Parañaque

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Parañaque
Palanyag
Highly-Urbanized City
City of Parañaque
Aerial View of Parañaque City
Aerial View of Parañaque City
Official seal of Parañaque
Seal
Nickname(s): The Fashion Capital of the Philippines, The City of Lights
Motto: Bagong Parañaque (New Parañaque)
Map of Metro Manila showing the location of Parañaque City
Map of Metro Manila showing the location of Parañaque City
Parañaque is located in Philippines
Parañaque
Parañaque
Location within the Philippines
Coordinates: 14°28′N 121°01′E / 14.467°N 121.017°E / 14.467; 121.017Coordinates: 14°28′N 121°01′E / 14.467°N 121.017°E / 14.467; 121.017
Country  Philippines
Region National Capital Region
Districts 1st and 2nd District of Parañaque City
Founded November 30, 1572 (town)
Incorporated February 15, 1998 (city)
Barangays 16
Government[1]
 • Mayor Edwin L. Olivarez (Liberal)
 • Vice Mayor Jose Enrico T. Golez (UNA)
 • Sangguniang Panlungsod
Area[2]
 • Total 46.57 km2 (17.98 sq mi)
Elevation 12.0 m (39.4 ft)
Population (2010)[3]
 • Total 588,126
 • Density 13,000/km2 (33,000/sq mi)
Demonym Parañaqueño
Time zone PST (UTC+8)
Zip Code 1700
Dialing code 2
Website paranaque.gov.ph

Parañaque, officially the City of Parañaque (Filipino: Lungsod ng Parañaque), is one of the cities and municipalities that make up Metro Manila in the Philippines. It is located at 121’01” longitude and 14’30” latitude and is bordered to the north by Pasay, to the northeast by Taguig, to the southeast by Muntinlupa, to the southwest by Las Piñas, and to the west by Manila Bay.

Like the rest of Metro Manila, Parañaque experiences a tropical climate with only two distinct seasons, wet (July to September) and dry (October to June). The city enjoys an annual rainfall of 1,822 millimetres (71.7 in) and an average daily maximum temperature of 34.4 °C (93.9 °F).[4]

Due to its proximity to the sea, Parañaque is one of the major trade and business centers in the Philippines.

Etymology[edit]

There are several accounts as to how Parañaque got its name. One such story stated that long ago, at the mouth of what is now known as the Parañaque River, there stood a balete tree that, when viewed from afar, looked like a majestic ship. This earned it the name Palanyag, taken from the term "palayag", which means “point of navigation”.[5]

Another version of the story was that, before the Spanish colonizers came to the Philippines, there were some natives who lived close to the Manila Bay whose main livelihood was fishing or paglalayag. On the other hand, the neighboring place from the east called Muntinlupa had rice farmers who were referred to as taga-Palayan. One day, the fishermen and rice farmers had a feast and many got drunk from tuba or fermented coconut wine. One farmer suggested that they should name the whole place Palayan as a sign of cooperation and goodwill between them. However, a fisherman protested and stated that they should name it Palalayag instead. As a compromise, they agreed to merge these two words and came up with Palalanyag. However, another drunken guest shouted, “Mabuhay ang Palanyag at ang mga taga-Palanyag!” The rest liked this word better and ever since then, the place was called Palanyag.[5]

In another story handed down to generations, when the Philippines was conquered by the Spaniards, some soldiers riding a horse-drawn carriage asked to be taken to a certain place. However, the coachman did not understand the Spanish soldier’s pronunciation. When they arrived, one of the soldiers said, “Para aqui, Para aqui” meaning, “Stop here, stop here.” The coachman did not understand and kept going whereas the soldier also repeated his instruction, “Para aqui, Para aqui”. The coachman left the carriage and told the townspeople that, “These Spaniards are repeatedly saying para aniya ake… para aniya ake” to which the townspeople just laughed. The incident circulated and was repeated around for days and the term Para Aniya Ake stuck.[5]

History[edit]

Early history[edit]

Due their proximity to the sea, the early Paraqueños traded with the Chinese, Japanese, Indonesians, Indians and Malays. Traditional livelihoods included salt-making, fishing, planting rice, shoemaking, slipper-making and weaving.

