Paramedics in the United States

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Star of Life

In the United States, the paramedic is an allied health professional whose primary focus is to provide advanced emergency medical care for critical and emergent patients who access the Emergency Medical System (EMS). This individual possesses the complex knowledge and skills necessary to provide patient care and transportation. Paramedics function as part of a comprehensive EMS response, under medical oversight. Paramedics perform interventions with the basic and advanced equipment typically found on an ambulance. The paramedic is a link from the scene into the health care system. Because of the amount of complex decision making, one of the eligibility requirements for licensure requires successful completion of a nationally accredited Paramedic program at the certificate or associates degree level.[1]

History[edit]

Prior to 1970, ambulances were staffed with advanced first-aid level responders who were frequently referred to as "ambulance attendants." There was little regulation or standardized training for those staffing these early emergency response vehicles or the required equipment carried inside. Common equipment included a well-stocked advanced first aid kit, oxygen resuscitator, splint bag, stretcher, and in some places, a long spine board with no head immobilization. Around 1966 in a published report entitled "Accidental Death and Disability: The Neglected Disease of Modern Society",[2] (known in EMS trade as the White Paper) medical researchers began to reveal, to their astonishment, that soldiers who were seriously wounded on the battlefields of Vietnam had a better survival rate than those individuals who were seriously injured in motor vehicle accidents on California freeways. Early research attributed these differences in outcome to a number of factors, including comprehensive trauma care, rapid transport to designated trauma facilities, and a new type of medical corpsman; one who was trained to perform certain critical advanced medical procedures such as fluid replacement and airway management, which allowed the victim to survive the journey to definitive care.

In 1962, an amazing man named Rodney Nielsen brought the concept of the Paramedics to Southern California. As a young boy, just 8 years old, he and his dad used to walk to the fire department. His father was friends with the firemen in his town. April 13, 1937, while he was visiting family in Wisconsin, there was a house fire across the street. After the fire was out, 2 men in a pickup truck came and removed a body. It dawned on him, why they wouldn't come before the fire was out, thinking maybe they could save them before they perished. He approached Chief Sneery and wanted to have the fire department go out and rescue people, told them his ideas and got a dead end answer. The chief responded with "Firemen fight fires, they do not rescue people." Chief Harrison and Chief Black also gave this little boy with a bright idea the same answer. Years later, Rodney Nielsen was a councilmen in the Redondo Beach, CA city council. He spoke to the people, trying again to try to convince to Fire Departments to involve the paramedics in their field. Only this time, he had succeeded. After many more years of putting in place a program, it was official in August 1971 that the Paramedics would be coming to Southern California's Fire Departments.[3][4]

As a result of this publication, a series of grand experiments began in the United States. Pittsburgh's branch of Freedom House paramedics are credited as the first emergency medical technician (EMT) trainees in the United States. Pittsburgh's Peter Safar is referred to as the father of CPR.[5] In 1967, he began training unemployed African-American men in what later became Freedom House Ambulance Service,[6] the first paramedic squadron in the United States.[7][8] Almost simultaneously, and completely independent from one another, experimental programs began in three U.S. centers; Miami, Florida, Seattle, Washington, and Los Angeles, California. Each was aimed at determining the effectiveness of using firefighters to perform many of these same advanced medical skills in the pre-hospital setting in the civilian world. Many in the senior administration of the fire departments were initially quite opposed to this concept of 'firemen giving needles', and actively resisted and attempted to cancel pilot programs more than once. In Seattle, the Medic One program at Harborview Medical Center and the University of Washington Medical Center, started by Leonard Cobb, M.D., began training firefighters in CPR in 1970.[9] Dr. Eugene Nagel[10] trained city of Miami firefighters as the first U.S. paramedics to use invasive techniques and portable defibrillators with telemetry in 1967. In Los Angeles, a pilot paramedic program, involving firefighters from only two county fire department rescue squads initially, began under the direction of Ronald Stewart, M.D.[11]

