Papal election, 1119

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Papal election
January-February 1118
Sede vacante.svg
Coat of arms during the vacancy of the Holy See
Dates and location
29 January – 2 February 1119
Cluny Abbey, Cluny, Saône-et-Loire, France
Elected Pope
Guy de Bourgogne
(Name taken: Callixtus II)
Pope Callixtus II.jpg
Cluny Abbey, the site of the papal election

The papal election from January 29 to February 2, 1119 was, by an order of magnitude, the smallest papal election of the 12th century currently considered legitimate by the Roman Catholic Church.

Pope Gelasius II had died in Cluny having been expelled from Rome by Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor, as a result of the Investiture Controversy. Probably only two cardinal bishops, four cardinal priests and four cardinal deacons participated in the election. The election took place in Cluny Abbey in France, while the rest of the College of Cardinals remained in Rome. A non-cardinal Guy de Bourgogne, the Archbishop of Vienne, was elected Pope Callixtus II, and crowned in Vienne on February 9; Callixtus II reached Rome on June 3, 1120.[1]

Cardinal electors[edit]

Probably ten cardinals took part in the election.[2]

Elector Nationality Cardinalatial order and title Elevated Elevator Other ecclesiastical titles Notes
Kuno von Urach Germany Cardinal-bishop of Palestrina Circa 1107 Paschal II
Lamberto Scannabecchi, Can.Reg. Fagnano Cardinal-bishop of Ostia and Velletri 1117 Paschal II Future Pope Honorius II (1124–1130)
John of Crema Crema Cardinal-priest of S. Crisogono Circa 1117 Paschal II Papal legate
Guido Galli, O.S.B. Italy Cardinal-priest of S. Balbina Circa 1099 Paschal II
Bosone Italy Cardinal-priest of S. Anastasia Circa 1116 Paschal II
Corrado de Suburra Rome Cardinal-priest of S. Pudenziana Ca. 1111-1114 Paschal II Future Pope Anastasius IV (1153–1154)
Gregorio Papareschi, Can.Reg.Lat. Rome Cardinal-deacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria Circa 1088 (or 1116) Urban II (or Paschal II) Archdeacon of the Holy Roman Church Future Pope Innocent II (1130–1143)
Pietro Pierleoni Rome Cardinal-deacon of Ss. Cosma e Damiano Ca. 1106-1116 Paschal II Future Antipope Anacletus II (1130–1138)
Crisogono Malcondini Pisa Cardinal-deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere 1117 Paschal II Chancellor of the Holy Roman Church
Roscemanno Sanseverino, O.S.B.Cas. Marsica Cardinal-deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro circa 1106 Paschal II Of the Counts of Marsi

Proceeding[edit]

The cardinals attending the death mass of Gelasius II in Cluny in late January 1119 were divided over whether his successor should be elected on the spot (as was permitted by In Nomine Domini) or whether they should return to Rome and hold the election with the full College of Cardinals; although the cardinals proceeded with the election immediately, they agreed that they would submit their choice to the entire College thereafter.[3] The cardinals which accompanied Gleasius II to Cluny are known from Liber Pontificalis associated with "Pandulphus" (either Pandulf of Pisa or Pandolfo Masca of Pisa), from the charter from Cluny, and from the chronicle of Ordericus Vitalis.[3]

Although the contemporary accounts diverge on many points, it is clear across them that the two candidates that emerged were Guy and Pontius of Cluny, both named as candidates by the late pontiff.[4] The account of Gaufrid, prior of Vigois, relates that Gelasius II had preferred Pontius and predicted his election; Pontius was a far more conciliatory candidate, likely to negotiate a solution to the Investiture Controversy.[4] Two accounts in particular—those of Bernard of Carrion and Gaufrid of Vigois—detail the election of Guy, emphasizing the importance of his known confrontational stance towards Henry V (having previously excommunicated him) and his powerful family, the Salian dynasty.[4]

Aftermath[edit]

At the time of his election, Guy was in the company of his militia, which began rioting when it learned of his election, breaking into the election chamber and violently disrobing him, according to the Historia Compostelana.[5]

Callixtus II proceeded to Sutri, the location of his opponent, Antipope Gregory VIII, appointed by Henry V, and laid siege to the city for eight days until Gregory VIII was handed over to him; Callixtus then imprisoned Gregory VIII in the Septizodium, from which the papal claimant was moved from monastery to monastery before his death in 1137.[6]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ S. Miranda Election of 1119
  2. ^ S. Miranda Election of 1119; Stroll, 2004, p. 58-59 and 61-62.
  3. ^ a b Stroll, 2004, p. 58.
  4. ^ a b c Stroll, 2004, p. 59.
  5. ^ Stroll, 2004, p. 64.
  6. ^ S. Miranda Election of antipope Gregory VIII

References[edit]