Spanish occupation[edit]

Parañaque was officially founded in 1572 by the Augustinian Missionaries from Spain. Early records began in 1580 when Fr. Diego de Espiñar, an Augustinian missionary, was appointed Prior of the town convent. As resident priest, he established the mission house there, with its spiritual jurisdiction reaching up to Kawit in the province of Cavite. The Council of the Definitors (a conference of chiefs of the religious orders) held on 11 May 1580 accepted Palanyag, as Parañaque was then known, as an independent town. The image of Palanyag's patroness, Nuestra Señora del Buen Suceso, was brought to St. Andrew's Church in La Huerta in 1580. Nuestra Señora del Buen Suceso is the third oldest Marian Image in the Philippines.

Early Spanish census dated 1591 to 1593 also mentioned Longalo (or Dongalo) and Parañaque as two villages along Manila Bay composed of some 800 tribute-payers. Politically, Dongalo and Parañaque were then under the Provincia de Tondo. The community was headed by cabezas de barangay, a Westernized version of datus (chieftains), and the principalia, the local aristocrats, who together justified and moderated the demands of the Spanish colonizers. Education was limited to the principalia as they were the only ones who could afford it.

Historical accounts state that the town's strategic location enabled the townspeople to play an important role in Philippine history. Palanyag was located at the crossroads of Manila, between the provinces of Cavite and Batangas. In 1574 during the invasion of the town by the Chinese pirate Limahong, Parañaquenos, particularly those from Barangay Dongalo, heroically aided in preventing the attack in Manila. This incident became known as the "Red Sea Incident" due to the blood that flowed through the sacrifice of the people of barrio Sta. Monica. With the arrival of Spanish forces led by Captain Juan de Salcedo from Ilocos, Limahong was finally repulsed and the occupation of the town was prevented.

When the British invaded Manila in 1762, the townspeople once again remained loyal to the Spanish colonizers, especially the Augustinians. The invasion however showed that the Spaniards was not invincible and that their rule was not to be permanent. More than a hundred years later, this would prove to be true. During the Philippine Revolution of 1896-1898, the Spaniards realized that the town was a practical gateway to Cavite, the bastion of the revolutionary Katipuneros. Conversely, the Katipuneros based in Cavite saw the town as their gateway to Intramuros, the Spanish seat of government in Manila. Prominent Paraqueños such as Manuel Quiogue and secular priest Father Pedro Dandan became leading revolutionary figures.

American occupation[edit]

During the American occupation of the Philippines, Parañaque became one of the first municipalities in the Metro Manila region.

World War II[edit]

A burning building along Taft Avenue which was hit during the Japanese air raid in Barrio Parañaque, 13 December 1941.

During the Japanese occupation of the Philippines in World War II, Parañaque supplied leadership to guerilla movements such as the ROTC Hunters, as well as food and arms. Parañaque was one of the first towns to be liberated and its guerillas helped pave the way for the combined American and Philippine Commonwealth forces to enter the south of Manila. As can be gleaned from the above, Parañaque has played and continues to play a strategic role in the Philippines' political and economic progress.

After the liberation and the Battle of Parañaque on 1945 by combined Filipino and American ground troops with local recognized guerrillas, the general headquarters of the Philippine Commonwealth Army and Philippine Constabulary was rebuild and stationed in Parañaque after the war.

Martial law[edit]

On 21 August 1983 during the authoritarian regime of Ferdinand Marcos, Benigno Aquino, Jr. (a prominent opposition senator and husband of former Philippine President Corazon Aquino), was assassinated in Manila International Airport (now Ninoy Aquino International Airport).

Parañaque today[edit]

Today, Parañaque is a blossoming city. Due to its strategic location, it is an important centre for trade and business in Metro Manila. Baclaran, where a large number of dry goods stores are located, is one of the busiest markets in the country. Small fishing villages called “fisherman’s wharves” are also situated alongside Barangay La Huerta, where the famous DAMPA, a seaside market with numerous restaurants serving fresh seafood, is found. The country’s international airport as well as the Baclaran Church, one of the most active parishes in Manila, and the Duty Free, where one can buy imported goods, can be found here.

In spite of the rapid growth in infrastructure and the revenue that the city has been gaining in the last few years, Parañaque has yet to go back to its "subdivision" roots and address the rising reports in crime - burglary, hold-ups, rape and street gang violence. Most recently, the city has been plagued with crimes involving current call center workers in and around the city. With the upswing in call center business in last 2 years, Parañaque has yet publicly come out and identify contingencies measures and visibility to protect these wave of employees who are mostly graveyard (9:00 PM to 9:00 AM) shift workers.