Elsewhere, the novel approach to pre-hospital care was also evolving. Portland's Leonard Rose, M.D., in cooperation with Buck Ambulance Service, instituted a cardiac training program and began training other paramedics. Baltimore's R. Adams Cowley,[12] the father of trauma medicine, devised the concept of integrated emergency care, designing the first civilian Medevac helicopter program and campaigning for a statewide EMS system. Other communities that were early participants in the development of paramedicine included Jacksonville, Florida, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (in an expanded program), and Seattle, Washington (in an expanded program). In 1972 the first civilian emergency medical helicopter transport service, Flight for Life opened in Denver, Colorado.[13] Emergency medical helicopters were soon put into service elsewhere in the United States. It is now routine to have paramedic and nurse-staffed EMS helicopters in most major metropolitan areas. The vast majority of these aeromedical services are utilized for critical care air transport (inter-hospital) in addition to emergency medical services (pre-hospital).

A television producer, working for producer Jack Webb,[14] of Dragnet and Adam-12 fame, happened to be in Los Angeles' UCLA Harbor Medical Center, doing background research for a proposed new TV show about doctors, when he happened to encounter these 'firemen who spoke like doctors and worked with them'. This novel idea would eventually evolve into the Emergency! television series, which ran from 1972–1977, portraying the exploits of a new group called 'paramedics'. The show captured the imagination of emergency services personnel, the medical community, and the general public. When the show first aired in 1972, there were exactly 6 full-fledged paramedic units operating in 3 pilot programs (Miami, Los Angeles, Seattle) in the whole of the United States. No one had ever heard the term 'paramedic'; indeed, it is reported that one of the show's actors was initially concerned that the 'para' part of the term might involve jumping out of airplanes! By the time the program ended production in 1977, there were paramedics operating in every state. The show's technical advisor was a pioneer of paramedicine, James O. Page,[15] then a Battalion Chief responsible for the Los Angeles County Fire Department 'paramedic' program, but who would go on to help establish other paramedic programs in the U.S., and to become the founding publisher of the Journal of Emergency Medical Services.[16]

Throughout the 1970s and 1980s, the field continued to evolve, although in large measure, on a local level. In the broader scheme of things the term 'ambulance service' was replaced by 'emergency medical service' to reflect the change from a transportation system to a system that provides actual medical care. The training, knowledge base, and skill sets of both paramedics and emergency medical technicians (both competed for the job title, and 'EMT-Paramedic' was a common compromise) were typically determined by what local medical directors were comfortable with, what it was felt that the community needed, and what could actually be afforded. There were also tremendous local differences in the amount and type of training required, and how it would be provided. This ranged from in-service training in local systems, through community colleges, and ultimately even to universities. During the evolution of paramedicine, a great deal of both curriculum and skill set was in a state of constant flux. Permissible skills evolved in many cases at the local level, and were based upon the preferences of physician advisers and medical directors. Treatments would go in and out of fashion, and sometimes, back in again. The use of certain drugs, Bretyllium for example, illustrate this. In some respects, the development seemed almost faddish. Technologies also evolved and changed, and as medical equipment manufacturers quickly learned, the pre-hospital environment was not the same as the hospital environment; equipment standards that worked fine in hospitals could not cope well with the less controlled pre-hospital environment.

Physicians began to take more interest in paramedics from a research perspective as well. By about 1990, most of the 'trendiness' in pre-hospital emergency care had begun to disappear, and was replaced by outcome-based research and evidence-based medicine;[17] the gold standard for the rest of medicine. This research began to drive the evolution of the practice of both paramedics and the emergency physicians who oversaw their work; changes to procedures and protocols began to occur only after significant outcome-based research demonstrated their need. Paramedics became increasingly accountable for their errors as well, and these too led to changes in procedure.[18] Such changes affected everything from simple procedures, such as CPR, to changes in drug protocols and other advanced procedures.[19] As the profession of paramedic grew, some of its members actually went on to become not just research participants, but researchers in their own right, with their own projects and journal publications.

