Para-equestrian

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Para-equestrianism is governed by the International Federation for Equestrian Sports (FEI), and includes two competitive events: One is para-equestrian dressage, which is conducted under the same basic rules as conventional dressage, but with riders divided into different competition grades based on their functional abilities.[1] The other is para-equestrian driving, which operates under the same basic rules as combined driving but places competitors in various grades based on their functional abilities.[2] The Paralympic games host a para-equestrian dressage competition, and have done so since 1996,[1] but like the Summer Olympics, they do not yet offer driving.[3]

History[edit]

The first official Paralympic Games was held in Rome in 1960.[4] The Games were initially open only to athletes in wheelchairs; at the 1976 Summer Games, athletes with different disabilities were included for the first time at a Summer Paralympics.[5] Competitors with cerebral palsy classifications were allowed to compete at the Paralympic games for the first time at the 1984 Summer Paralympics.[6] At the 1992 Summer Paralympics, all disability types were eligible to participate, with classification being run through the International Paralympic Committee, with classification being done based on functional disability type.[7]

Pare-equestrian dressage was added to the Paralympic Games program at the 1996 Summer Paralympics.[8] The FEI brought para-equestrian sport under its umbrella in 2006. Riders with physical disabilities may compete on the same team as people with vision impairment.[9]

Events[edit]

For national team competitions such as the Olympics, each team consists of three riders, one of whom must be a Grade 1A, Grade 1B or Grade 2 rider.[10] As of 2012, people with physical and visual disabilities are eligible to compete.[11]

Dressage events include "Walk Only Tests" for Grade 1A and "Walk and Trot" for Grade 1B. The dressage events open to Grade 2 classification included "Walk and Trot but Canter allowed in Freestyle". The dressage events open to Grade 3 classification included "Walk, Trot and Canter and may show lateral work in Freestyle". In these three grades, participants use a 40 x 20 metre arena. The dressage events open to Grade 4 classification included "Walk, Trot, Canter, Canter Half-Pirouettes, 3 and 4 sequence changes and lateral work." At Grade 4, participants move up to the 60 x 20 metre arena.[12]

For Australian hopefuls to the 2012 Summer Paralympics, they must meet a percentage of a target score "based on the average overall scores that achieved medals in each grade at the 2010 World Equestrian Games". For Grade 1 classification, the percentage was 71.78% for Grade 1A and 71.95% for Grade 1B.[13] In grade 2 classification, the percentage was 69.7%, for Grade 3, the percentage was 70.88%m, and for Grade 4 classification, the percentage was 69.88%.[13]

Para-equestrian classification[edit]

The classification system for para-equestrian sport is a graded system based on the degree of physical or visual disability and handled at the international level by the FEI.[14] The sport has eligible classifications for people with physical and vision disabilities.[14][15] Going forward, disability sport's major classification body, the International Paralympic Committee, is working on improving classification to be more of an evidence-based system as opposed to a performance-based system so as not to punish elite athletes whose performance makes them appear in a higher class alongside competitors who train less.[16]

History of classification[edit]

In 1983, classification for cerebral palsy competitors in this sport was done by the Cerebral Palsy-International Sports and Recreation Association (CP-ISRA).[17] They defined cerebral palsy as a non-progressive brain legion that results in impairment. People with cerebral palsy or non-progressive brain damage were eligible for classification by them. The organisation also dealt with classification for people with similar impairments. For their classification system, people with spina bifida were not eligible unless they had medical evidence of loco-motor dysfunction. People with cerebral palsy and epilepsy were eligible provided the condition did not interfere with their ability to compete. People who had strokes were eligible for classification following medical clearance. Competitors with multiple sclerosis, muscular dystrophy and arthrogryposis were not eligible for classification by CP-ISRA, but were eligible for classification by International Sports Organisation for the Disabled for the Games of Les Autres.[18]

The CP-ISRA used the classification system designed for field athletics events.[19] In 1983, there were five cerebral palsy classifications. Class 1 competitors could compete in the Division 1, Class 1 and Class 2 events, while riding with a leader and 2 siderwalkers and/or a backwalker.[20] In 1990, the Equestrian Federation of Australia did not have specific classifications for competitors with disabilities. Acknowledging membership needs though, some rules had organically developed that looked like classifications based on rule modification for different disability types. These included acknowledging one-armed riders were not required to hold the reins in both arms, riders with hearing loss were given visual signals instead of audio signals at the start of and during an event, and blind riders, when they reached a marker, were given an auditory signal.[21] When the sport was undergoing growth in 1995, a classification system was established in order to provide a level playing field for competitors. The system developed at the time was called "Functional Profile System for Grading" and was largely created by Christine Meaden, who had IPEC classifier status. By 1999, there were four classifications for competitors and 120 accredited equestrian classifiers around the world.[22] At the New York hosted Empire State Games for the Physically Challenged, para-equestrian competition was broken into hearing and vision impaired classifications, amputee classifications, Les Autres, cerebral palsy and spinal cord disabilities.[23]

