and ended with unanimous election of Cardinal Gabriele Condulmer, who took the name of Eugene IV. On March 11 he was solmenly crowned in the steps of the patriarchal Vatican Basilica by Cardinal Alfonso Carillo, protodeacon of S. Eustachio.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The list of participants is reconstructed according to the subscriptions on conclave capitulation, published in Annales Ecclesiastici, vol. 28, p. 90

Sources[edit]