Papal conclave, 1721
Coat of arms during the vacancy of the Holy See
|Dates and location|
|31 March – 8 May 1721
Apostolic Palace, Papal States
|Dean||Sebastiano Antonio Tanara|
|Sub-Dean||Vincenzo Maria Orsini|
|Vetoed||Fabrizio Paolucci, Francesco Pignatelli|
(Name taken: Innocent XIII)
List of participants
Pope Clement XI died on March 19, 1721 in the twenty-first year of his pontificate at the age of 71. At the time of his death there were sixty-eight cardinals in the Sacred College. Fifty-six of them participated in the subsequent conclave, but Giovanni Battista Cardinal Salerni had to leave it because of illness, leaving fifty-five electors in the final ballot:
- Sebastiano Antonio Tanara (created cardinal on December 12, 1695) – Cardinal-Bishop of Ostia e Velletri; Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals; Prefect of the S.C. of Ceremonies; Prefect of the S.C. of the Ecclesiestical Immunities
- Vincenzo Maria Orsini, O.P. (February 22, 1672) – Cardinal-Bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina; Sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals; Administrator of Benevento
- Francesco del Giudice (February 13, 1690) – Cardinal-Bishop of Frascati; Administrator of Monreale; Secretary of the Supreme S.C. of the Roman and Universal Inquisition; Cardinal-protector of the Kingdom of Sicily
- Fabrizio Paolucci (July 22, 1697) – Cardinal-Bishop of Albano; Cardinal Secretary of State; Grand penitentiary; Prefect of the S.C. of Rites
- Giuseppe Sacripanti (December 12, 1695) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Prassede; Prefect of the S.C. for the Propagation of Faith; Pro-Datary of His Holiness
- Lorenzo Corsini (May 17, 1706) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Pietro in Vincoli; Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Justice; Cardinal-protector of the Orders of Franciscans and Servites
- Francesco Acquaviva d'Aragona (May 17, 1706) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Cecilia; Cardinal-protector of the Kingdom of Spain
- Filippo Antonio Gualterio (May 17, 1706) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Crisogono; Cardinal-protector of England and Scotland
- Giuseppe Vallemani (May 17, 1706) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Maria degli Angelli alla Terme
- Giandomenico Parraciani (May 17, 1706) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Anastasia; Vicar General of Rome
- Carlo Agostino Fabroni (May 17, 1706) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Agostino; Prefect of the S.C. of Index
- Michelangelo de' Conti (June 7, 1706) – Cardinal-Priest of SS. Quirico e Giulitta; Cardinal-protector of the Kingdom of Portugal
- Ulisse Giuseppe Gozzadini (April 15, 1709) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Croce in Gerusalemme; Archbishop of Imola
- Ludovico Picco della Mirandola (May 18, 1712) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Silvestro in Capite; Archbishop of Senigallia
- Antonio Felice Zondadari (May 18, 1712) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Balbina
- Giovanni Battista Bussi (May 18, 1712) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Maria in Aracoeli; Archbishop of Ancona
- Pier Marcellino Corradini (May 18, 1712) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Giovanni a Porta Latina; Prefect of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council
- Armand-Gaston de Rohan-Soubise (May 18, 1712) – Cardinal-Priest of [no title assigned]; Bishop of Strasbourg
- Wolfgang Hannibal von Schrattenbach (May 18, 1712) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Marcello; Bishop of Olomouc; Protector of Germany
- Giovanni Battista Tolomei, S.J. (May 18, 1712) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Stefano al Monte Celio; Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals
- Benedetto Erba Odescalchi (January 30, 1713) – Cardinal-Priest of SS. Nereo ed Achilleo; Archbishop of Milan
- Henri-Pons de Thiard de Bissy (May 29, 1715) – Cardinal-Priest of [no title assigned]; Bishop of Meaux
- Bernardino Scotti (May 29, 1715) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Pietro in Montorio
- Niccolò Caracciolo (December 16, 1715) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Martino ai Monti; Archbishop of Capua
- Giovanni Battista Patrizi (December 16, 1715) – Cardinal-Priest of SS. IV Coronati; Legate in Ferrara
- Nicolò Gaetano Spinola (December 16, 1715) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Sisto
