Papal election, 1145

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The papal election of 1145 followed the death of Pope Lucius II and resulted in the election of Pope Eugene III, the first pope of the Order of Cistercians.

San Cesareo in Palatio

Election of Eugene III[edit]

Pope Lucius II, during the whole of his pontificate, had to face the municipal commune at Rome, hostile towards the secular rule of the popes in the Eternal City. The republican faction elected Giordano Pierleoni, brother of the former Antipope Anacletus II, to the post of senator, and demanded that Lucius relinquish all temporal matters into his hands. The pope refused and led the small army against the seat of the commune on Capitol. He was defeated and seriously wounded in this attack, and died on 15 February 1145 in the church of S. Gregorio in clivo scauri.[1] The cardinals present at Rome quickly assembled in the church of San Cesareo in Palatio and on the very same day unanimously elected to the papacy Bernardo da Pisa,[2] pupil of St. Bernard of Clairvaux, who was abbot of the Cistercian monastery of S. Anastasio alle Tre Fontane near Rome and probably did not belong to he College of Cardinals.[3] The elect took the name of Eugene III. Due to hostility of the Roman people, his consecration took place in the monastery of Farfa on 18 February 1145.[4]

Cardinal-electors[edit]

There were probably 40 cardinals in the Sacred College of Cardinals in February 1145.[5] Based on the examination of the subscriptions of the papal bulls in 1145[6] and the available data about the external missions of the cardinals it is possible to establish that no more than 34 cardinals participated in the election:

Elector Cardinalatial Title Elevated Elevator Notes
Corrado Demetri della Suburra Bishop of Sabina 1113/14 Paschalis II Dean of the College of Cardinals; future Pope Anastasius IV (1153–1154)
Theodwin, O.S.B. Bishop of Santa Rufina ca. 1133 Innocent II
Pietro Bishop of Albano 17 September 1143 Innocent II
Guarino Foscari, Can.Reg. Bishop of Palestrina 22 December 1144 Lucius II
Rainiero Priest of S. Prisca 22 December 1139 Innocent II
Gregorio della Suburra Priest of S. Maria in Trastevere 1 March 1140 Innocent II
Tommaso Priest of S. Vitale 1 March 1140 Innocent II
Gilberto Priest of S. Marco 13 March 1142 Innocent II
Niccolo Priest of S. Ciriaco 13 March 1142 Innocent II
Manfredo Priest of S. Sabina 17 December 1143 Celestine II
Guido de Summa Priest of S. Lorenzo in Damaso 17 December 1143 Celestine II
Ariberto Priest of S. Anastasia 17 December 1143 Celestine II
Ugo Novariensis Priest of S. Lorenzo in Lucina 17 December 1143 Celestine II
Giulio Priest of S. Marcello 19 May 1144 Lucius II
Ubaldo Caccianemici, Can.Reg. Priest of S. Croce in Gerusalemme 19 May 1144 Lucius II
Robert Pullen Priest of S. Martino 22 December 1144 Lucius II Chancellor of the Holy Roman Church
Guido Puella, Can.Reg. Priest of S. Pudenziana 22 December 1144 Lucius II
Villano Gaetani Priest of S. Stefano in Monte Celio 22 December 1144 Lucius II Future archbishop of Pisa (1146–1175)
Gregorio Tarquini Deacon of SS. Sergio e Bacco 9 March 1123 Callixtus II Protodeacon
Odone Bonecase Deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro 4 March 1132 Innocent II
Guido Pisano Deacon of SS. Cosma e Damiano 4 March 1132 Innocent II
Ottaviano de Monticelli Deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere 25 February 1138 Innocent II Future Antipope Victor IV (1159-1164)
Guido de Castro Ficeclo Deacon of the Holy Roman Church 1139 Innocent II
Pietro Deacon of S. Maria in Portico 19 September 1141 Innocent II
Gregorio Deacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria 17 December 1143 Celestine II
Astaldo degli Astalli Deacon of S. Eustachio 17 December 1143 Celestine II
Giovanni Caccianemici, Can.Reg. Deacon of S. Maria Nuova 17 December 1143 Celestine II
Giovanni Paparoni Deacon of S. Adriano 17 December 1143 Celestine II
Rodolfo Deacon of S. Lucia in Septisolio 17 December 1143 Celestine II
Berardo Deacon of the Holy Roman Church 19 May 1144 Lucius II
Giacinto Bobone Deacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin 22 December 1144 Lucius II Future Pope Celestine III (1191–1198)
Cinzio Deacon of the Holy Roman Church 22 December 1144 Lucius II
Jordan, O.Carth. Deacon of the Holy Roman Church 22 December 1144 Lucius II
Bernard, Can.Reg. Deacon of the Holy Roman Church 22 December 1144 Lucius II

Thirteen electors were created by Pope Innocent II, nine by Celestine II, eleven by Lucius II, one by Pope Callixtus II and one by Pope Paschalis II.

