Paramara dynasty

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Paramara Kingdom

800–1327
Capital Dhar
Religion Hinduism
Government Monarchy
Maharaja
 -  c.800 – c.818 Upendra
 -  c.1010 – c.1055 Bhoja I
 -  c.1274 – c.1283 Arjunavarman II
Historical era Classical India
 -  Established 800
 -  Disestablished 1327

The Paramara dynasty was an early medieval Indian royal Rajput house that ruled over the Malwa region in central India. They belonged to the Rajput clan. The most significant ruler was Bhoja I. The seat of the Paramara kingdom was Dhārānagara, the present day Dhar city in Madhya Pradesh. The main sources for the history of the Paramara dynasty are the Nava-saha-sanka-charita of Padmagupta and a series of inscriptions, most notably the Udayapur Praśasti, found at Udaypur in Vidisha district, Madhya Pradesh.

Origin[edit]

According to the Bhavisya Purana, the Kamadhenu (a cow which grants all wishes of one) of the sage Vasishtha was stolen by another sage Vishvamitra. Vasishtha therefore made an offering to the sacrificial fire at Mount Abu. A hero sprang out from the sacrificial fire and brought back the cow to the sage Vasishtha, who bestowed the name Parmar (slayer of the enemy) on him.[1]

Notable Kings[edit]

Upendra[edit]

Upendra was the first known ruler of this rajput parmar dynasty. He had two sons, Kuvar Harshaditya Singh and Kuvar Dambarasimha. His elder son, Kuvar Harshaditya Singh, succeeded his father.

Siyaka[edit]

Siyaka succeeded his father Vairisimha II. He was also known for his courage and his brave. He had two sons by his queen Vadaja, Vakpatiraja and Sindhuraja. His elder son Vakpatiraja succeeded him.

Vakpatiraja II[edit]

Vakpatiraja II, also known as Utpala but famously known as King Munja succeeded his father Siyaka II. He assumed the titles, Shrivallabha, Prithvivallabha and Amoghavarsha. He defeated the Kalachuri king Yuvaraja II and captured his capital Tripuri. He also defeated the Guhilas of Medapata (Mewar) and plundered the capital Aghata (Ahar). He defeated the Chalukya ruler Mularaja of Anahilapataka.

Sindhuraja[edit]

Sindhuraja succeeded his elder brother Vakpatiraja II. He assumed the titles, Kumaranarayana and Navasahasanka. The Navasāhasāṅkacarita provides information about his reign. It describes how he helped a Naga king, Shankhapala of the Barsur in the present-day Dantewada district in Chhattisgarh state against Vajrankusha, a ruler of Vairagad in the present-day Chandrapur district in Maharashtra state and married his daughter Shashiprabha. He was succeeded by his son Bhoja I.

Bhoja I[edit]

Bhoja I was the most well-known ruler of this dynasty. He was a scholar and established a centre for Sanskrit studies in Dhara Nagari, his capital. 23 works are ascribed to him, which include the Samaranganasutradhara.

The Rulers of Parmar dynasty of Malwa, India[edit]

Name[2] Reign Began Reign Ended
1 Upendra 800 818
2 Siyaka - He was won a various battles and had a glorious past with his courage and bravery.... He was ShurVeer meaning Brave 818 843
3 Siyaka I 843 893
4 Vakpatiraja I 893 918
5 Vairisimha II 918 948
6 Siyaka II Harsha Siyaka – He belong to rajput parmar clan.He expanded the kingdom in various battles with neighbours such as Mewar, Indore and in the east touched the Chandela Kingdom. He was defeated by Yashorvarman Chandela. He took Ujjain from the Pratiharas. He later invaded the Rashtrakutas and sacked Manyakheta in Spring of 972. Khottiga Amoghavarsha of Rashtrakuta empire died fighting, resulting in collapse and overtake of his empire by Western Chalukyas under Tailapa II. 948 974
7 Vakpatiraja II Munja – He belong to rajput parmar clan.He defeated Mewar under Narwahana or his son Shakti Kumar and plundered Ahar their new capital.He also invaded Marwar which was under the Chauhanas. He defeated the Kalachuri king Yuvaraja II and sacked his capital Tripuri. Battles between him and Tailapa II of Western Chalukya are considered epic. He invaded the Western Chalukyas, hoping to defeat the still evolving new regional power. Tailapa however defeated the invasion and captured him. He died in captivity. 974 995
8 Sindhuraja - Decisively defeated the Hunas north west of Malwa possibly in Indore. He defeated the Chalukyas of Lata (Gujarat) as well as King of Kosala, Kalingaraja. He also defeated the Silhara dynasty of Konkan at Aparanta. He may or may not have been killed in battle with Western Chalukya. 995 1010
9 Bhoja I – He was one of the great rajput ruler of the parmar dynasty . He fought with his neighbours with varying results but was able to keep Muslims out of Malwa. He was a polymath and authored many books on various topics including Samarangana-sutradhara. He is considered the greatest king of his dynasty. He is also a subject of early known brain surgery for a tumor by inducing coma using something called sammohini. 1010 1055
10 Jayasimha I - Killed in battle by Kalachuri King Karna. 1055 1068-69
11 Udayaditya - Defeated by Chamundaraja, his vassal at Vagada. Invaded in 1079 by Karna, Solanki ruler of Lata and defeated him at Sudakupa Pass. In reply he along with allies defeated Karna. 1068-69 1087
12 Lakshmanadeva 1087 1094
13 Naravarmandeva Nirvana-Narayana - Lost Bhilsa District to the Chandelas under Salakshanavarman. Also defeated by Chauhanas of Sakambhari under Ajayavarman. He was also defeated by Jayasimha Siddharaja, the Solanki ruler of Lata 1094 1134
14 Yasovarman - Invaded by Jayasimha Siddharaja, the Solanki ruler of Gujarat losing to him the greater part of Malwa but restored a portion of the Kingdom with the help of Chauhans of Ajmer 1134 1142
15 Jayavarman I 1142 1143
Ballala - a usurper, killed in battle by Kaka, a general of Kumarapala, the Solanki ruler of Gujarat 1143 1150-51
Briefly a province of Kumarpala
16 Vindhyavarman 1160 1193
17 Subhatavarman 1193 1210
18 Arjunavarman I - He restored past glory of his Kingdom by defeating Solanki Kingdom of Gujarat as well as the Yadava Kingdom 1210 1218
19 Devapala 1218 1239
20 Jaitugideva 1239 1256
21 Jayavarman II 1256 1269
22 Jayasimha II 1269 1274
23 Arjunavarman II 1274 1283
24 Bhoja II 1283  ?
25 Mahlakadeva - He was defeated in 1305 by Ain-ul-Mulk Multani and Malwa was annexed by the Delhi Sultanate.  ? 1305

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Thapar, Romila (1966, reprint 1986). A History of India, Vol.I, Middlesex:Penguin, ISBN 0-14-020769-4, p.228
  2. ^ Malwa through the ages, from the earliest times to 1305. by Kailash Chand Jain ISBN 81-208-0824-X, 9788120808249