Education[edit]

The education and skills required of paramedics vary by state. The U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) designs and specifies a National Standard Curriculum[20] for EMT training. Most paramedic education and certifying programs require that a student is at a minimum educated and trained to the National Standard Curriculum for a particular skill level.[21] The National Registry of Emergency Medical Technicians (NREMT) is a private, central certifying entity whose primary purpose is to maintain a national standard. NREMT also provides certification information for paramedics who relocate to another state.[22]

Paramedic education programs can be as short as 6 months or as long as 4 years. An Associate's degree program is 2 years, often administered through a community college. Degree programs are an option, with two year Associate's degree programs being most common, although four year Bachelor's degree programs exist. Many paramedic programs are through Adult Career and Technical schools that provide a certificate of completion upon completion of the program. All programs must meet the current National Standard curriculum. The institutions offering such training vary greatly across the country in terms of programs and requirements, and each must be examined by the prospective student in terms of both content and requirements where the prospective paramedic hopes to practice.[23] Regardless of education, all students must meet the same state requirements to take the certification exams, including the National Registry exams which consist of a psychomotor skills practical examination and the a Computer Based Testing (CBT). In addition, most locales require that paramedics attend ongoing refresher courses and continuing medical education to maintain their license or certification. In addition to state and national registry certifications, most paramedics are required to be certified in Pediatric Advanced Life Support, Pediatric Prehospital care or Pediatric Emergencies for the Prehospital Provider; Prehospital Trauma Life Support; International Trauma Life Support; and Advanced Cardiac Life Support. These additional requirements have education and certification from organizations such as the American Heart Association.

Credentialling and oversight[edit]

In the U.S., the community college training model remains the most common, although university-based paramedic education models continue to evolve. These variations in both educational approaches and standards led to tremendous differences from one location to another, and at its worst, created a situation in which a group of people with 120 hours of training, and another group (in another jurisdiction) with university degrees, were both calling themselves 'paramedics'. There were some efforts made to resolve these discrepancies. The National Association of Emergency Medical Technicians (NAEMT) along with National Registry of Emergency Medical Technicians (NREMT)[24] attempted to create a national standard by means of a common licensing examination, but to this day, this has never been universally accepted by U.S. States, and issues of licensing reciprocity for paramedics continue, although if an EMT obtains certification through NREMT (NREMT-P, NREMT-I, NREMT-B), this is accepted by 40 of the 50 states in the United States.[25] This confusion was further complicated by the introduction of complex systems of gradation of certification, reflecting levels of training and skill, but these too were, for the most part, purely local. To clarify, at least at a national level, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), which is the federal organization with authority to administer the EMS system, defines the various titles given to prehospital medical workers based on the level of care they provide. They are EMT-P (Paramedic), EMT-I (Intermediate), EMT-B (Basic), and First Responders. While providers at all levels are considered emergency medical technicians, the term "paramedic" is most properly used in the United States to refer only to those providers who are EMT-P's. Apart from this distinction, the only truly common trend that would evolve was the relatively universal acceptance of the term 'emergency medical technician' being used to denote a lower level of training and skill than a 'paramedic'.

Changes in procedures also included the manner in which the work of paramedics was overseen and managed. In the earliest days of the field, medical control and oversight was direct and immediate, with paramedics calling into a local hospital and receiving orders for every individual procedure or drug.[26] This still occurs in some jurisdictions, but is becoming very rare. As physicians began to build a bond of trust with paramedics, and experience in working with them, their confidence levels also rose. Increasingly, in many jurisdictions day-to-day operations moved from direct and immediate medical control to pre-written protocols or 'standing orders', with the paramedic typically only calling in for direction after the options in the standing orders had been exhausted.[27] Medical oversight became driven more by chart review or rounds, than by step by step control during each call.

