Papal conclave, 2013
Coat of arms during the vacancy of the Holy See
|Dates and location|
|12–13 March 2013
Sistine Chapel, Apostolic Palace,
|Protopriest||Paulo Evaristo Arns|
|Jorge Mario Bergoglio
(Name taken: Francis)
The Papal conclave of 2013 was convened to elect a pope to succeed Benedict XVI following his resignation on 28 February 2013. After the 115 participating cardinal-electors gathered, they set 12 March 2013 as the beginning of the conclave. White smoke was seen emanating from the Sistine Chapel chimney on 13 March at 19:06 (7:06 PM) local time, following the fifth ballot, and the bells began pealing minutes after, signifying the election of a new pope. The conclave elected Jorge Mario Bergoglio, SJ, an Argentine cardinal and archbishop of Buenos Aires, who selected the papal name of Francis.
- 1 Resignation of Pope Benedict XVI
- 2 Papabili
- 3 Speculation
- 4 Papal election process
- 5 Preliminary discussions, research, and preparations
- 6 Election
- 7 Post-conclave events
- 8 Notes
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Resignation of Pope Benedict XVI
On 11 February 2013, Benedict XVI announced his resignation of the papacy effective 28 February 2013 at 20:00 (8:00 PM) local time (19:00/7:00 PM UTC). He was the first pope to resign since Gregory XII in 1415, and the first to do so on his own initiative since Celestine V in 1294.
The conclave cardinals may elect any baptised Catholic male, but since 1389 they have always elected a fellow cardinal. Observers of papal elections tend to consider a few cardinals more likely choices than the others —these are the papabili, the plural for papabile, an Italian word which is practically rendered into English as "pope-able". Inasmuch as the set of papabili is a matter of informed speculation, the election of a non-papabile is common. Recent cases are John XXIII in 1958, and John Paul I and John Paul II, both in 1978.
Christoph Schönborn of Austria, Odilo Scherer of Brazil, Luis Antonio Tagle of the Philippines, Peter Turkson of Ghana, Marc Ouellet of Canada, Péter Erdő of Hungary and Angelo Scola of Italy were among the cardinals most often identified in press reports as those most likely to be elected.  On 9 March, Cardinal André Vingt-Trois said there were around "half a dozen possible candidates." The next day Cardinal Philippe Barbarin said "There are three, four, maybe a dozen candidates." Jorge Bergoglio of Argentina was seen as a papabile though less likely to emerge as pope. One summary of likely candidates included him because he was the reported "second place finisher" at the last conclave, but observed that "his 'moment' seems to be over".
The Los Angeles Times suggested that, though a pope from Latin America was unlikely, with only 19 of 117 cardinal-electors being from Latin America, the region seeks more say in Vatican affairs as it has the world’s largest Catholic population. It cited secularism and the rise of Evangelicalism in Latin America, along with sex abuse scandals in Mexico, Brazil, and Chile as issues important to the region. BBC News said that while the balloting was likely to be hard-fought between different factions for a European or a non-European, an Italian or a non-Italian future pope, the internal differences were unclear, and that many different priorities were at play, making this election difficult to predict. Cardinal Cormac Murphy-O’Connor remarked laughingly to a BBC presenter that his colleagues have been telling him "Siamo confusi – 'we’re confused,'" as there were neither clear blocs nor a front-runner.
One Australian commentator noted that the reform of the administrative machinery of the church, the Roman Curia, was a major issue, as there was no major progressive candidate, and indeed no clear front-runners, in the dynamic between institutional-maintenance and evangelical Catholicism. Giacomo Galeazzi of La Stampa said that "Apparently a sort of tsunami of non-European candidates will fall upon the Roman Curia, and this could take the pontificate far away from Rome, making it more international.” Italian Cardinal Francesco Coccopalmerio said: "It’s time to look outside Italy and Europe, in particular considering Latin America."
The dossier of the Vatican’s own internal investigation into the so-called Vatileaks scandal was called "in effect ... the 118th cardinal inside the conclave".[a] Although the investigating cardinals (none of whom are cardinal electors) are free to discuss the results of their investigation with the participants of the conclave, the dossier itself is to be given by Benedict XVI to his successor.
