A parent-teacher conference is a short meeting or conference between the parents and teachers of students to discuss children's progress at school and find solutions to academic or behavioral problems. Parent-teacher conferences supplement the information conveyed by report cards by focusing on students' specific strengths and weaknesses in individual subjects and generalizing the level of inter-curricular skills and competences.
Most conferences take place without the presence of the students whose progress is being discussed, although there is evidence that their inclusion increases the productivity of the meetings. The meetings are generally led by teachers who take a more active role in information sharing, with parents relegated mostly to the role of listeners.
- 1 Types
- 2 Scheduling
- 3 Management
- 4 Discussion
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
Parent-teacher conferences exist in a variety of different forms, depending on a country, school district and individual school. The subtypes are characterized by the following attributes.
Like most other meetings, parent-teacher conferences can take the form of face-to-face meetings in which parents and teachers meet in person, or electronic meetings that are conducted over the phone or via video conferencing systems like Skype or Google Voice. Face-to-face meetings offer personal contact but require that parents and teachers meet at physically the same place during the meeting.
In case of electronic parent-teacher conferences, neither parents nor teachers need to be at school or other common location and can participate in the meeting from home or while working or traveling. The school does not need to reserve rooms for the meetings and there is more flexibility in finding suitable time. The disadvantages of electronic are a lack of face time that many participants are used to and a need for the availability to unfailing technology.
Parent-teacher conferences can be
- one-on-one meetings between a parent and a teacher. This type is used when different subjects are taught by different teachers and parents meet the teachers for all different subjects individually. The type offers most confidentiality and allows the discussion of information specific to a student in a particular subject. The downside of the type is that the meetings are hard to schedule because they require multiple time slots and meeting places.
- many-to-one meeting is a meeting between multiple parents and one teacher. Usually the students whose parents attend the meeting are in the same class/year and the teacher is either the teacher of a particular subject or the assigned class teacher. This type is common in elementary schools. It is relatively easy to schedule but lacks privacy for discussing the progress of particular students.
- one-to-many meeting between one parent and multiple teachers. This type can be used if a child has problems in multiple subjects or when a parent comes to school outside the regularly scheduled parent-teacher conference time to meet several teachers at once.
- many-to-many meetings between multiple parents and multiple teachers. This type of meeting is easy to can be used for electing board members or disseminating general information about school, calendar of events, changes in common regulations, etc. It is inefficient for discussing issues that are specific of particular students and lacks needed privacy.
Parent-teacher conferences usually take place once every school term, although some schools organize only one meeting during (mostly at the beginning of) the school year.
The duration of parent-teacher conferences depends on the frequency of conferences and the number of participating parents and teachers. Annual meetings with multiple participants may last two hours or longer; one-to-many and many-to-one meetings once a term may last for an hour; one-on-one meetings once a year may last 15 minutes, one-on-one meetings once a term tend to last 5–10 minutes.
Most face-to-face meetings take place at school. One-to-many meetings may take place in separate meeting rooms, many-to-one meetings in larger classrooms and one-to-one and many-to-one meetings in the school hall, aula or auditorium, with many one-to-one meetings happening simultaneously in different parts of the room.
In Australian educational system, the meetings are known as parent-teacher interviews or parents' nights. The exact practice varies by state and by school type. Some states mandate that the interviews be conducted, others do not. Government and non-government schools also follow different federal educational laws.
Some schools have only one round of interviews per year, others have more. Two rounds is common, with terms 1 (Feb-April) and 3 (July–September) being popular times. Many schools offer multiple dates, splitting interviews either by class or by name (e.g. a-k/l-z).
Parent-teacher interviews are mandatory for all Ontario (Canada) elementary and secondary school teachers. Parents have the right to be allotted time for this purpose under the Ministry of Education.
In Singapore, the meeting is known as school parent meeting.
The conferences are usually held twice a year, at the end of the first quarter and at the end of the third quarter, with meeting each lasting 15–20 minutes. The parents typically choose the time that is best for them, and the teacher schedules the conference accordingly. The specific practices vary within school districts.
In the United States, many elementary schools will shorten the school day by 2–3 hours (often for an entire week) in mid fall to allow extra time for teachers to give these conferences.
The difference between parent-teacher conferences and a PTA meetings is that the former focus on students' academic progress while the latter organize more extra-curricular activities.
Some counties in US have proposed to consider it a legal violation for parents or guardians who fail to attend at least one parent-teacher conference during the school year. However, some charter schools, such as Walton Charter Academy, have made the event a requirement for parents to attend.
The event is one of the least liked events for some students as a majority receive punishment for bad conferences.
In UK educational system, the meeting is known as parent-teacher conference or parents' evening. The event is often held in the school hall and adjacent communal spaces where parents move through a series of eight to nine face-to-face 5 minute consultations with individual teachers.
Scheduling parent-teacher conferences involves finding a time that suits both parents and teachers with their existing time constraints and finding locations for the meetings. If all meetings would be independent without any dependencies, the planning of the meetings simplifies to unordered timetabling rather than full-scale scheduling where events need to be scheduled in a certain order, often because the output of one event forms an input for another.
In most cases, certain dependencies exist: parents prefer not to wait too long between different interviews but need long enough breaks to move from one location to another or locations in close proximity.
Various methods exist for scheduling parent-teacher conferences.
Meetings can be scheduled in person, by phone or on-line.
In person scheduling comes in two flavors:
- Parents come to school's administrative office to schedule meetings; scheduling is done by a school administrator.
- Students schedule meeting times with teachers by carrying a booking sheet and asking teachers to allocate times that are still available. Teachers have their own booking sheet and they mark the time on both sheets. Parents usually have the option of indicating which teachers they wish to see and the preferred times.
The advantage of the first is that teachers need not be involved in scheduling, the disadvantages are that a special middleman is required. The method is centralized in the sense that it is directed by neither a parent nor a teacher.
The advantage of the second is that parents need not be involved in scheduling, the disadvantages are that teachers need to do the scheduling after their classes are over or during break times that they would otherwise need for rest, prepare for classes or advising students, parents do not know which slots the teachers have available and often get times that aren't suitable or optimal (booking schedules are optimized from the point of view of the teacher, not the parent.), if a student doesn't want his/her parent to see teachers, all he/she may just not make the bookings, or leave it so late that there are no times available.
Scheduling by phone also involves a parent and a school administrator to do the scheduling without parents needing to be physically at school at the time of the scheduling. In principle, the middlemen could be avoided by automated scheduling by phone but is currently hindered by the lack of sophisticated speech analysis.
On-line scheduling is done by internet using appointment scheduling software. The advantages of the system are that it is automated without a need for a middleman, centrally optimized both for parents and for teachers and no students involved.
Well-designed on-line scheduling systems are secure, easy to use and easy to manage. Features offered by more advanced systems include:
- Schedule optimization where the system chooses the best sequence of meetings with individual during the time frame that suits the parent.
- Flexible scheduling that allows different length interviews over multiple days, depending on students' year or grade.
- Short breaks between interviews that allow parents to get to the next interview on time and allow teachers to catch up with the schedule if some of the previous meetings went overtime, thus helping to guarantee on-time-running of the interviews.
- Statistical analysis of bookings after interviews have completed.
- Central or batch scheduling that shift the control of the scheduling process away from parents and back to the school and use a priority-based, multi-phase process. Parents place scheduling requests on-line for the teachers whom they would like to see in the order of their priority and include information about their time availability. The software then schedules all requests as a whole. This results in parents getting to see their top priority teachers, but potentially missing out on 'lower-priority' ones. This trade-off is in contrast to the first-come-first-served type systems, where only the parents who schedule early may get the interview slots they need. After the overall batch produced interview schedule is published by the school, parents may go on-line for a second round of bookings to make changes or (new) late bookings, or to try to book the low-priority teachers that they missed out on in the first round. Centrally scheduled systems also claim to improve the issue of core subject teachers being over-booked.