Timeline[edit]

  • November 8, 1975: Parañaque was a municipality of Rizal, until November 7, 1975, by virtue of Presidential Decree No. 824, when Parañaque became a part of Metropolitan Manila or the National Capital Region.
  • February 15, 1998: Parañaque was converted as the 11th city in Metro Manila (after sister city Las Piñas in 1997), and was chartered and urbanized by Former President Fidel V. Ramos during the celebration of the city's 426th Founding Anniversary.
  • May 2001: SM City Sucat, (formerly SM Supercenter Sucat) was formally launched, becoming the first SM Mall franchise in Parañaque.
  • November 2002: SM City Bicutan, the second SM City Mall in Parañaque was launched, becoming one of the most popular malls in Parañaque after Uniwide Coastal Mall. In the same month, Parañaque celebrated its 430th Founding Anniversary as a municipality.
  • February 2003: the City of Parañaque celebrated its fifth Cityhood Anniversary.
  • November 2007: Parañaque celebrated its 435th anniversary of a former municipality now a city.
  • February 2008: the City of Parañaque celebrated its 10th Cityhood Anniversary.
  • February 2009: Speedworld Motorcross Racing Park was formally opened beside SM Bicutan in West Bicutan, Parañaque.
  • June 2012: SM Hypermarket of Lopez, Well Done, And It's Coming June They Celebrate The One Year of SM Hypermarket in Lopez.
  • November 2012: Parañaque celebrated its 440th anniversary of a former municipality now turned into a city.
  • February 2013: the City of Parañaque celebrated its 15th Year Cityhood Anniversary.
  • March 2013: Solaire Resort & Casino was officially opened making the 1st and only Casino Hotel, Located In Aseana City and also the 1st 6 Star Hotel in Parañaque.

Demographics[edit]

Population census of Parañaque
Year Pop.   ±% p.a.  
1990 308,236 —    
1995 391,296 +4.57%
2000 449,811 +3.03%
2007 552,660 +2.88%
2010 588,126 +2.29%
Source: National Statistics Office[6]

Festivals[edit]

Parañaque is famous for its lively festivals, such as the caracol, a festival that revolves around boats. Parañaque is also known for the sunduan, a festival held every November during the Araw ng Parañaque (Parañaque Day) celebration. The city also stages the cenaculo, a re-enactment of the passion of Christ, during Holy Week, the Pasko ng Pagkabuhay during Easter, and the Santacruzan, a procession reenacting the search of the True Cross of Christ, in May. Shortly thereafter, the colorful Flores de Mayo, a festival commemorating the discovery of the cross by Queen Elena (mother of St. Constantine) is held. Paranaque also celebrated a Sambalilo Hat Festival which held every February 13 for the cityhood of Paranaque's anniversary held every year.

An outstanding feature of this historic town by the bay is the cultivation of its cultural traditions such as the komedya and bati-bati, among others, that continue to attract local and foreign tourists alike, especially during the summer months.

Parañaque is also known for sabong, a form of cockfighting constrained in coliseums.

Local government[edit]

Congressmen[edit]

Lone District[edit]

  • Freddie Webb (1987-1992)
  • Roilo Golez (1992-2001)
  • Eduardo Zialcita (2001-2004)

1st District[edit]

  • Eduardo Zialcita (2004-2010)
  • Edwin L. Olivarez (2010-2013)
  • Eric L. Olivarez (2013–present)

2nd District[edit]

  • Roilo Golez (2004-2013)
  • Gustavo Tambunting (2013–present)

City Mayors[edit]

  • Edwin L. Olivarez (2013 – Present)
  • Florencio M. Bernabe, Jr. (2004 – 2013)
  • Joey P. Marquez (1998 – 2004)

Municipal Mayors[edit]