Cardinal Velasio De Paolis, C.S., said that the presence at the conclave of the former archbishop of Los Angeles, Roger Mahony, would be "troubling" but he also noted that the said cardinal "has the right and duty to take part,” and "the rules must be followed.”. Mahony’s successor in Los Angeles, Archbishop José Horacio Gómez, had recently rebuked Mahony for his handling of sex abuse cases, though he too, supported Mahony’s presence at the conclave.
Papal election process
Cardinal-electors by continent
Rest of Europe
|Pope emeritus||Benedict XVI
Timing and rule change
In 1996, John Paul II in Universi Dominici Gregis fixed the start date of the papal conclave at 15 to 20 days after the papacy becomes vacant. The 2013 conclave was initially expected to start sometime between 15 and 20 March 2013. On 25 February 2013, the Vatican confirmed that Benedict XVI issued the order Normas Nonnullas to allow for a schedule change. This gave the College of Cardinals more latitude, once all of the elector-cardinals were present, to start the conclave earlier or later. They scheduled it to begin 12 March 2013.
There were 207 cardinals on the day the papacy fell vacant. Cardinals aged 80 years or older before the day the papacy fell vacant are ineligible to participate, leaving 117 electors. Two of them were the first cardinal-electors from their churches to participate in a papal conclave: Maronite Patriarch Bechara Boutros al-Rahi[d] and Syro-Malankara Major-Archbishop Baselios Cleemis, the first bishop from the Syro-Malankara Church to be created cardinal[e]
Two cardinal electors did not attend the conclave. Julius Darmaatmadja, from Indonesia, declined because of the progressive deterioration of his eyesight. Keith O'Brien, the only potential cardinal-elector from Britain,[f] had been recently accused of sexual misconduct towards priests in the 1980s and said he did not want his presence to create a distraction. He had resigned as Archbishop of St Andrews and Edinburgh on 18 February 2013 and later apologised for "sexual misconduct".
Preliminary discussions, research, and preparations
As soon as Pope Benedict announced his resignation, cardinals began arriving in Rome, and by the day the interregnum formally began most of them had already arrived. A formal invitation to the Conclave was issued on 1 March. The last of the 115 participating Cardinal Electors to arrive was Cardinal Jean-Baptiste Phạm Minh Mẫn of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, who arrived on 7 March.
Gianfranco Ravasi of the Roman Curia, one of seventeen Cardinal Electors with Twitter accounts, suspended his social media presence on his own initiative at the beginning of the interregnum, while others posted their reactions as they assembled.[g] The College of Cardinals later imposed a pre-conclave media and social media blackout, following leaks to the Italian press, which precluded some American cardinals from holding further press conferences. Some Cardinal Electors researched one another on-line.
The first of several "general congregations" was held on the morning of 4 March to organize the event. The Sistine Chapel was closed to the public on 5 March in preparation for the conclave even before its date was set. To control communication with the outside world during the conclave, a Faraday cage blocking outgoing and incoming communications was installed in the Sistine Chapel area. Contemporary media nevertheless gave journalists and other outsiders unprecedented access to this papal conclave. Approximately 5,600 journalists were accredited to cover the event.
The first congregation (on the morning of 4 March) focused on introductory matters, picking three assistants to the Camerlengo, the recent Synod of Bishops on the New Evangelization, and a suggestion of a message of appreciation to Pope Emeritus Benedict XVI, with 13 cardinals giving speeches (simply in the order they had requested to speak). The second congregation (the evening of 4 March) featured the preaching of the first of two required meditations by Father Raniero Cantalamessa and nine more addresses.
The third congregation was held the morning of 5 March, and featured 11 more addresses (all six continents had by then been represented). The message of appreciation was sent, and the text of the guidelines for the conclave was read. Topics of discussion were: the activities of the Holy See in light of its relations with the world Church's bishops, the course of the Church's renewal after Vatican Council II, and the Church's position in the world, especially regarding the New Evangelization. That evening, the Sistine Chapel closed and the furnaces were installed.
The fourth congregation was held on the morning of 6 March. The Liturgy of the Hours was prayed and three cardinals with birthdays were congratulated, then 18 more speeches (limited to 5 minutes) were given. All but two cardinal-electors were present and had taken the oath. The Church in the world today and the needs of the New Evangelization, the status of the Holy See and of the Roman Curia's dicasteries (its departments: the congregations, the courts, and the pontifical councils, commissions, and academies), relations with bishops, and expectations of a future pope, were discussed. That evening, a prayer service was held at St. Peter's Basilica.