Computationally, the scheduling problem is a NP-complete problem and in the same complexity class with other problems that involve constraint satisfaction and combinatorial optimization (so no fast algorithms are known for solving it).
This can be seen as follows. We can check in time polynomial to the input size whether certain time slot assignment satisfies parent-teacher conference scheduling (PTCS) constraints. Therefore, PTCS ∈ NP. Ignoring constraints that complicate scheduling even further, let's only consider the constraints on parent availability (e.g. assuming that all teachers, rooms and time slots are always available). Then there exists a simple polynomial transformation of the class-teacher assignment problem with teacher availability constraints (CTTA) in school timetable construction to the PTCS problem: namely, map class instances to teacher instances, teacher instances to parent instances, time slots to time slots (identity map), and teacher availability to parent availability. So if the PTCS problem were polynomial-time solvable by some algorithm, the transformation described above and the algorithm could be used to solve the CTTA problem too and the CTTA task would be polynomially solvable as well. But CTTA has been earlier proved to be NP-complete by the reduction from the NP-complete 3-SAT problem, so the PTC scheduling problem cannot be polynomially solvable either, and has to be NP-complete.
Optimized scheduling is advantageous only as long as the participants keep to the schedule by attending the meetings and starting and finishing on time. The latter can be achieved by a school bell or electronic voice-over message played over the school PA system, at each change of interview time (E.g. "Please move to your next interview"), avoiding to schedule very short interview times that are harder to keep running on time, scheduling empty slots at intervals to assist in bringing events back onto time if they are running over. General time management techniques apply.
Parent-teacher conferences have been criticized for their class bias and inefficiency because the meetings are attended mostly by the parents of more privileged children, while the parents of the children who are more likely to need extra assistance do not attend.
- Rabbitt, J. (1978). "The parent/teacher conference: Trauma or teamwork?". Phi Delta Kappan 59: 471–472.
- Hackmann, D.; J. Kenworthy, J., S. Nibbelink (1998). "Student empowerment through student-led conferences.". Middle School Journal 30: 35–39.
- Minke, Maggie and Barbara M. Walker; Kellie J. Anderson (Sep 2003). "Restructuring routine parent-teacher conferences: The family-school conference model". The Elementary School Journal 104 (1): 49–69. doi:10.1086/499742. JSTOR http://www.jstor.org/stable/3203049.
- MacLure, Maggie; Barbara M. Walker (March 2000). "Disenchanted evenings: The social organization of talk in parent-teacher consultations in UK secondary schools". British Journal of Sociology of Education 21 (1): 5–25. doi:10.1080/01425690095135. JSTOR http://www.jstor.org/stable/1393356.
- Swiderek, B. (1997). "Parent conferences". Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy 40: 580–581.
- "Busting myths: Parent teacher interview systems". Education Matters Secondary (Australian Publishing Resource Service). 2011. Retrieved October 25, 2011.
- Ermann, Ryan (June 14, 2010). "Ask an expert: Improving parent-teacher interviews". Canadian Living.
- "School of Science and Technology School Parent Meeting reminder". SST School Website. September 12, 2011.
- Cameron, Linda (February 9, 2008). "Worthy Proposes Punishment for Skipping Parent-Teacher Conferences". MyFOX Detroit.
- Alexander, David (September 12, 2011). "Scheduler popular". Southern Highland News.
- Willemen, Robertus (2002). School timetable construction: Algorithms and complexity. Eindhoven: Technische Universiteit Eindhoven.
- Even, S.; A. Itai, A. Shamir (1976). "On the complexity of timetable and multicommodity flow problems". SIAM Journal on Computing 5: 691–703. doi:10.1137/0205048.