  • Joey P. Marquez (1995 – 1998)
  • Dr. Pablo R. Olivarez (1992 – 1995)
  • Walfrido N. Ferrer (1988 – 1992)
  • Rodolfo Buenavista (1986 – 1987) - OIC
  • Florencio Bernabe, Sr. (1965 – 1986)
  • Col. Eleuterio De Leon (1956 – 1964)
  • Nicanor F. Cruz (1946 – 1955)
  • Laureano Capistrano (1945)
  • Sixto Clemente (1945)
  • Dr. Francis Gabriel (1934 – 1937)
  • Sabas De Guzman (1931 – 1934)
  • Olympic Peña (1931)
  • Dr. Juan Gabriel (1925 – 1928)
  • Victor Medina 1922 – 1925
  • Andres Buenaventura (1916 – 1922)
  • Francisco A. Cruz (1916)
  • Nicanor Mayuga (1912)
  • Flaviano Rodriguez (1908 – 1912)
  • Valentino De Leon (1904 – 1908)
  • Patricio Bernabe (1902 – 1903)
  • Maximo Rodriguez (1900 – 1901)
  • Timoteo Bernabe (1898 – 1899)
  • Santiago Garcia (1897)

Districts and barangays[edit]

Parañaque is composed of two congressional districts and two legislative districts which are further subdivided into 16 Barangays. Legislative District One contains eight barangays in the western half of the city, while legislative District Two contains the eight barangays in the eastern portion of the city.

While barangays are the administrative divisions of the city, and are legally part of the addresses of establishments and homes, many residents indicate their subdivision (village) instead of their barangay.

Listed below are the barangays in each district and some notable subdivisions.

Education[edit]

The City of Parañaque has a diverse educational system with specializations in various academic and technical fields and is home to many schools and colleges.

Churches[edit]

Christian Churches[edit]

  • Ang Dating Daan Sucat Locale
  • Ang Dating Daan BF-Sucat Locale (Front of SM BF-Parañaque)
  • Ang Dating Daan Moonwalk Locale (Near Total Gas Station Moonwalk Parañaque)
  • Ang Dating Daan Sunvalley Locale
  • Ang Dating Daan Baclaran Locale
  • Annunciation Orthodox Church (Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople-Orthodox Metropolitanate of Hong Kong and Southeast Asia)
  • Ascencion of Our Lord Parish Goodwill 2 Subd. Brgy BF Homes Parañaque
  • Berean Bible Baptist Church - #6 First St. UPS V Subd., Brgy. San Isidro Parañaque
  • Beulah Land Baptist Church Tambo
  • Bonds Servants of Love Christian Fellowship Marelo Green Phase 2
  • Bread From Heaven Christian Fellowship BF Homes Parañaque
  • Christ Commission Fellowship Max's Sucat Parañaque
  • Christ Fishers of Men Christian Fellowship BF Homes Parañaque
  • Christ Reigns Baptist Mission Church San Antonio Valley 1
  • Citygate Christian Ministries BF Homes Parañaque
  • Community of Faith Alliance Church Parañaque
  • El Shaddai International House of Prayer, Amvel City, San Dionisio, Parañaque
  • Faith Baptist Church Tambo
  • God's Grace Baptist Church Sto. Niño Parañaque
  • Grace Berean Church San Dionisio Parañaque
  • Greenhills Christian Fellowship Santana Grove San Antonio Parañaque
  • Hail King Jesus Church San Antonio Valley 2 Parañaque
  • Hail King Jesus Sanctuary of the Living God Seacom,Parañaque City Branch
  • Holy Eucharist Parish Moonwalk Parañaque
  • Jesus Is Lord Church San Dionisio Parañaque
  • Jesus Is Lord Church San Martin Parañaque
  • Jesus Is Lord Church Tambo Parañaque
  • Jesus Is Lord Church Dona Soledad Parañaque