The fifth congregation was held the morning of 7 March. Three new cardinal assistants to the Camerlengo were chosen. A telegram of condolence for the death of Venezuelan president Hugo Chávez was then read. Three separate speeches, each done by one of the three cardinal presidents of the three economic departments of the Holy See, were then given. Then, 13 more speeches were given, especially on ecumenism and the Church's charitable efforts and attention to the poor, in addition to the topics from the previous meeting sessions.
The sixth congregation was scheduled for that evening. Some cardinals from the U.S. had stated in their interviews that the conclave might not begin until well into the following week, wanting the issues to be well discussed (this also gives the non-Italian and non-curial cardinals the benefit of getting to know their Italian and curial counterparts, and especially their other colleagues worldwide, better, which may lessen any disadvantage they may have in voting).[
On 7 March, reporters were shown images of preparation work, including the installation of the chimney. Cardinal Phạm Minh Mẫn was able to join the other 114 participating Cardinal Electors for the 6th general congregation the evening of 7 March. Seven more cardinals spoke; all 115 participating Cardinal Electors were present. On 8 March, Lombardi announced that the cardinals would meet later that day and then announce the date for the start of the conclave, which they then set for 12 March. On 8 March, 153 cardinals, including all 115 participating electors, attended the 7th general congregation, where the Cardinal Dean announced that Cardinals Julius Riyadi Darmaatmadja and Keith O'Brien would not be joining the conclave despite being eligible to vote.
Having met the conditions set for beginning the conclave, the cardinals chose Cardinal Prosper Grech to give the meditation at the beginning of the conclave. Eighteen cardinals spoke, bringing the total number of interventions to over 100. In light of International Women's Day, one speech was about the role of women in the Church. Other topics added in this session were: interreligious dialogue, bioethics, the Church's role in promoting justice in the world, collegiality in the Church, and the need for the Church's evangelizers to proclaim the Gospel.
On 11 March, the day before the conclave, the non-cardinal officials, support staff and other non-voting personnel who had duties during the conclave took the oath of secrecy in the presence of Camerlengo Tarcisio Bertone as prescribed in Universi Dominici Gregis as modified by Normas Nonnullas. Among those taking the oath were the secretary of the College of Cardinals Archbishop Lorenzo Baldisseri[h] and the Master of Pontifical Liturgical Celebrations Monsignor Guido Marini. Msgr. Marini himself led the oathtakers in reading the oath out loud. The oath bound them to secrecy on anything they observed during the conclave pertaining to the new pope's election unless explicitly granted special faculty by the new Pope or his successors. The oath also bound them to refrain from using any audio or visual recording equipment and recording anything pertaining to the papal election during the conclave. The penalty for breaking the oath was automatic excommunication. The non-electors took their oath in Italian and in the Pauline Chapel.
|1||1||No pope elected|
On 12 March 2013, the cardinals present in Rome, both voting and non-voting, gathered in St. Peter's Basilica in the morning for the Pro eligendo Pontifice concelebrated mass. The Dean of the College of Cardinals, Angelo Sodano was the principal concelebrant and gave the homily. In the afternoon, the 115 cardinal-electors assembled in the Pauline Chapel and walked in procession through the Sala Regia into the Sistine Chapel chanting the Litany of the Saints. After taking their places, the "Veni Creator Spiritus" ("Come, Creator Spirit") was sung. The oath was read loud by the presiding Cardinal, Giovanni Battista Re, Cardinal Bishop of Sabina-Poggio Mirteto, the most senior Cardinal in attendance. As at the previous conclave, they would swear to observe the norms prescribed by John Paul II's apostolic constitution Universi Dominici Gregis. In addition, they would swear to adhere to the rules prescribed by Pope Benedict XVI in February. Then each cardinal elector in order of seniority placed his hands on the Gospels and made the following affirmation out loud in Latin:
Et ego [forename] Cardinalis [surname] spondeo, voveo ac iuro. Sic me Deus adiuvet et haec Sancta Dei Evangelia, quae manu mea tango.
And I, [forename] Cardinal [surname], do so promise, pledge and swear. So help me God and these Holy Gospels which I touch with my hand.
While making the oath, several Cardinals used the Latin forms of their names. The four cardinals from Eastern Catholic churches were distinguished by their attire.[i] A fifth cardinal, Anthony Olubunmi Okogie of the Latin Church, Archbishop-Emeritus of Lagos, Nigeria did not wear his mozzetta and was seated in a wheelchair through the procession and most of the proceedings but walked accompanied by an assistant and placed his hands on the gospels like the others when making the oath.
Msgr. Guido Marini, Papal Master of Ceremonies, then called out the words "'Extra omnes!"—"Everybody out!"— and the chapel doors were locked to outsiders. Once the doors were closed, the cardinals heard the second required meditation for the conclave, given by Cardinal Grech. After the meditation, one ballot was taken.
Black smoke coming out of the Sistine Chapel's chimney indicated that on this first ballot no candidate had received the required two-thirds of the votes cast. According to several media accounts of the first vote, Scola and Ouellet led with roughly equal numbers of votes, Bergoglio was a close third, and the rest of the votes were scattered among several others. According to La Repubblica, Scola received approximately 35 votes to Bergoglio's 20 and Ouellet's 15, while another account said that Scherer had shown strength. Some cardinals later said that "when they woke up Wednesday morning, it wasn't clear to them they'd have a pope that night, and it was even less clear it would be Bergoglio."
The two rounds of voting on the morning of the 13 March 2013 proved inconclusive and black smoke was again sent out.[j] Scola's candidacy stalled going into Wednesday and votes began to converge around the candidacies of Ouellet and Bergoglio. Sources report that at some point, Ouellet threw his support behind Bergoglio, and by the first afternoon ballot—the fourth ballot of the conclave—Bergoglio became the clear front runner. On the fifth ballot, the cardinals, wishing to show a unified front, voted overwhelmingly in favor of Bergoglio, reportedly giving him more than 90 votes. Cardinal Seán Brady reported that applause broke out during the tabulation when Bergoglio's count reached the 77 votes required for election.
When Bergoglio was asked if he would accept his election, according to Cardinal Wilfrid Napier OFM, he said, "Although I am a sinner, I accept." He took the name Francis, in honour of St. Francis of Assisi. He later said that some cardinal-electors jokingly suggested he should choose either "Adrian" after the great reformer Pope Adrian VI or "Clement" after Pope Clement XIV who suppressed the Jesuit order. The Portuguese section of Vatican Radio later would report that at the conclusion of the conclave, Archbishop Lorenzo Baldisseri the non-elector secretary of the conclave received the cardinalitial zucchetto from the newly elected pope. Traditionally if the conclave secretary was given the cardinalatial zucchetto it meant he would be elevated to the cardinalate in an upcoming consistory. This was an old tradition that had last been practiced by Pope John XXIII in 1958, when he placed his skullcap on the head of Monsignor Alberto di Jorio, who was secretary of the conclave, creating him a cardinal formally in December of that year.[k]
The Cardinal Protodeacon Jean-Louis Tauran appeared at the central balcony of St. Peter's Basilica and announced the election of the new pope and his chosen name. Pope Francis appeared, asked the people to bless him before he blessed the world, at which point the conclave concluded.
At 8:23 pm (20:23) local time, the Italian Conference of Bishops released a statement congratulating Cardinal Angelo Scola of Milan on his election as pope. A corrected statement was released at 9:09 pm (21:09). As cardinals described the voting process, carefully suppressing details so as not to violate their oath of secrecy, one offered this assessment, that "Scola might have won" and "is obviously qualified to be pope", but there was "a very strong bias against the Italians." He added: "There was a sense that the Italians aren't up to the job anymore. They used to be so good, but lately they seem to have lost control of things."
In October 2013, it was reported that the US National Security Agency had targeted cardinals in the conclave for surveillance, including Cardinal Bergoglio. An NSA spokesperson denied this.
- After two cardinals announced that they would not be attending, the Italian media referred to the Vatileaks scandal as "the 116th cardinal."
- Both Angelo Sodano and Roger Etchegaray the Dean and Vice-Dean respectively of the College of Cardinals were ineligible to participate in the conclave due to age.
- Under the prior rules, any such person who violated the duty of secrecy was subject to punishment at the discretion of the new pope.