Examples of procedures performed by paramedics[edit]

Just as with the use of medications, the other medical procedures and procedures permitted to paramedics varies broadly from one jurisdiction to another. It is not possible to provide a single set of procedures or medications that universally represents all paramedics in the United States. The lists below, while not universal, are fairly representative.

Procedures by certification level[edit]

These are the minimum skills recommendations put forth by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and endorsed by the National Registry of Emergency Medical Technicians.[28] Each State, region, and agencies may add to or deduct from this list as they see medically fit. For advanced Paramedic skills see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paramedic

Treatment issue Emergency Medical Responder Emergency Medical Technician Advanced Emergency Medical Technician Paramedic
Airway & Breathing
  • Humidifiers
  • Partial Rebreather Mask
  • Venturi mask
  • Manually Triggered Ventilator
  • Automatic Transport Ventilator
  • Oral and Nasal Airways
  • Esophageal-Tracheal Multi-Lumen Airways
Assessment * Manual blood pressure
  • EKG Interpretation
  • Interpretive 12-lead EKG
  • Blood chemistry analysis
Pharmacological Interventions

Route of Administration

  • Unit dose auto-injectors for self or peer care (MARK I)
  • Oral Glucose (Under medical control)
  • Epinephrine Auto-Injector (Varies by jurisdiction)

Assisted Medications

  • Assist patient in administering his/her own prescribed medications, including auto-injection

Route of Administration

Administered Medications

  • PHYSICIAN-approved over-the-counter medications (oral glucose, aspirin for chest pain of suspected ischemic origin)
  • Peripheral IV insertion
  • IV fluid infusion
  • Pediatric IO

Route of Administration

Administered Medications

  • Central Line Monitoring
  • IO insertion
  • Venous blood sampling

Route of Administration

Administered Medications

  • Physician-approved medications
  • Maintenance of blood administration
  • Thrombolytics initiation
Emergency Trauma Care
  • Manual cervical stabilization
  • Manual extremity stabilization
  • Eye irrigation
  • Long spine board
  • Cervical Collar
  • Direct pressure
  • Hemorrhage control
  • Emergency moves for endangered patients
 
Medical/Cardiac Care
  • Mechanical CPR
  • Assisted complicated delivery

 

Skills common to all EMTs and paramedics[edit]

  • Assessment and evaluation of general incident scene safety.
  • Effective verbal and written reporting skills (Charting).
  • Routine medical equipment maintenance procedures.
  • Routine radio operating procedures.
  • Triage of patients in a mass casualty incident.
  • Emergency vehicle operation.

Medications administered[edit]

Paramedics in most jurisdictions administer a variety of emergency medications; the individual medications vary widely, based on physician medical director preference, local standard of care, and law. These drugs may include Adenocard (Adenosine),[29] which slow the heart for a short period of time, and Atropine, which speeds a heartbeat that is too slow. The list may include sympathomimetics like dopamine for severe hypotension (low blood pressure) and cardiogenic shock. Diabetics often benefit from the fact that paramedics are able to give D50W (Dextrose 50%) to treat hypoglycemia (low blood sugar). They can treat crisis and anxiety conditions. Some advanced paramedics may also be permitted to perform rapid sequence induction; a rapid way of obtaining an advanced airway with the use of paralytics and sedatives, using such medications as Versed, Ativan, or Etomidate, and paralytics such as succinylcholine, rocuronium, or vecuronium.[30] Paramedics in some jurisdictions may also be permitted to sedate combative patients using antipsychotics like Haldol or Geodon.[31] The use of medications for treating respiratory conditions such as, albuterol, atrovent, and methylprednisolone is common. Paramedics may also be permitted to administer medications such as those that relieve pain or decrease nausea and vomiting. Nitroglycerin, baby aspirin, and morphine sulfate may be administered for chest pain. Paramedics may also use other medications and antiarrhythmics like amiodarone to treat cardiac arrhythmias such as ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation not responding to defibrillation.[32] Paramedics also treat for severe pain, i.e. burns or fractures, with narcotics like morphine sulfate, pethidine, fentanyl and in some jurisdictions, ketorolac. This list is not representative of all jurisdictions, and EMS jurisdictions may vary greatly in what is permitted. Some jurisdictions may not permit administration of certain classes of drugs, or may use drugs other than the ones listed for the same purposes. For an accurate description of permitted drugs or procedures in a given location, it is necessary to contact that jurisdiction directly.

