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Sound change and alternation
Example of paragoge, or addition of a phoneme at the end of a word in a Mexican supermarket

Paragoge (/pærəˈɡ/; from Greek: παραγωγή; adj. paragogic /pærəˈɡɒɪk/), is the addition of a sound to the end of a word. Often, this is due to nativization. It is a type of epenthesis, most commonly vocalic epenthesis.

Diachronic paragoge[edit]

Some languages have undergone paragoge as a sound change, so that modern forms are longer than the historical forms they are derived from. Italian sono 'I am' from Latin SUM is an example. Sometimes, as here, the paragogic vowel is an echo vowel.

Paragoge in loanwords[edit]

Languages that do not allow words to end in certain or any consonants will add a dummy vowel to the end of loanwords from other languages that include a forbidden final consonant.



  • Crowley, Terry. (1997) An Introduction to Historical Linguistics. 3rd edition. Oxford University Press.