- Al-Rahi is the fourth Maronite Cardinal-Bishop Patriarch. His predecessors turned 80 before having the opportunity to participate in a conclave.
- Baselios Cleemis was also the youngest cardinal-elector and the youngest member of the College of Cardinals.
- The archdiocese of Cardinal elector Seán Brady straddles the border between Northern Ireland, part of the UK, and the Republic of Ireland, and his seat is in Armagh, Northern Island, in the United Kingdom but not Great Britain.
- Cardinal Roger Mahony of Los Angeles tweeted about the diversity of the Cardinals, many of whom were meeting each other for the first time: "Fascinating meeting Cardinals from all around the world. Stories and needs so different; but always a uniform focus on Jesus Christ!" Cardinal Wilfrid Napier of Durban, South Africa tweeted in response to a pastor in Ontario, Canada, in less than an hour that "What I see is a real desire to know, and so evaluate, the papabili against criteria of qualities demanded by situations."
- As secretary of the College of Cardinals, Baldisseri was also designated to be the secretary for the cardinal-electors at the conclave
- Antonios Naguib, Patriarch-Emeritus of the Coptic Catholic Church and Baselios Cleemis, Major-Archbishop of the Syro-Malankara Church wore predominantly black vestments. Maronite Patriarch Bechara Boutros al-Rahi and Syro-Malabar Major Archbishop George Alencherry wore all-red vestments. All the cardinals wore Latin church birette and/or zucchetti except for the four Eastern Catholic cardinals: Cardinal Alencherry wore a Nasrani biretta without a zucchetto; Cardinals al-Rahi and Cleemis wore different headgear; and Cardinal Naguib was bareheaded.
- If there are two ballots at either time of day, they are burned together. Thus, there can be at most two smoke signals per day from the Sistine Chapel chimney.
- Baldisseri was created a cardinal on February 22, 2014 at Pope Francis' first consistory to create cardinals.
- "White smoke emerges signalling new pope elected". Raidió Teilifís Éireann. 13 March 2013. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
- Staff (11 February 2013). "Pope Benedict XVI to resign citing poor health". BBC News. Retrieved 1 March 2013.
- Pullella, Philip (11 February 2013). "Pope's sudden resignation sends shockwaves through Church". Reuters. Retrieved 1 March 2013.
- Pope Benedict XVI (10 February 2013). "Declaratio". Holy See. Retrieved 1 March 2013.
- Saunders, William (2005). "Can the Pope Retire?". Arlington Catholic Herald (via the Catholic Education Resource Center). Retrieved 21 February 2013.
- Dinmore, Guy; Segreti, Giulia; Giugliano, Ferdinando (11 February 2013). "Benedict stuns Church with abdication". Financial Times. Retrieved 11 February 2013. (registration required)
- Alpert, Emily (11 February 2013). "Scandal, Speculation Surround Past Popes Who Resigned". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 11 February 2013.
- Hirsch, Afua; Jones, Sam (11 February 2013). "Who Will Be the Next Pope? The Contenders for Vatican's Top Job". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 12 February 2013.
- Thavis, John (February 2013). "Election of New Pope Follows Detailed Procedure". Catholic News Service. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
- Technically Nicholas II's In Nomine Domini bull of 1059 laid down that the electors could chose from "another church" if there was no suitable candidate within the Roman church.
- "Vatikan-Kenner: Schönborn als neuer Papst in "Poleposition"". Kurier.at. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- "Papst-Nachfolge: Italiens Medien sehen Schönborn in "Pole Position" – "Würde Kontinuität mit Benedikts Ansichten garantieren"". Wienerzeitung.at. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- "Scherer, Sandri, Scola, Schönborn y Tagle, el enigma de los papables". Hechosdehoy.com. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- "Grupo de cardeais articula nome de d. Odilo Scherer". O Estado de S. Paulo. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- L. Allen Jr., John (24 February 2013). "Papabile of the Day: The Men Who Could Be Pope – Cardinal Péter Erdõ of Budapest, Hungary". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
- Donadio, Rachel; Povoledo, Elisabetta (12 February 2013). "Pope Resigns, with Church at Crossroads". The New York Times. pp. A1, A11. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
- "AFP: Vatican readies for conclave to elect new pope". Google. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- Allen, Jr., John L. (17 March 2013). "Path to the papacy: 'Not him, not him, therefore him'". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 9 April 2013.