At the 1996 Summer Paralympics, classification was done at the venue because classification assessment required watching a competitor play the sport.[24] At the 2000 Summer Paralympics, 6 assessments were conducted at the Games. This resulted in 1 class change.[25]

Classification at the national level is handled by different organizations. For example, Australian para-equestrian sport and classification is managed by the national sport federation with support from the Australian Paralympic Committee.[26] There are three types of classification available for Australian competitors: Provisional, national and international. The first is for club level competitions, the second for state and national competitions, and the third for international competitions.[27]

Diagrams[edit]

The images below are examples derived from FEI's guide.[28]

Grade 1[edit]

The Grade 1 (Grade I) para-equestrian classification[29] is defined by BBC Sport as follows: "Grade 1 incorporates severely disabled riders with Cerebral Palsy, Les Autres and Spinal Cord Injury."[30] In 2008, BBC Sport defined this classification was "Grade 1: Severely disabled riders with cerebral palsy, les autres and spinal cord injury"[29] In 2011, the London Organising Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games (LOCOG) defined this classification as: "Riders compete in four mixed disability groups or ‘grades’, with Grade 1 split into two sub-categories (1a and 1b)."[8] In 2008, the Australian Broadcasting Corporation defined this classification was "GRADE I: These riders are mainly wheelchair users who have poor trunk balance and/or impaired function in all four limbs or good upper limb control but no trunk balance."[31]

The FEI defines this classification as "Grade I — This is split again into two sections: Grade Ib — At this level the rider will ride walk with some trot work excluding medium trot. Grade Ia — At this level the rider will ride a walk only test."[32] The Australian Paralympic Committee defined this classification as: "Grade I: Athletes with a physical disability. Riders with poor trunk balance and/or impairment of function in all four limbs or no trunk balance and good upper limb function. Riders generally use a wheelchair in everyday life. Grade 1 is split into 1a and 1b."[33]

Competitors in Grade 1 include Australia's Grade 1B Grace Bowman[34] and Grade 1B Joann Formosa.[35] The classification also include Australia's Grade 1A competitor Rob Oakley.[36]

Competitors in this grade use a snaffle bit.[33] Riders may use their voice to guide the horse during competition provided they do so in moderation.[37] Riders from this classification may compete at a higher functionality class, but they must declare their intention to do so by end of the year for competitions in the following year.[37]

Grade 2[edit]

The Grade 2 (Grade II) para-equestrian classification[29] is defined by BBC Sport as follows: "Grade 2 incorporates Cerebral Palsy, Les Autres, Spinal Cord injury and Amputee riders with reasonable balance and abdominal control. "[30] In 2008, BBC Sport defined this classification was "Grade 2: Athletes with reasonable balance and abdominal control including amputees"[29] In 2008, the Australian Broadcasting Corporation defined this classification was "GRADE II: These riders are mainly wheelchair users or people who have severe movement impairment involving the lower half and with mild to good upper limb function, or severe impairment on one side of the body. " [31] Federation Equestre International defines this classification as "At this level the rider will ride a novice level test excluding canter."[32] The Australian Paralympic Committee defined this classification as: "Grade II: Athletes with a physical disability. Riders with severe locomotor impairment involving the trunk and with mild to good upper limb function, or severe unilateral impairment. Riders generally use a wheelchair in everyday life."[33]

Competitors in this grade use a snaffle bit.[33] Riders may use their voice to guide the horse during competition provided they do so in moderation.[37] Riders from this classification may compete at a higher functionality class, but they must declare their intention to do so by end of the year for competitions in the following year.[37]

Grade 3[edit]

The Grade 3 (Grade III) Para-equestrian classification[29] is defined by BBC Sport as follows: "Grade 3 incorporates Cerebral Palsy, Les Autres, Amputee, Spinal Cord Injury and totally blind athletes with good balance, leg movement and co-ordination."[30] In 2008, BBC Sport defined this classification was "Grade 3: Athletes with good balance, leg movement and coordination including blind athletes"[29] In 2011, the London Organising Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games defined this classification as: "The visually-impaired compete alongside those with a physical disability in Grades 3 and 4 only."[8] In 2008, the Australian Broadcasting Corporation defined this classification was "GRADE III: Riders in this section are mainly able to walk without support, with moderate impairment on one side of the body, moderate impairment in all four limbs or severe arm impairment. They may require a wheelchair to cover longer distances. They must have a total loss of vision in both eyes." [31] Federation Equestre International defines this classification as "At this level the rider will ride a novice level test."[32] The Australian Paralympic Committee defined this classification as: "Grade III: Athletes with a physical disability or vision impairment. Riders with moderate unilateral impairment, moderate impairment in four limbs or severe arm impairment. In day to day life, riders are usually ambulant but some may use a wheelchair for longer distances or due to lack of stamina. Riders with a vision impairment who compete in this class have total loss of sight in both eyes (B1)."[33]

