Papal election, 1144

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The papal election of 1144 followed the death of Pope Celestine II and resulted in the election of Pope Lucius II.

Election of Lucius II[edit]

Pope Celestine II died on 8 March 1144 at Rome, after pontificate of only five months.[1] The election of his successor took place in the shadow of this municipal revolution, which opposed the secular rule of the Pope.[2] Celestine II was unable to recover the full control over the city of Rome; in addition he had to face also the demands of the king Roger II of Sicily.[3] This problem also remained unresolved on his death, because he had refused to confirm the privileges granted to Roger by his predecessor Innocent II.[4]

The cardinals present at Rome elected Cardinal Gerardo Caccianemici, priest of the titulus of S. Croce in Gerusalemme and former canon regular of S. Frediano di Lucca. The details concerning the place of the election or the exact date of electoral proceedeings are not registered.[5] Since the elect was chancellor of the Holy See and close collaborator of both Innocent II and Celestine II, it may be assumed that the cardinals wanted to continue their policy, friendly towards the Empire and hostile towards the king Roger.[6] The elect took the name of Lucius II and received episcopal consecration on 12 March 1144.[7]

Cardinal-electors[edit]

There were probably 39 cardinals in the Sacred College of Cardinals in March 1144.[8] Basing on the examination of the subscribtions of the papal bulls in 1144[9] and the available data about the external missions of the cardinals it is possible to establish that no more than 36 cardinals participated in the election:

Elector Cardinalatial Title Elevated Elevator Notes
Corrado Demetri della Suburra Bishop of Sabina 1113/14 Paschalis II Dean of the College of Cardinals; future Pope Anastasius IV (1153–1154)
Theodwin, O.S.B. Bishop of Santa Rufina ca. 1133 Innocent II
Alberic de Beauvais, O.S.B.Cluny Bishop of Ostia 3 April 1138 Innocent II
Étienne de Châlons, O.Cist. Bishop of Palestrina 21 February 1141 Innocent II
Imar, O.S.B.Cluny Bishop of Tusculum 13 March 1142 Innocent II
Pietro Bishop of Albano 17 September 1143 Innocent II
Gerardo Caccianemici, Can.Reg. Priest of S. Croce in Gerusalemme 9 March 1123 Callixtus II Protopriest; Chancellor of the Holy Roman Church; elected Pope Lucius II
Guido Florentinus Priest of S. Crisogono 1139 Innocent II
Rainiero Priest of S. Prisca 22 December 1139 Innocent II
Goizo Priest of S. Cecilia 22 December 1139 Innocent II
Gregorio della Suburra Priest of S. Maria in Trastevere 1 March 1140 Innocent II
Tommaso Priest of S. Vitale 1 March 1140 Innocent II
Pietro Priest of S. Pudenziana 20 September 1140 Innocent II Archpriest of the Vatican Basilica
Ubaldo Allucingoli Priest of S. Prassede 16 December 1138 Innocent II Future Pope Lucius III (1181–1185)
Ubaldo Priest of SS. Giovanni e Paolo 19 December 1141 Innocent II
Gilberto Priest of S. Marco 13 March 1142 Innocent II
Niccolo Priest of S. Ciriaco 13 March 1142 Innocent II
Manfredo Priest of S. Sabina 17 December 1143 Celestine II
Rainiero Priest of S. Stefano in Monte Celio 17 December 1143 Celestine II
Guido de Summa Priest of S. Lorenzo in Damaso 17 December 1143 Celestine II
Ariberto Priest of S. Anastasia 17 December 1143 Celestine II
Gregorio Tarquini Deacon of SS. Sergio e Bacco 9 March 1123 Callixtus II Protodeacon
Odone Bonecase Deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro 4 March 1132 Innocent II
Guido Pisano Deacon of SS. Cosma e Damiano 4 March 1132 Innocent II
Gerardo Deacon of S. Maria in Domnica 27 May 1138 Innocent II
Guido de Castro Ficeclo Deacon of Holy Roman Church 1139 Innocent II
Pietro Deacon of S. Maria in Aquiro 21 February 1141 Innocent II
Pietro Deacon of S. Maria in Portico 19 September 1141 Innocent II
Gregorio Deacon of the Holy Roman Church 19 December 1141 Innocent II
Gregorio Deacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria 17 December 1143 Celestine II
Astaldo degli Astalli Deacon of S. Eustachio 17 December 1143 Celestine II
Giovanni Caccianemici, Can.Reg. Deacon of S. Maria Nuova 17 December 1143 Celestine II Nephew of the elect
Giovanni Paparoni Deacon of S. Adriano 17 December 1143 Celestine II
Ugo Novariensis Deacon of S. Lucia in Orphea 17 December 1143 Celestine II
Rodolfo Deacon of S. Lucia in Septisolio 17 December 1143 Celestine II

Twenty two electors were created by Pope Innocent II, ten by Celestine II, two by Pope Callixtus II and one by Pope Paschalis II.

Absentees[edit]

Elector Cardinalatial Title Elevated Elevator Notes
Rainaldo di Collemezzo, O.S.B.Cas. Priest of SS. Marcellino e Pietro ca. 1139-1141 Innocent II Abbot of Montecassino (external cardinal[10])
Adenulf, O.S.B. Deacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin 16 December 1132 Innocent II Abbot of Farfa; papal legate in Germany[11]
Ottaviano de Monticelli Deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere 25 February 1138 Innocent II Papal legate in the Kingdom of Sicily;[12] future Antipope Victor IV (1159–1164)

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Jaffé, II, p. 7
  2. ^ Robinson, p. 78.
  3. ^ See Robinson, p. 387
  4. ^ See Robinson, p. 387
  5. ^ Jaffé, II, p. 7. Election in 1143 took place in the Lateran Basilica, in 1145 at the church S. Cesareo in Palatio.
  6. ^ Robinson, p. 387
  7. ^ Robinson, p. 525; Jaffé, II, p. 7.
  8. ^ Reconstruction is based on Brixius, p. 22 note 4 with the following corrections: bishop Rodolfo of Orte has been excluded because he was not a cardinal at that time (Zenker, p. 52-53). Additionally, Brixius indicates that also Bernardo da Pisa, future Pope Eugene III, belonged to the College of Cardinals (similarly Zenker, pp. 184–187), but see M. Horn: Studien zur Geschichte Papst Eugens III.(1145-1153), Peter Lang Verlag 1992, pp. 42–45.
  9. ^ Jaffé, p.1 and 7
  10. ^ Zenker, p. 191-192; see also G. Loud, The Latin Church in Norman Italy, Cambridge University Press, 2007, p. 157-158
  11. ^ Mary Stroll, The Medieval Abbey of Farfa: Target of Papal and Imperial Ambitions, BRILL 1997, p. 254
  12. ^ Bruno W. Häuptli (2004). "Victor IV. (Victor V., Ottaviano de' Monticelli), Gegenpapst 1159-1164". In Bautz, Traugott. Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL) (in German) 23. Nordhausen: Bautz. cols. 1533–1536. ISBN 3-88309-155-3. ; he did not subscribe any papal bulls between 19 February and 14 May 1144 (Jaffé, p.1 and 7)

Sources[edit]

  • Zenker, Barbara (1964). Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130 bis 1159 (in German). Würzburg. 
  • Brixius, Johannes Matthias (1912). Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130-1181 (in German). Berlin: R. Trenkel.