Employment[edit]

Paramedics are employed by various public and private emergency service providers. These include private ambulance services, fire departments, public safety or police departments, hospitals, law enforcement agencies, the military, and municipal EMS agencies in addition to and independent from police or fire departments, also known as a 'third service'. Paramedics may respond to medical incidents in an ambulance, rescue vehicle, helicopter, fixed-wing aircraft, motorcycle, or fire suppression apparatus.

Example of an official shoulder emblem worn by paramedics to identify their advanced level of care.

Paramedics may also be employed in medical fields that do not involve transportation of patients. Such positions include offshore drilling platforms, phlebotomy, blood banks, research labs, educational fields, law enforcement and hospitals.[33]

Aside from their traditional roles, paramedics may also participate in one of many specialty arenas:

  • Critical care transporters move patients by ground ambulance or aircraft between medical treatment facilies. This may be done to allow a patient to receive a higher level of care in a more specialized facility. Registered Nurses with training in critical care medicine may work side-by-side with paramedics in these settings. Paramedics participating in this role generally also provide care not traditionally administered by Paramedics who respond to 911 calls. Examples of this are blood transfusions, intra-aortic balloon pumps, and mechanical ventilators.[34]
  • Tactical paramedics work on law enforcement teams (SWAT). These medics, usually from the EMS agency in the area, are commissioned and trained to be tactical operators in law enforcement, in addition to paramedic duties. Advanced medical personnel perform dual roles as operator and medic on the teams. Such an officer is immediately available to deliver advanced emergency care to other injured officers, suspects, innocent victims and bystanders.[35] The advantage to having dual role paramedics is that medical care is provided almost immediately.
  • Hospital paramedics are increasingly employed in both outpatient and inpatient areas. Emergency departments employ the largest number of paramedics working inside of hospitals. Considered ambulatory care, emergency departments are classified as an outpatient area of a hospital. Depending on their scope of practice and job description within the emergency department, paramedics are allowed to triage and assess incoming patients, provide analysis and interpretation of both labs and EKGs, intravenous therapy, drug administration, transportation of emergency department patients to diagnostic testing or their inpatient rooms. Paramedics are also employed in inpatient areas of hospitals as well. Paramedics are utilized in intensive care units assisting physicians with ICU patients and they are utilized on high risk transport teams by providing transportation, continuation of care and, often, assisting in sedation of patients during minimally invasive and invasive procedures at the bedside and in diagnostic areas. Because of the nature and purpose of these teams, paramedics work closely with radiology, interventional radiology, nuclear medicine and anesthesiology. While not always allowed to practice with the latitude and autonomy paramedics have become accustom to in the prehospital setting, they are increasingly becoming a valued and respected allied health care provider within both the outpatient and inpatient areas of hospitals.[36]

Salary[edit]