Competitors in this grade use a snaffle bit or double bridle.[33] Riders may not use their voice to guide the horse during competition unless their classifier has specifically allowed for this.[37] Riders from this classification may compete at a higher functionality class, but they must declare their intention to do so by end of the year for competitions in the following year.[37] Competitors in this classification include Australia's Sharon Jarvis.[38]

Grade 4[edit]

Grade 4 (Grade IV) Para-equestrian classification[29] is defined by BBC Sport as follows: "Grade 4 incorporates Cerebral Palsy, Les Autres, Amputee, Spinal Cord injury and Visually Impaired. This last group comprises ambulant athletes with either impaired vision or impaired arm/leg function. "[30] In 2008, BBC Sport defined this classification was "Grade 4: Ambulant athletes (those able to walk independently) with either impaired vision or impaired arm or leg function"[29] In 2011, the London Organising Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games defined this classification as: "The visually-impaired compete alongside those with a physical disability in Grades 3 and 4 only."[8] In 2008, the Australian Broadcasting Corporation defined this classification was "GRADE IV: These riders have impairment in one or two limbs or some degree of visual impairment." [31] Federation Equestre International defines this classification as "At this level the rider will ride an elementary/medium level test"[32] The Australian Paralympic Committee defined this classification as: "Grade IV: Athletes with a physical disability or vision impairment. Riders have a physical impairment in one or two limbs (for example limb loss or limb deficiency), or some degree of visual impairment (B2)."[33]

Competitors in this grade use a snaffle bit or a double bridle.[33] Riders may not use their voice to guide the horse during competition unless their classifier has specifically allowed for this.[37]

Competitors in this classification include Australia's Hannah Dodd.[39]