  • Jesus Is Lord Church Sun Valley Parañaque
  • Jesus Family Salvation International Ministries - Evacom Chapter
  • Holy Infant Jesus Parish Merville
  • Holy Spirit Christian Church Sucat Parañaque
  • Hope Of Eternal Life Baptist Church San Isidro Parañaque
  • Iglesia Ni Cristo Severina Subd. Parañaque
  • Iglesia Ni Cristo UPS 5., United Parañaque Subd., San Isidro, Parañaque
  • Iglesia Ni Cristo Better living
  • Iglesia Ni Cristo UP1., Malugay
  • Iglesia Ni Cristo Ibayo
  • Ilang-Ilang Christian Church Fellowship Center Ilang-Ilang Valley,P'que City
  • Jesus The Gospel Church International Sucat Parañaque
  • Jesus, the Divine Healer Parish Tahanan Village
  • Jesus Christ The Hope of Glory Ministry Better Living
  • Land Baptist Church Tambo
  • Lighthouse Bibles Believer Christian Church BF Homes Parañaque
  • Living Word Foursquare Church Parañaque
  • Lord Jesus Our Redeemer Christian Fellowship Sucat Parañaque
  • Mary Mother of Good Counsel Parish Marcelo Green
  • Mary, Queen of Apostles Parish San Antonio Valley 2
  • Mary Immaculate Parish Better Living Parañaque
  • National Shrine of Our Mother of Perpetual Help (Baclaran Church)
  • National Shrine of Mary Help of Christians Parish Better Living Parañaque
  • Our Lady of Beautiful Love Parish Merville Parañaque
  • Our Lady of Fátima Parish Tambo Parañaque
  • Our Lady of Grace Parish Ireneville 1 Subd.
  • Our Lady of Peace Parish Fourth Estate Parañaque
  • Our Lady of the Most Holy Rosary Parish Multinational
  • Our Lady of the Most Holy Rosary Parish Sun Valley
  • Our Lady of Unity Parish UPS 5 San Isidro Parañaque
  • Parañaque Bible Christian Church Merville
  • Parañaque Valley Baptist Church San Antonio Valley 1 Parañaque
  • Presentation of the Child Jesus Parish BF Homes Phase 3 Parañaque
  • Pio of Petrecina Parish Church Severina Subd. Parañaque
  • Resurrection of Our Lord Parish BF Homes Phase 1 Parañaque
  • San Antonio de Padua San Antonio Valley 1 Parañaque
  • San Agustin Parish Moonwalk Parañaque
  • Severina Christian Church Severina Subd. Parañaque
  • Sta. Rita de Cascia Parish (Baclaran Parish)
  • Sta. Monica Sub-Parish Don Galo Parañaque
  • Sto. Niño Parish Sto. Niño Parañaque
  • Southgate Baptist Church Forth Estate Parañaque
  • South Manila Alliance Church BF Homes Phase 6 Parañaque
  • Sucat Evangelical Christian Fellowship San Antonio Valley 1 Parañaque
  • Sun Valley Christian Church Sun Valley Parañaque
  • St. Joseph Parish Tambo
  • The Cathedral Parish of St. Andrew, La Huerta
  • St. Dionysius Sub-Parish San Dionisio Parañaque
  • The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints San Isidro Parañaque
  • The Rogationist Fathers Inc Multinational Village
  • Voice of Victory Church San Antonio Valley 1 Parañaque City Hall
  • United Christian Fellowship Forth Estate Parañaque
  • United Methodist Church Superville Subd. Parañaque
  • Word International Ministries Church Marcelo Green
  • Word International Ministries Church Better Living
  • Word for the World Christian Fellowship Better Living
  • Zion Bible Baptist Church San Antonio Valley 2 Parañaque
  • Jesus Miracle Crusade International Ministry San Dionisio Outreach
  • Jesus The Foundation Christian Fellowship Sun Valley Subd. Paranaque