- "One Of These Men Will Be The Next Pope". Business Insider. 11 February 2013. Retrieved 15 February 2013.
- "Choose your own pope – with our interactive Pontifficator". The Guardian. 12 March 2013. Contains descriptions of all 115 cardinal electors, 13 of whom are marked as papabili.
- "Neil Young's Film Lounge: Father Figures: Vatican Lounge's Papabile Focus on the 266th Pope. Retrieved March 15, 2013". :. Retrieved 2013-11-25.
- "Huffington Post Papabile 2013: Top Contenders To Be Next Pope As We Enter Conclave. March 10, 2013. Retrieved March 15, 2013". Huffingtonpost.com. 10 March 2013. Retrieved 2013-11-25.
- John L. Allen Jr. (March 3, 2013). "Papabile of the Day: The Men Who Could Be Pope (Profile: New pope, Jesuit Bergoglio, was runner-up in 2005 conclave)". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved March 15, 2013.
- "The top contenders to be the next pope". thespec.com. Retrieved August 9, 2013.
- Wilkinson, Tracy (23 February 2013). "As a New Pope Is Chosen, Latin America Hopes for More Sway – Although a Latin American Pope Appears Unlikely, the 19 Cardinals from the Region Who Have a Vote at Next Month’s Conclave Are Hoping to Have More Influence This Time". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 28 February 2013.
- Willey, David (28 February 2013). "The day Benedict XVI’s papacy ended", BBC News. 1 March 2013.
- "The Vatican: Suspense and intrigue". BBC. 1 January 1970. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- Ivereigh, Austen. "OSV Daily Take Blog: Ivereigh in Rome: Does cardinal confusion spell a long conclave?". Osvdailytake.com. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- "The peculiar dynamics of Conclave 2013". Australian Broadcasting Corporation.
- "The complicated choice facing the Vatican conclave". Euronews.com.
- (21 February 2013). Vatican conclave tainted by scandal before it even begins. The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 1 March 2013.
- Lyman, Eric J. (1 March 2013). "Vatican Summons Cardinals for Conclave". USA Today. Retrieved 3 March 2013.
- Wright, David (25 February 2013). "Results of 'Vatileaks' Probe For 'Pope’s Eyes Only'". ABC News. Retrieved 28 February 2013.
- Kington, Tom (20 February 2013). "Vatican Murmurs About Mahony’s Attendance at Papal Conclave". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 28 February 2013.
- "Resources on current eligible papal electors". Canonlaw.info. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- Hariyadi, Mathias (21 February 2013). "Conclave, Cardinal Darmaatmadja Renounces for 'Health Reasons'". AsiaNews. Retrieved 1 March 2013.
- Holden, Michael (25 February 2013). "Britain's top Catholic cleric resigns, won't elect new pope". Reuters. Retrieved 28 February 2013.
- "The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church – Orders and precedence". fiu.edu. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- "Conclave of March 2013". Salvador Miranda. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
- Staff (25 February 2013). "Pope Benedict XVI Amends Roman Catholic Conclave Law". BBC News. Retrieved 28 February 2013.
- "Conclave to begin Tuesday March 12th". Vatican Radio. 8 March 2013.
- "Universi Dominici Gregis Chapter II Section 48, Chapter III Section 55. English text". Vatican.va. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
- "Normas nonnullas: Apostolic Letter Issued Motu Proprio on Certain Modifications to the Norms Governing the Election of the Roman Pontiff". Vatican.va. Retrieved 7 April 2013.
- John Paul II (22 February 1996). Universi Dominici Gregis. Apostolic Constitution. Vatican City: Vatican Publishing House.
- Paul VI (20 November 1970). Ingravescentem Aetatem (in Latin). Motu proprio. Vatican City.
- "No Arab in the running for Pope, but Maronite to get vote for first time". Al Bawaba News. 12 February 2013. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
- "Moran Mor Baselios Cardinal Cleemis left for Rome". Malankara Catholic News. 28 February 2013. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
- "Cardinal electors arranged by age". Salvador Miranda. Retrieved 18 February 2013.
