Paradise fish

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For related species known as paradise fish, see Macropodus.
Paradise fish
Macropodus opercularis - side (aka) edit.jpg
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Perciformes
Suborder: Anabantoidei
Family: Osphronemidae
Subfamily: Macropodusinae
Genus: Macropodus
Species: M. opercularis
Binomial name
Macropodus opercularis
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Synonyms
  • Labrus opercularis Linnaeus, 1758
  • Chaetodon chinensis Bloch, 1790
  • Macropodus chinensis (Bloch, 1790)
  • Macropodus viridiauratus Lacépède, 1801
  • Macropodus venustus G. Cuvier, 1831
  • Macropodus ctenopsoides Brind, 1915
  • Macropodus filamentosus Oshima, 1919

The paradise fish, paradisefish, or paradise gourami, Macropodus opercularis, is a species of gourami found in most types of fresh water in East Asia, ranging from the Korean Peninsula to northern Vietnam. This species can reach a length of 6.7 cm (2.6 in), though most are only about 5.5 cm (2.2 in).[2]

Paradise gouramis were one of the first ornamental fish available to western aquarium keepers, having been imported to Europe as early as the 19th century. The paradise fish is one of the more aggressive members of its family. It is more aggressive than the three spot gourami, yet less pugnacious in nature than the less commonly kept combtail.

Behaviour[edit]

Albino paradise fish

Paradise fish are fairly combative, harassing and attacking each other, as well as potentially killing small fish. In the wild, they are predators, eating insects, invertebrates, and fish fry. The popularity of this species has waned in recent decades as much more colorful (and often less pugnacious) species of gouramis have become widely available to hobbyists. This species is one of the few fish that can change its color (lighter or darker) in response to stimuli.

Habitat and diet[edit]

Paradise fish are tolerant of a wide range of water conditions, surviving in cool and warm waters alike. They can be kept in outdoor ponds, or even the simplest of unheated aquaria. They will accept virtually any food, but should be given a reasonably high-protein diet (as opposed to vegetable-based foods.) They also eat mosquito larvae, black worms, brine shrimp, and small flies.

Disease control[edit]

In Taiwan, the native populations of paradise fish have been reduced to low levels by pollution in the rivers, and are now listed as a threatened species. The yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti) is breeding in the absence of one of its main predators, and dengue fever is threatening the human population.

In home aquaria[edit]

Macropodus opercularis (♂) in a home aquarium

Male paradise fish should be kept apart, since they will fight aggressively by locking jaws. A male can be kept with females; females may also be kept together in groups. A tank that includes paradise fish should be at least 20 gallons in size for a single male or 20-30 gallons for a community tank. The tank should be well planted and covered; bogwood and rockwork may be included.

Paradise fish tankmates must be chosen with care. Suitable ones include giant danios, large tetras, most smaller catfishes, and even some of the less aggressive cichlids, such as firemouth cichlids. Slow-moving or long-finned fish such as fancy goldfish and freshwater angelfish are likely to be attacked by males; bettas and gouramis may also be victimized due to their resemblance to paradise fish. Male paradise fish may also attempt to court female bettas and gouramis.

Fish less than 3 cm are likely to be consumed. If kept with significantly larger but non-aggressive fish, such as geophagus cichlids, large synodntis catfishes, or larger gouramis, they are usually submissive and do not act nearly as aggressively as when they are the dominant species in the aquarium. However, if the larger fish are also aggressive, they will not even attempt to fight and will take to hiding behind filters, plants, or in décor, and will succumb to stress.

Reproduction[edit]

Sexing is easy, as males are more colorful and have longer fins compared to the females.

As is typical of most bettas and gouramis, spawning involves a male building a bubble nest (a floating mat of saliva-coated air bubbles, often incorporating plant matter) and attracting a female to it. If the female accepts the male's advances, the fish will 'embrace' in open water, releasing both eggs and sperm into the water. The male gathers the fertilized eggs after each embrace, spitting them up into the bubble nest. After spawning, the male has no further use for the female and may violently attack her (and any other fish that approaches the nest). Once the fry hatch and have begun to swim freely, the male is best removed and the fry raised on infusoria or newly hatched brine shrimp.

An albino form of Macropodus opercularis is available. Many aquarists consider this form to be less aggressive than the wild type, but also less hardy, having more trouble with low temperatures.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Huckstorf, V. 2012. Macropodus opercularis. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 24 March 2014.
  2. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2014). "Macropodus opercularis" in FishBase. February 2014 version.

External links[edit]