- Giberto Bartolomeo Borromeo (March 15, 1717) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Alessio; Bishop of Novara; Latin Patriarch of Antioch
- Imre Csáky (July 12, 1717) – Cardinal-Priest [no title assigned]; Archbishop of Kalocsa-Bács
- Cornelio Bentivoglio (November 29, 1719) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Girolamo degli Schiavoni; Legate in Romagna
- Thomas Philip Wallrad d'Hénin-Liétard d'Alsace-Boussu de Chimay (November 29, 1719) – Cardinal-Priest [no title assigned]; Archbishop of Mechelen
- Giovanni Francesco Barbarigo (November 29, 1719) – Cardinal-Priest [no title assigned]; Bishop of Brescia
- Álvaro Cienfuegos Villazón, S.J. (September 30, 1720) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Bartolomeo all’Isola; Bishop of Catania
- Benedetto Pamphili, O.S.Io.Hieros. (September 1, 1681) – Cardinal-Deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata; Protodeacon of the Sacred College of Cardinals; Librarian of the Holy Roman Church; Archpriest of the patriarchal Lateran Basilica; Prefect of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Grace
- Pietro Ottoboni (November 7, 1689) – Cardinal-Deacon of S. Lorenzo in Damaso; Vice-Chancellor of the Holy Roman Church; Archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian Basilica; Cardinal-protector of the Kingdom of France
- Giuseppe Renato Imperiali (February 13, 1690) – Cardinal-Deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro; Prefect of the S.C. of Good Government; Prefect of the S.C. of Religious Discipline
- Lorenzo Altieri (February 13, 1690) – Cardinal-Deacon of S. Agata in Suburra
- Carlo Colonna (May 17, 1706) – Cardinal-Deacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria
- Annibale Albani (December 23, 1711) – Cardinal-Deacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin; Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church; Archpriest of the patriarchal Vatican Basilica; Governor of Frascati and Castelgandolfo; Cardinal-protector of the Kingdom of Poland; ambassador of Austria before the Holy See
- Curzio Origo (May 18, 1712) – Cardinal-Deacon of S. Eustachio
- Damian Hugo Philipp von Schönborn (January 30, 1713) – Cardinal-Deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano; Bishop of Speyer
- Fabio Olivieri (May 6, 1715) – Cardinal-Deacon of SS. Vito e Modesto; Secretary of Apostolic Briefs
Twelve cardinals were absent from the election
- Galeazzo Marescotti (May 27, 1675) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Lorenzo in Lucina; Protopriest of the Sacred College of Cardinals
- Louis-Antoine de Noailles (June 21, 1700) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Maria sopra Minerva; Archbishop of Paris
- Christian August von Sachsen-Zeitz (May 17, 1706) – Cardinal-Priest [no title assigned]; Archbishop of Esztergom; Administrator of Györ; Cardinal-protector of Germany; Supreme Chancellor of the Kingdom of Hungary
- Nuno da Cunha e Attaíde (May 18, 1712) – Cardinal-Priest [no title assigned]; Inquisitor General of the Portuguese Inquisition; Titular Bishop of Targa
- Léon Potier de Gesvres (November 29, 1719) – Cardinal-Priest [no title assigned]; Archbishop of Bourges
- Luis Antonio Belluga y Moncada (November 29, 1719) – Cardinal-Priest [no title assigned]; Bishop of Cartagena
- Carlos de Borja-Centelles y Ponce de León (September 30, 1720) – Cardinal-Priest [no title assigned]; Patriarch of the West Indies; Titular Archbishop of Trebizond
- Melchior de Polignac (May 18, 1712) – Cardinal-Deacon [no deaconry assigned]
- Carlo Maria Marini (May 29, 1715) – Cardinal-Deacon of S. Maria in Aquiro
All the absentees were creatures of Clement XI, except Marescotti, who was appointed cardinal by Clement X, and Noailles, who was named by Innocent XII.
Divisions in the College of Cardinals
The College of Cardinals was divided into four factions, two political and two curial. The Imperial faction, the strongest faction in the Sacred College, was headed by Imperial minister Althan; its strength was estimated between twenty and twenty five votes. They represented the interests of Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor.
The Bourbon faction, the group of cardinals who defended the interests of the two Catholic powers ruled by Bourbon kings — France and Spain — included eleven or twelve cardinals. They represented the interests of Louis XV of France and Philip V of Spain.