- "Living cardinals arranged by date of birth". Salvador Miranda. Retrieved 2 September 2013.
- Pigott, Robert (25 February 2013). "Cardinal Keith O'Brien resigns as Archbishop". BBC News.(Resigned 18 February, announced 25 February.) Retrieved 1 March 2013.
- Jerome Taylor (4 March 2013). "The Independent newspaper: Catholic Church scandal: Cardinal O'Brien faces Vatican sexual conduct inquiry as he asks forgiveness of those he 'offended', 3 March 2013". The Independent (London). Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- Hitchen, Philippa (28 February 2013). "Benedict Pledges Obedience to His Successor". Vatican Radio. Retrieved 3 March 2013.
- "Papal conclave: Runners and riders". BBC News. 12 March 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- "Vietnam Cardinal Arrives, Last 1 in For Conclave". Associated Press. 7 March 2013. Retrieved 7 March 2013.
- "Filipino Cardinal's Stock Rises on Social Media : Discovery News". News.discovery.com. 7 March 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- "Tweeting Cardinals Share Pre-Conclave Thoughts – ABC News". ABC News. 6 March 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- Jason Horowitz (6 March 2013). "College of Cardinals imposes media blackout". The Washington Post. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- "The Blog". John Thavis. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- "Late dinners, grappa: The behind-the-scenes work of picking a pope – World News". NBC News. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- "Catholics create 'virtual conclave' online for new pope". Fox News Channel. 1 October 2006. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- "Pope Ready: Renowned Sistine Chapel Decked with Special Chimney for Conclave | Fox News Latino". Fox News Channel. 9 March 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- Lavanga, Claudio; Angerer, Carlo (1 March 2013). "Vatican: Cardinals Will Meet Monday to Discuss Papal Conclave Date". NBC News. Retrieved 3 March 2013.
- Sean Patterson (5 March 2013). "Sistine Chapel Closes Ahead of Papal Conclave". WebProNews. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- Nick Vivarelli. "Vatican to Strip Papal Conclave of Social Media Devices". Variety. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- Roughneen, Simon. "MediaShift . Tweets vs. Smoke Signals: How to Follow the Papal #Conclave". PBS.
- "Conclave app offers potpourri for pope watchers – Business". Boston Globe. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- "Conclave 2013: Electing a Pope in a Social Media World – ABC News". ABC News. 18 April 2005. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- "The 2013 papal conclave frenzy shall be tweeted". Twitchy. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- "No winner in first vote to elect new pope". CNN. 12 March 2013.
- [dead link]
- [dead link]
- [dead link]
- [dead link]
- [dead link]
- "As papal conclave draws near, American cardinals grow silent". Chicago Tribune. 6 March 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- "Cardinal Francis George: Ties to anyone guilty of sexual misconduct could call into question a cardinal's candidacy for pope". Chicago Tribune. 7 March 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- "Roman Catholic cardinals will set a date for the conclave to select a new pope once the field of candidates narrows, Cardinal Francis George says". Chicago Tribune. 5 March 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- "CNS STORY: Cardinals need time to talk before conclave, spokesman says". Catholicnews.com. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- "CNS STORY: Cardinals O'Malley, DiNardo: No rush to set date for conclave". Catholicnews.com. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- Ann, Mary (8 March 2013). "Papal Chimney Gets Twitter Account". Nbclosangeles.com. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- "CNS STORY: Voting for new pope to begin March 12". Catholicnews.com. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- "Press Conference on the Sixth and Seventh General Congregations of the College of Cardinals". Vatican News. 8 March 2013. Retrieved 10 June 2013.
- "Universi Dominici Gregis Chapter II Sections 46-48, Chapter III Section 55. English text". Vatican.va. Retrieved 10 January 2014.
- "Normas Nonnullas No. 46-48 English text". Vatican.va. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
- Non-voting participants in conclave take oath of secrecy (Television production) (in Italian and English). Rome: Rome Reports. 12 March 2013. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
- Conclave oath of secrecy (Television production) (in Italian). Rome: Catholic News Service. 11 March 2013. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
- "Notificazione Giuramento degli Officiali e addetti al Conclave (Oath of the Officials and the Employees at the Conclave)" (in Italian). Vatican.va. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
- Holy Mass "Pro eligendo Pontifice" (Television production) (in Italian). Rome: Centro Televisivo Vaticano. 12 March 2013. Retrieved 9 April 2013.