Masjeed/Mosques (Muslim House of Prayers)[edit]

  • Masjeed Abdullah
  • Masjeed Al-Wasat

Sports[edit]

Manila Nomads F.C. is a football team currently playing in Division 1 of the United Football League.

Shopping[edit]

There are several shopping malls located in the city such as SM City Sucat, SM City Bicutan, SM City BF Parañaque, Walter Mart Sucat, and many more. SM City Sucat is the first SM Supermall in Parañaque and the second Supermall in the southern region of Metro Manila. While SM City Bicutan is the third supermall in the south of Metro Manila, it has a two buildings interconnected by footbridge. SM City BF Parañaque is the newest SM Supermalls and third SM Supermall in Parañaque and fourth Supermall in the south of Metro Manila. The Pergola Lifestyle Mall is the smallest shopping mall in Parañaque City.

There are also several supermarkets such as S&R Baclaran, Shopwise Sucat, Waltermart, Hypermarket, Puregold, Robinsons and many more around the city.

Points of interest[edit]

  • Amvel Business Park and El Shaddai International House of Prayer, San Dionisio - where El Shaddai DWXI-PPFI led by Bro. Mike Z Velarde held its daily fellowships every Tuesday and Saturday
  • Asia World City - where Michael Jackson's HIStory World Tour Concerts were held, Pacific Avenue, Tambo and Don Galo
  • Baclaran Dry Goods Markets - along Quirino Avenue, Baclaran
  • Baclaran Redemptorist Church - officially the National Shrine of Our Mother of Perpetual Help, one of the biggest and most active churches in the country where devotees flock to hear mass every Wednesday, Roxas Boulevard, Baclaran
  • Aseana City/Entertainment City - Reclaimed Area, Tambo and Don Galo
  • Bakahan at Manukan Restaurants - Coastal Road, La Huerta
  • Bulungan sa La Huerta (Rumors/Whisperings in La Huerta) - Coastal Road, La Huerta; The 'bulungan' is an act of quietly haggling prices with the fish monger to keep your bid a secret to everyone trying to buy the fish. Like Closed Bidding/Blind Bidding.
  • Our Lady Of Peace Hospital - Fr.Reuter Died On This HOSPITAL.
  • Chinese Temple - Coastal Road, Don Galo
  • Casino Filipino - Ninoy Aquino Avenue, Sto. Niño
  • Elorde Sports Center - Dr. A. Santos Avenue, Don Bosco Paranaque
  • Fresh Foods Market and Ihaw-Ihaw Restaurants (DAMPA) - Dr. A. Santos Avenue, San Dionisio
  • Jaka Plaza - Dr. A. Santos Avenue, (Between of Barangay San Isidro And Barangay San Antonio Paranaque City)
  • Loyola Memorial Park - Dr. A. Santos Avenue, Brgy. San Antonio
  • Manila Memorial Park - Dr. A. Santos Avenue, Brgy. San Antonio
  • Ninoy Aquino International Airport Terminal 1 - located in the border between Parañaque and Pasay City (where most of the NAIA complex is located), NAIA Road, Sto. Niño
  • Olivarez Coliseum - Dr. A. Santos Avenue, San Dionisio
  • Olivarez Plaza Parañaque - Dr. A. Santos Avenue, San Dionisio
  • Parañaque City Hall - San Antonio Avenue, San Antonio
  • Rod Nazario Boxing Gym (formerly Wild Card Boxing Gym) - Manny Pacquiao's former practice home, President's Avenue, BF Homes
  • Roligon Mega-Cockpit - considered as the largest and most modern cockpit in Asia, Quirino Avenue, Tambo
  • Tata Dune Chapel at Baranggay San Dionisio
  • Speedworld Motorcross Park - Better Living Subdivision, Don Bosco
  • Tambo Mangroves Avian Reserve - Tambo
  • National Shrine of Mary Help of Christians Parish- Better Living Subdivision, Don Bosco
  • The Cathedral Parish of St. Andrew - the oldest church in Parañaque, one of the oldest churches in the Philippines, built in 1580. It is also the Diocesan Shrine of Nuestra Señora del Buen Suceso and the seat of the Diocese of Parañaque, Quirino Avenue, La Huerta
  • Solaire Resort & Casino - Entertainment City, Bay City, Barangay Tambo

Transportation[edit]

Welcome marker over the Sucat Road near SLEX
Another view of the entrance to the City

Rail transport[edit]

Parañaque is served by the LRT-1 (via Baclaran Station, which is located in Pasay City) and the PNR (via Bicutan station).

Airport[edit]

Parañaque is also the location of one of Ninoy Aquino International Airport's terminal. This terminal is Terminal 1 located along Ninoy Aquino Avenue. The flights of major international airlines are located in this terminal.

Road network[edit]

Parañaque is accessed by these following major roads:

For other major roads, see Major roads in Metro Manila

Notable residents[edit]

Sister cities[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Cities". Quezon City, Philippines: Department of the Interior and Local Government. Retrieved 30 November 2012. 
  2. ^ "Province: NCR, FOURTH DISTRICT". PSGC Interactive. Makati City, Philippines: National Statistical Coordination Board. Retrieved 30 November 2012. 
  3. ^ "Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay: as of May 1, 2010". 2010 Census of Population and Housing. National Statistics Office. Retrieved 29 November 2012. 
  4. ^ "Physical Profile". About the City. Parañaque City. p. 15. Retrieved 7 March 2013. 
  5. ^ a b c [citation needed]
  6. ^ "Population and Annual Growth Rates for The Philippines and Its Regions, Provinces, and Highly Urbanized Cities". 2010 Census and Housing Population. National Statistics Office. Retrieved 2012-11-07. 

External links[edit]