The Clementine party formed the third faction; Annibale Albani, Cardinal-nephew of Clement XI, was leader of the group of cardinals created by his uncle. Their number was estimated between eight and fifteen. Finally, the Zelanti formed the party of cardinals who opposed the secular influences on the Church. Their leader was Cardinal Fabroni. Its strength was estimated between six and twelve.
It was generally expected that the two curial factions, the Clementine and the Zelanti, would join their forces in the conclave.
As many as thirty cardinals were considered papabili, but among them Francesco Pignatelli was regarded as the general favourite. He was supported by Austria and had also many adherents among the Zelanti. Annibale Albani officially supported the candidate of Austria, but actually wanted to elect Fabrizio Paolucci, secretary of state of his uncle. Other candidates with serious chances for the election were Corsini, Tanara, Conti, Pamphili, Barbarigo and Gozzadini.
At the time of death of Pope Clement XI two cardinals, Giulio Alberoni and Noailles, were excommunicated. It was decided, however, that they should be invited to the conclave. Cardinal Noailles excused himself because of advanced age and poor health.
Another problem concerned Cardinal Vice-Chancellor Ottoboni: he was not yet ordained. But eventually he was also allowed to participate in the conclave.
Only twenty-seven cardinals entered the conclave on March 31 By April 9 the number of electors reached only forty. Two last cardinals Thomas Philip Wallrad d'Hénin-Liétard d'Alsace-Boussu de Chimay and Damian Hugo Philipp von Schönborn arrived only on May 7.
Cardinal Annibale Albani, taking advantage of the small number of electors (mostly curial cardinals created by his uncle), tried to achieve a quick election of his candidate, Fabrizio Paolucci. In the first scrutiny conducted on April 1 in the morning Paolucci received eight votes in the ballot and two additional in the accessus. In the second scrutiny in the evening of the same day Paolucci was only three votes short of being elected. But at that time Cardinal Althan (the only Crown-Cardinal present in the early ballots) in the name of Emperor Charles VI pronounced the official exclusion against Paolucci.
The Imperial veto was very successful. On April 2 in the morning not a single vote fell to the Cardinal Secretary of State. On that same day the French Cardinal Rohan entered the conclave. He thanked Althan for his action against Paolucci.
During April several candidates were proposed — Spada, Gozzadini, Cornaro, Caracciolo — but none of them had been able to secure significant support. On April 20 Cardinal Cienfuegos arrived with the fresh instructions of the Imperial Court. At the end of this month it became clear that the best chances for the election was Cardinal Conti, proposed by the French faction. On April 25 Conti obtained seven votes. The Imperial faction, however, still awaited for arrival of their main candidate Pignatelli, and had instructions to vote for Conti only in the last instance. But when Pignatelli eventually joined the electors on May 1, Spain officially excluded his candidature. The collapse of Pignatelli was decisive: the Imperial faction, admitting the impossibility of electing his candidate, agreed to vote for Conti. In the subsequent days the curial factions also promised their support for Conti.
Election of Pope Innocent XIII
On May 8 in the morning, in the seventy-fifth ballot, Cardinal Michelangelo de' Conti was elected pope, receiving fifty-four votes out of fifty-five. The only vote against was his own, which he gave to Sebastiano Antonio Tanara, Dean of the College of Cardinals. He accepted his election and took the name of Innocent XIII, in honour of Pope Innocent III, also of the Conti family. A little bit later Protodeacon Benedetto Pamphili announced his election to the people of Rome with the ancient formula Habemus Papam, and on May 18 he solemnly crowned him in the steps of the patriarchal Vatican Basilica.
- List of participants of conclave, 1721 by S. Miranda. This source indicates that Cardinal Parraciani left the conclave because of illness on April 28, but this is erroneous (L. Pastor, p. 6)
- Left the conclave because of illness
- L. Pastor, pp5-9
- L.Pastor, p.10-14
- Sede Vacante 1721
- Papal Library: Biography of Innocent XIII
- L. Pastor, p. 6
- L.Pastor, p.14
- L.Pastor, p.15
- L.Pastor, p. 16
- L.Pastor, p.19-20
- L.Pastor, p.21-24
- L.Pastor, p. 25
- L.Pastor, p. 26
- S.Miranda: Cardinal Michelangelo de' Conti (Pope Innocent XIII
- List of participant of conclave, 1721 (by S. Miranda)
- Sede Vacante 1721
- Papal Library
- Ludwig von Pastor "History of the Popes vol. XXXIV", London 1941