- Procession and entrance in Conclave (Television production) (in Italian). Rome: Centro Televisivo Vaticano. 12 March 2013. Retrieved 9 April 2013.
- "Universi Dominici Gregis Chapter III Section 53. Latin text.". Vatican.va. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
- "Universi Dominici Gregis Chapter III Section 53. English text.". Vatican.va. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
- "The schedule for the conclave (with U.S. times)". Catholic World Report. 10 March 2013. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
- Squires, Nick (12 March 2013). "Black smoke and no Pope after first vote by Cardinals". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 13 March 2013.
- "Canada's Marc Ouellet came close to becoming pope, media reports say". Global TV Edmonton. 15 March 2013. Retrieved 19 March 2013.
- "Orenove/5. Papa, in conclave un plebiscito: quasi cento voti". Il Velino. 19 March 2013. Retrieved 19 March 2013.
- "Conclave smoke signal timetable". Cnsblog.wordpress.com. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- Owen, Paul; McCarthy, Tom; Batty, David (13 March 2013). "Cardinal Jorge Bergoglio elected pontiff, takes name Pope Francis – live". Guardian (London). Retrieved 13 March 2013.
- Audience to Representatives of the Communications Media - Address of the Holy Father Pope Francis - Vatican.va - Paul VI Audience Hall Saturday, 16 March 2013
- Marco R. della Cava, Pope Francis charms media in first press address, USA Today (16 March 2013). Retrieved 16 March 2013.
- "Dom Lorenzo Baldisseri recebe solideu cardinalício" (in Portuguese). Rádio Vaticano Portuguese section.
- "Annuncio di Concistoro per la Creazione di Nuovi Cardinali" (in Italian). The Vatican Today. 12 January 2014. Retrieved January 12, 2014.
- "Vatican: The Holy See". Retrieved 13 March 2013.
- Donadio, Rachel (13 March 2013). "Cardinals Pick Bergoglio, Who Will Be Pope Francis". New York Times. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
- "Francis begins his challenging papacy". BBC News. 13 March 2013. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
- Sanchez, Raf (13 March 2013). "Jorge Mario Bergoglio elected new pope: as it happened". Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 13 March 2013.
- Wilkinson, Tracy (13 March 2013). "Humility and simple life lead Jesuit to papacy". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
- Choney, Suzanne. "New pope's first tweet: 'HABEMUS PAPAM FRANCISCUM'". NBC News. Retrieved 9 April 2013.
- "Italian bishops mistakenly hail Cardinal Angelo Scola as new pope". The Guardian (UK). 14 March 2013. Retrieved 9 April 2013.
- Pullella, Philip (7 April 2013). "Pope installed as bishop of Rome, appeals to lapsed faithful". Reuters. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
- "Esclusiva Panorama: Datagate, anche il Papa è stato intercettato - Panorama" (in Italian). News.panorama.it. 2013-10-30. Retrieved 2014-01-15.
- "Report: NSA spied on Vatican before conclave". TheHill. 2013-10-30. Retrieved 2014-01-15.
- "REPORT: NSA Spied On Vatican". Business Insider. 2013-10-30. Retrieved 2014-01-15.
- Squires, Nick (30 October 2013). "US 'spied on future Pope Francis during Vatican conclave'". London: Telegraph. Retrieved 2014-01-15.
- "US 'spied on Vatican in run-up to conclave' - Europe". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 2014-01-15.
|Wikinews has related news: Archbishop Jorge Mario Bergoglio of Buenos Aires elected as Pope Francis|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Papal conclave of 2013.|
- Holy Mass "Pro eligendo Pontifice" (official video from the Vatican) on YouTube
- Procession and Entrance into the Conclave (official video from the Vatican) on YouTube
- Habemus Papam (Vatican video of the fumata bianca, Habemus Papam and first appearance of Pope Francis) on YouTube
- Official Vatican website for the Sede Vacante
- Inaugural Mass of the Pontificate (Vatican video of Pope Francis' papal inauguration) on YouTube
- A detailed examination of the voting procedure by Bruce Schneier
- The political science of papal elections
- Conclave infographic
- Rome conclave begins: Highlights from Sistine Chapel