The salary of a paramedic in the US varies. The mean average is $30,000, with the lowest 10% earning under $20,000 and the top 10% make over $50,000, considerably less than the salaries of paramedics in Canada. Paramedic supervisors and managers may make between $60,000- $80,000, depending the location.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.ems.gov/pdf/EMSScope.pdf
  2. ^ National Research Modern Society (2000). Washington, D.C: National Academies Press. ISBN 0-309-07532-7.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  3. ^ Redondo Beach Minutes 08/1971
  4. ^ Rodney Nielsen
  5. ^ Grenvik A, Kochanek PM (February 2004). "The incredible career of Peter J. Safar, MD: the Michelangelo of acute medicine". Critical Care Medicine 32 (2 Suppl): S3–7. doi:10.1097/01.CCM.0000110733.48596.4F. PMID 15043225. 
  6. ^ "Freedom House". Retrieved 2008-11-07. 
  7. ^ "Send Freedom House!". Retrieved 2007-06-26. [dead link]
  8. ^ "Pitt Magazine". Spring 2007. p. 6. 
  9. ^ "Cobb Honored as one of Resuscitation Greats". Retrieved 2008-11-07. 
  10. ^ "Dr Eugene L. Nagel". Retrieved 2007-08-06. 
  11. ^ "Dalhousie University Faculty of Medicine website". Retrieved 2008-11-07. 
  12. ^ "Tribute to R. Adams Cowley". Retrieved 2008-11-07. 
  13. ^ "Flight for Life Colorado website". Retrieved 2008-11-07. 
  14. ^ "Jack Webb (Museum of Broadcast Communications website)". Retrieved 2008-11-07. 
  15. ^ "Fire and EMS Service Icon James O. Page Passes Away". Retrieved 2008-11-07. 
  16. ^ "Journal of Emergency Medical Services website". Archived from the original on 2008-08-01. Retrieved 2008-11-07. 
  17. ^ Sackett, David L; Rosenberg, William M C; Gray, J A Muir; Haynes, R Brian; Richardson, W Scott (1996-01-13). "Evidence based medicine: what it is and what it isn't". British Medical Journal 312 (7023): pp. 71–72. doi:10.1136/bmj.312.7023.71. PMC 2349778. PMID 8555924. Retrieved 2008-06-14. 
  18. ^ Meisel, Zachary (2005-11-08). "Ding-a-Ling-a-Ling". Slate. Retrieved 2008-06-14. 
  19. ^ Burton, John H (June 2006). "Out-of-Hospital Endotracheal Intubation: Half Empty or Half Full?". Annals of Emergency Medicine 47 (6): pp. 542–544. doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2006.01.023. PMID 16713781. Retrieved 2008-06-14. 
  20. ^ "National Standard Curriculum". Retrieved 2007-08-08. 
  21. ^ "National Standard Curriculum". Retrieved 2008-11-07. 
  22. ^ "State Office Information". Retrieved 2012-11-11. 
  23. ^ "Nationwide Directory of Paramedic Schools". Retrieved 2008-11-07. 
  24. ^ "NREMT website". Retrieved 2011-09-17. 
  25. ^ "Reciprocity Information (NREMT website)". Retrieved 2011-09-17. 
  26. ^ Kuehl, Alexander (2002). Prehospital systems and medical oversight. Dubugue, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt Pub. ISBN 0-7872-7071-7. 
  27. ^ Victoria L. Fedor; Jacob L. Hafter (2003). EMS and the Law. Sudbury, Mass: Jones & Bartlett Publishers. ISBN 0-7637-2068-2. 
  28. ^ "National EMS Scope of Practice". Retrieved 2012-11-11. 
  29. ^ "North Carolina EMS Drug List". Retrieved 2008-11-10. 
  30. ^ "EMS Protocols, Pitt County (NC)". Retrieved 2008-11-10. 
  31. ^ "Wisconsin Paramedic Medication List". Retrieved 2008-11-10. 
  32. ^ "Paramedic Protocols, Denver (Co)". Retrieved 2008-11-10. [dead link]
  33. ^ "Emergency Medical Technicians and Paramedics in California". Retrieved 2008-11-10. 
  34. ^ "What is a Pediatric/Neonatal Critical Care Transport Team?". Retrieved 2008-11-10. 
  35. ^ "Tactical Paramedic Operations". Retrieved 2008-11-10. 
  36. ^ "A report on the EMT/Paramedics Working in the Emergency Department Survey". Retrieved 2011-11-15. 

External links[edit]