See also[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "About Para Equestrian Dressage". International Federation for Equestrian Sports. Retrieved 24 August 2012. 
  2. ^ "About Para Equestrian Driving". International Federation for Equestrian Sports. Retrieved 24 August 2012. 
  3. ^ "Nominated entries for London 2012 Paralympic equestrian events announced". International Federation for Equestrian Sports. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 24 August 2012. 
  4. ^ "Paralympics traces roots to Second World War". Canadian Broadcasting Centre. 2008-09-05. Retrieved 2010-04-14. 
  5. ^ "History of the Paralympic Movement". Canadian Paralympic Committee. Retrieved 2010-04-07. 
  6. ^ DePauw, Karen P; Gavron, Susan J (1995). Disability and sport. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. p. 85. ISBN 0873228480. OCLC 31710003. 
  7. ^ DePauw, Karen P; Gavron, Susan J (1995). Disability and sport. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. p. 128. ISBN 0873228480. OCLC 31710003. 
  8. ^ a b c d "Guide to the Paralympic Games – Sport by sport guide". London Organising Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games. 2011. p. 32. Retrieved 9 April 2012. 
  9. ^ Ian Brittain (4 August 2009). The Paralympic Games Explained. Taylor & Francis. pp. 97–98. ISBN 978-0-415-47658-4. Retrieved 22 August 2012. 
  10. ^ "FEI Para-Equestrian Dressage World Team Ranking 2013". FEI. 2012. p. 1. Retrieved 18 June 2012. 
  11. ^ "Layman's Guide to Paralympic Classification". Bonn, Germany: International Paralympic Committee. p. 7. Retrieved 19 August 2012. 
  12. ^ "What is Para-Equestrian?". Equestrian.org.au. 2010-01-01. Retrieved 2012-06-18. 
  13. ^ a b "2012 Australian Paralympic Team Nomination Criteria". Australia: Equestrian Australia. Retrieved 18 June 2012. 
  14. ^ a b "Guide to the Paralympic Games – Appendix 1". London Organising Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games. 2011. p. 42. Retrieved 9 April 2012. 
  15. ^ Ian Brittain (4 August 2009). The Paralympic Games Explained. Taylor & Francis. p. 40. ISBN 978-0-415-47658-4. Retrieved 21 August 2012. 
  16. ^ "Classification History". Bonn, Germany: International Paralympic Committee. Retrieved 30 July 2012. 
  17. ^ Cerebral Palsy-International Sports and Recreation Association (1983). Classification and sport rules manual (Third ed.). Wolfheze, the Netherlands: CP-ISRA. p. 1. OCLC 220878468. 
  18. ^ Cerebral Palsy-International Sports and Recreation Association (1983). Classification and sport rules manual (Third ed.). Wolfheze, the Netherlands: CP-ISRA. pp. 7–8. OCLC 220878468. 
  19. ^ Cerebral Palsy-International Sports and Recreation Association (1983). Classification and sport rules manual (Third ed.). Wolfheze, the Netherlands: CP-ISRA. pp. 4–6. OCLC 220878468. 
  20. ^ Cerebral Palsy-International Sports and Recreation Association (1983). Classification and sport rules manual (Third ed.). Wolfheze, the Netherlands: CP-ISRA. pp. 13–38. OCLC 220878468. 
  21. ^ Australian Sports Commission; Australian Confederation of Sports for the Disabled (1990). The development of a policy : Integration Conference 1990 Adelaide, December 3-5, 1990. Willoughby, N.S.W.: Australian Confederation of Sports for the Disabled. OCLC 221061502. 
  22. ^ Doll-Tepper, Gudrun; Kröner, Michael; Sonnenschein, Werner; International Paralympic Committee, Sport Science Committee (2001). "Development and Growth of Paralympic Equestrian Sport 1995 to 1999". New horizons in sport for athletes with a disability 2. Oxford (UK): Meyer & Meyer Sport. pp. 733–741. ISBN 1841260371. OCLC 492107955. 
  23. ^ Richard B. Birrer; Bernard Griesemer; Mary B. Cataletto (20 August 2002). Pediatric Sports Medicine for Primary Care. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 229. ISBN 978-0-7817-3159-1. Retrieved 21 August 2012. 
  24. ^ Doll-Tepper, Gudrun; Kröner, Michael; Sonnenschein, Werner; International Paralympic Committee, Sport Science Committee (2001). "Organisation and Administration of the Classification Process for the Paralympics". New Horizons in sport for athletes with a disability : proceedings of the International VISTA '99 Conference, Cologne, Germany, 28 August-1 September 1999 1. Oxford (UK): Meyer & Meyer Sport. pp. 379–392. ISBN 1841260363. OCLC 48404898. 
  25. ^ Cashman, Richard I; Darcy, Simon; University of Technology, Sydney. Australian Centre for Olympic Studies (2008). Benchmark games : the Sydney 2000 Paralympic Games. Petersham, N.S.W.: Walla Walla Press in conjunction with the Australian Centre for Olympic Studies University of Technology, Sydney. p. 152. 
  26. ^ "Summer Sports". Homebush Bay, New South Wales: Australian Paralympic Committee. 2012. Retrieved 19 August 2012. 
  27. ^ "What is Classification?". Sydney, Australia: Australian Paralympic Committee. Retrieved 30 July 2012. 
  28. ^ "Rules/2012 Classification manual_FINAL". FEI. 12 February 2012. Retrieved 22 August 2012. 
  29. ^ a b c d e f g h "A-Z of Paralympic classification". BBC Sport. 28 August 2008. Retrieved 9 April 2012. 
  30. ^ a b c d "Making sense of the categories". BBC Sport. 6 October 2000. Retrieved 9 April 2012. 
  31. ^ a b c d McGarry, Andrew (3 September 2008). "Paralympics categories explained". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 9 April 2012. 
  32. ^ a b c d "Equestrian sports for elite athletes with disabilities worldwide — Classification". FEI (International Federation for Equestrian Sports) PARA-Equestrian Committee. 2012. Retrieved 18 June 2012. 
  33. ^ a b c d e f g h "Equestrian". Australian Paralympic Committee. 2012. Retrieved 18 June 2012. 
  34. ^ "Grace Bowman | APC Corporate". Paralympic.org.au. 1990-07-16. Retrieved 2012-06-18. 
  35. ^ "Joann Formosa | APC Corporate". Paralympic.org.au. 1961-02-19. Retrieved 2012-06-18. 
  36. ^ "Rob Oakley | APC Corporate". Paralympic.org.au. 1962-04-18. Retrieved 2012-06-18. 
  37. ^ a b c d e f g "RULES FOR PARA-EQUESTRIAN, DRESSAGE EVENTS, 3rd edition, effective 1st January 2011, Including modifications for 01.01.2012". FEI. 1 January 2012. Retrieved 18 June 2012. 
  38. ^ "Sharon Jarvis | APC Corporate". Paralympic.org.au. 1978-10-31. Retrieved 2012-06-18. 
  39. ^ "Hannah Dodd | APC Corporate". Paralympic.org.au. 1992-02-27. Retrieved 2012-06-18.