Absentees[edit]

Elector Cardinalatial Title Elevated Elevator Notes
Alberic de Beauvais, O.S.B.Cluny Bishop of Ostia 3 April 1138 Innocent II Papal legate in France[7]
Imar, O.S.B.Cluny Bishop of Tusculum 13 March 1142 Innocent II Papal legate in England[8]
Guido Florentinus Priest of S. Crisogono 1139 Innocent II Protopriest; papal legate in Lombardy[9]
Rainaldo di Collemezzo, O.S.B.Cas. Priest of SS. Marcellino e Pietro ca. 1139–1141 Innocent II Abbot of Montecassino (external cardinal[10])
Ubaldo Allucingoli Priest of S. Prassede 16 December 1138 Innocent II Papal legate in Lombardy;[11] future Pope Lucius III (1181–1185)
Ubaldo Priest of SS. Giovanni e Paolo 19 December 1141 Innocent II Papal legate in Poland and Denmark[12]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ See Bernhardi, pp. 451–452; Robinson, p. 78; and The Catholic Encyclopedia
  2. ^ Robinson, p. 78
  3. ^ Bernardo's cardinalate is attested in some of the contemporary chronicles (cited by Bernhardi, p. 452 note 4); however, there are doubts concerning their factual accuracy due to lack of other documentary proofs of this affirmation, particularly the silence of Liber Pontificalis and the official papal documents. Bernhardi, pp. 451–452; Brixius, p. 41 no. 7; and Zenker, pp. 185–186 concluded that he was actually promoted to the cardinalate. Refutation by Horn, pp. 42–45.
  4. ^ Bernhardi, p. 453; Jaffé, p. 20
  5. ^ Reconstruction is based on Brixius, p. 22 note 6, and Horn, pp. 304–305, with the following correction: bishop Rodolfo of Orte (listed by Brixius) has been excluded because he was not a cardinal at that time (Zenker, pp. 52–53). Besides, the elect is not listed as cardinal, although Brixius indicates that he was.
  6. ^ Jaffé, pp. 7 and 20
  7. ^ Zenker, p. 18; he did not subscribe any papal bulls between 30 May 1144 and 18 November 1145 (Jaffé, pp. 7 and 20)
  8. ^ Zenker, pp. 44–45; he did not subscribe any papal bulls between 19 December 1144 and 18 November 1145 (Jaffé, pp. 7 and 20)
  9. ^ Kehr, vol. VI/1, p. XXVIII and vol. VI/2, p. XXI; he did not subscribe any papal bulls between May 1144 and April 1145 (Jaffé, pp. 7 and 20)
  10. ^ Zenker, pp. 191–192
  11. ^ Kehr, vol. VI/1, p. XXVIII and vol. VI/2, p. XXI; Karol Maleczyński, Studia nad dokumentem polskim, Wrocław 1971, p. 61 note 49. He did not subscribe any papal bulls between 30 April 1144 and 21 December 1145 (Jaffé, pp. 7 and 20)
  12. ^ Karol Maleczyński, Studia nad dokumentem polskim, Wrocław 1971, pp. 55–76; He did not subscribe any papal bulls between 19 February 1144 and 9 October 1145 (Jaffé, pp. 1, 7 and 20)

Sources[edit]

  • Horn, Michael (1992). Studien zur Geschichte Papst Eugens III. (1145-1153) (in German). Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang Verlag. 
  • Zenker, Barbara (1964). Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130 bis 1159 (in German). Würzburg. 
  • Brixius, Johannes Matthias (1912). Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130-1181 (in German). Berlin: R. Trenkel. 
  • Bernhardi, Wilhelm (1883). Konrad III (in German). Leipzig: Verlag von Dunder & Humblot.