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A paramorphism (from Greek παρά, meaning "close together") is an extension of the concept of catamorphism to deal with a form which “eats its argument and keeps it too”,[1][2] as exemplified by the factorial function. Its categorical dual is the apomorphism

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Philip Wadler. Views: A way for pattern matching to cohabit with data abstraction. Technical Report 34, Programming Methodology Group, University of Göteburg and Chalmers University of Technology, March 1987.
  2. ^ Meijer, Erik; Fokkinga, Maarten; Paterson, Ross (1991). "Functional Programming with Bananas, Lenses, Envelopes and Barbed Wire". CiteSeerX: