Parenting styles

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A parenting style is a psychological construct representing standard strategies that parents use in their child rearing. There are many differing theories and opinions on the best ways to rear children, as well as differing levels of time and effort that parents are willing to invest. Parental investment starts before birth[citation needed].

Many parents create their own style from a combination of factors, and these may evolve over time as the children develop their own personalities and move through life's stages.[original research?]Yet not enough experimental research has been done to show how much differing parenting styles may affect child development.[1] Parenting style is affected by both the parents' and children's temperaments, and is largely based on the influence of one’s own parents and culture[citation needed]. "Most parents learn parenting practices from their own parents — some they accept, some they discard."[2] The degree to which a child's education is part of parenting is a further matter of debate.

Researchers have learned that parenting styles have an effect on a child's future development. Developmental skills resulting from positive parenting styles include maintaining a close relationship with others, being self-reliant, and able to work independently[citation needed]. More in depth research began in the mid 1980's that primarily focused on how much parenting styles influenced a child's later development.[3]

Distinction with parenting practices[edit]

According to a literature review by Christopher Spera (2005) called "A Review of the Relationship Among Parenting Practices, Parenting Styles and Adolescent School Achievement", Darling and Steinberg (1993) suggest that it is important to better understand the differences between parenting styles and parenting practices. "Parenting practices are defined as specific behaviors that parents use to socialize their children (Darling and Steinberg, 1993). For example, when parents want children to do well in school, they may model behavior as in sitting down and guiding their children in doing the homework, setting aside some time for homework and reading or making school a priority by going to school functions like parent-teacher conferences. In contrast, Darling and Steinberg (1993) define a parenting style as the emotional climate in which parents raise their children. Parenting styles have been characterized by dimensions of parental responsiveness and demandingness (Baumrind, 1991)”

One study association that has been made is the difference between "child's outcome and continuous measures of parental behavior". Some of the associations that are listed include the following; support, involvement, warmth, approval, control, monitoring and harsh punishment. Parenting practices such as parental support, monitoring and harsh punishment lead children into having higher school grades, less behavior problems and better mental health. These components have no age limit and can begin early in pre-school leading all the way into college. [4]

Theories of child rearing[edit]

Beginning in the 17th century, two philosophers independently wrote works that have been widely influential in child rearing. John Locke's 1693 book Some Thoughts Concerning Education is a well known foundation for educational pedagogy from a Puritan standpoint. Locke highlights the importance of experiences to a child's development, and recommends developing their physical habits first. In 1762, the French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau published a volume on education, Emile: or, On Education.[5] He proposed that early education should be derived less from books and more from a child's interactions with the world. Of these, Rousseau is more consistent with slow parenting, and Locke is more for concerted cultivation.

Jean Piaget

Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development describes how children represent and reason about the world.[6] This is a developmental stage theory that consists of a Sensorimotor stage, Preoperational stage, Concrete operational stage, and Formal operational stage. Piaget was a pioneer in the field of child development and continues to influence parents, educators and other theorists.

Erik Erikson, a developmental psychologist, proposed eight life stages through which each person must develop. In order to move on to the next stage, the person must work out a "crisis" in which a new dilemma must be solved.[7] In each stage, they must understand and balance two conflicting forces, and so parents might choose a series of parenting styles that helps each child as appropriate at each stage. The first five of his eight stages occur in childhood: The virtue of hope requires balancing trust with mistrust, and typically occurs from birth to one year old. Will balances autonomy with shame and doubt around the ages of two to three. Purpose balances initiative with guilt around the ages of four to six years. Competence balances industry against inferiority around ages seven to 12. Fidelity contrasts identity with role confusion, in ages 13 to 19. The remaining adult virtues are love, care and wisdom.

Rudolf Dreikurs believed that pre-adolescent children's misbehaviour was caused by their unfulfilled wish to be a member of a social group. He argued that they then act out a sequence of four mistaken goals: first they seek attention. If they do not get it, they aim for power, then revenge and finally feel inadequate. This theory is used in education as well as parenting, forming a valuable theory upon which to manage misbehaviour. Other parenting techniques should also be used to encourage learning and happiness.He emphasized the significance to establish a democratic family style that adopts a method of periodic democratic family councils and meanwhile avert the punishment.[8] He advances “logical and natural consequences” that teach children to be responsible and understand the natural consequences of proper rules of conduct and improper behavior.[9]

Frank Furedi is a sociologist with a particular interest in parenting and families. He believes that the actions of parents are less decisive than others claim. He describes the term infant determinism,[10] as the determination of a person's life prospects by what happens to them during infancy, arguing that there is little or no evidence for its truth. While other commercial, governmental and other interests constantly try to guide parents to do more and worry more for their children, he believes that children are capable of developing well in almost any circumstances. Furedi quotes Steve Petersen of Washington University in St. Louis: "development really wants to happen. It takes very impoverished environments to interfere with development ... [just] don't raise your child in a closet, starve them, or hit them on the head with a frying pan."[11] Similarly, the journalist Tim Gill has expressed concern about excessive risk aversion by parents and those responsible for children in his book No Fear.[12] This aversion limits the opportunities for children to develop sufficient adult skills, particularly in dealing with risk, but also in performing adventurous and imaginative activities.

In 1998, independent scholar Judith Rich Harris published The Nurture Assumption, in which she argued that scientific evidence, especially behavioral genetics, showed that all different forms of parenting do not have significant effects on children's development, short of cases of severe child abuse or child neglect.She proposes two main points for the effects, which are genetic effects, and social effects involved by the peer groups where children participate in.[13] The purported effects of different forms of parenting are all illusions caused by heredity, the culture at large, and children's own influence on how their parents treat them.

Baumrind's Parenting Typology[edit]

Diana Baumrind

Diana Baumrind is a researcher who focused on the classification of parenting styles. Baumrind’s research is known as “Baumrind’s Parenting Typology”.In her research, she found what she considered to be the four basic elements that could help shape successful parenting: responsiveness vs. unresponsiveness and demanding vs. undemanding.[14]Through her studies Baumrind identified three initial parenting styles: Authoritative parenting, authoritarian parenting and permissive parenting.[15]Authoritative parenting is marked by high demands for children and but also by a high level of warmth or compassion. [16]Authoritarian parenting is similar to authoritative parenting due to shared high demands. However, authoritarian parenting includes a high level of discipline with little to no compassion.[17]Permissive parenting is the other end of the parenting style spectrum. It is defined by little to no demands and a high level of warmth. Each style has an effect on the behavior of children. [18]Researchers Maccoby and Martin, expanded upon Baumrind’s three original parenting styles in 1983. [19] Maccoby and Martin used their findings to place parenting styles into two distinct categories; demanding and undemanding. With these distinctions, four new parenting styles were defined as seen below.[20]

Maccoby and Martin's Four Parenting Styles
Baumrind's Three Parenting Styles
Demanding Undemanding
Responsive Authoritative/Propagative Indulgent
Unresponsive Authoritarian/Totalitarian Neglectful

Baumrind believed that parents should be neither punitive nor aloof.[2] Rather, they should develop rules for their children and be affectionate with them. These parenting styles are meant to describe normal variations in parenting, not deviant parenting, such as might be observed in abusive homes.[21]In addition, parenting stress can often cause changes in parental behavior such as inconsistency, increased negative communication, decreased monitoring and/or supervision,[citation needed] setting vague rules or limits on behavior, being more reactive and less proactive, and engaging in increasingly harsh disciplinary behaviors.[22][full citation needed]

Authoritative parenting[edit]

The parent is demanding and responsive. When this style is systematically developed, it grows to fit the descriptions propagative parenting and concerted cultivation.

Authoritative parenting is characterized by a child-centered approach that holds high expectations of maturity. Authoritative parents can understand how their children are feeling and teach them how to regulate their feelings. Even with high expectations of maturity, authoritative parents are usually forgiving of any possible shortcomings. [23]They often help their children to find appropriate outlets to solve problems. Authoritative parents encourage children to be independent but still place limits on their actions.[2] Extensive verbal give-and-take is not refused, and parents try to be warm and nurturing toward the child.[2] Authoritative parents are not usually as controlling as authoritarian parents, allowing the child to explore more freely, thus having them make their own decisions based upon their own reasoning. Often, authoritative parents produce children who are more independent and self-reliant.[24] An authoritative parenting style mainly results when there is high parental responsiveness and high parental demands.[25]

Authoritative parents will set clear standards for their children, monitor the limits that they set, and also allow children to develop autonomy. They also expect mature, independent, and age-appropriate behavior of children. Punishments for misbehavior are measured and consistent, not arbitrary or violent. Often behaviours are not punished but the natural consequences of the child's actions are explored and discussed -allowing the child to see that the behaviour is inappropriate and not to be repeated, rather than not repeated to merely avoid adverse consequences. [2] Authoritative parents set limits and demand maturity. However, when punishing a child, the parent will explain his or her motive for their punishment. Children are more likely to respond to authoritative parenting punishment because it is reasonable and fair. A child knows why they are being punished because an authoritative parent makes the reasons known. As a result, children of authoritative parents are more likely to be successful, well liked by those around them, generous and capable of self determination.[26]

Authoritarian parenting[edit]

With this particular parenting style, the parent is demanding and unresponsive along with a lack of warmth.[27]

Authoritarian parenting is a restrictive, punishment heavy parenting style in which parents make their children follow their directions with little to no explanation. [2]Authoritarian parents expect much of their child, but generally do not explain the reasoning for the rules or boundaries.[28]Authoritarian parenting involves low parental responsiveness and high parental demand; the parents tend to demand obedience without explanation and focus on status.[25] Corporal punishment is a common choice of punishment. Yelling is another form of discipline for authoritarian parents.

Authoritarian parenting is a restrictive, punishment heavy parenting style in which parents make their children follow their directions with little response. It is apparent that the authoritarian parenting style has distinct affects on children especially when compared to authoritative parenting and permissive or indulgent parenting.Children resulting from this type of parenting may have less social competence because the parent generally tells the child what to do instead of allowing the child to choose by him or herself.[29]Children raised by authoritarian parents tend to conform, be highly obedient, quiet and not very happy.[30]These children often suffer from depression and self blame.[31]As a result of being raised in an authoritarian environment, once the children reach adolescence; rebellion is common.[32]Nonetheless, researchers have found that in some cultures and ethnic groups, aspects of authoritarian style may be associated with more positive child outcomes than Baumrind expects. "Aspects of traditional Asian child-rearing practices are often continued by Asian American families. In some cases, these practices have been described as authoritarian."[2] The purpose is to prepare the child for negative response, such as anger and aggression that they will face if their behaviour is inappropriate. The shock of aggression from someone from the outside world will be less if the child is accustomed to it from its parents. This teaches the child to behave them-self in society as an adult.

Indulgent parenting[edit]

The parent is responsive but not demanding.

Indulgent parenting, also called permissive, non-directive or lenient,[33] is characterized as having few behavioral expectations for the child. "Indulgent parenting is a style of parenting in which parents are very involved with their children but place few demands or controls on them."[2] Parents are nurturing and accepting, and are responsive to the child's needs and wishes. Indulgent parents do not require children to regulate themselves or behave appropriately. This may result in creating spoiled brats or "spoiled sweet" children depending on the behavior of the children.[original research?] The children will grow into adulthood not accustomed to aggression in others due to their inappropriate behavour which would be a great shock to them. As adults, they will pay less attention in avoiding behaviours which causes aggression in others.

Permissive parents try to be "friends" with their child, and do not play a parental role. The expectations of the child are very low, and there is little discipline. Permissive parents also allow the child to make its own decisions, giving them advice as a friend would. This type of parenting is very lax, with few punishments or rules. ("The Four").Permissive parents also tend to give their children whatever they want and hope that they are appreciate for their accommodating style. Other Permissive parents compensate for what they missed as children. So as a result parents give their children both the freedom and materials that they lacked in their childhood.[34]

Children of permissive parents may tend to be more impulsive, and as adolescents, may engage more in misconduct, and in drug use. "Children never learn to control their own behavior and always expect to get their way."[2] But in the better cases they are emotionally secure, independent and are willing to learn and accept defeat. They mature quickly and are able to live life without the help of someone else.[35]

From a recent study,[verification needed]

  • The teens least prone to heavy drinking had parents who scored high on both accountability and warmth.
  • So-called 'indulgent' parents, those low on accountability and high on warmth, nearly tripled the risk of their teen participating in heavy drinking.
  • 'Strict parents' or authoritarian parents – high on accountability and low on warmth – more than doubled their teen’s risk of heavy drinking.[36]

Neglectful parenting[edit]

The parent is neither demanding nor responsive.

Neglectful parenting is also called uninvolved, detached, dismissive or hands-off.[33] The parents are low in warmth and control, are generally not involved in their child's life, are disengaged, undemanding, low in responsiveness, and do not set limits. Neglectful parenting can also mean dismissing the children's emotions and opinions. Parents are emotionally unsupportive of their children, but will still provide their basic needs. Provide basic needs meaning: food, housing, and toiletries or money for the prementioned.[37] Neglectful parenting can stem from a variety of reasons, this includes the parents prioritizing themselves, lack of encouragement on the parent's parts, financial stresses, lack of support and addiction to harmful substances.[38]

Children whose parents are neglectful develop the sense that other aspects of the parents’ lives are more important than they are. Many children of this parenting style often attempt to provide for themselves or halt depending on the parent to get a feeling of being independent and mature beyond their years.[2] Parents, and thus their children, often display contradictory behavior. The parent and the child will never come to an agreement because the child will be resentful and the parent will show a demanding, with great authority side. Children become emotionally withdrawn from social situations. This disturbed attachment also impacts relationships later on in life. In adolescence, they may show patterns of truancy and delinquency.[2] Children from this parenting style lack external structure and internal sense of discipline.children also lack of external expression of love so as a result children try to get love from whatever sources they can.[39]

A study done by Maccoby and Martin (1983) analyzed adolescents, aged 14– 18 in four areas: psychosocial development, school achievement, internalized distress, and problem behaviour. The study found that those with neglectful parents scored the lowest on these tests, while those with authoritative parents scored the highest.[40]

Other parenting styles[edit]

Attachment parenting
This particular parenting style is framed around the psychological theory of attachment. Atachment in psychology is defined as “a lasting emotional bond between people”.[41]There are four main types of attachment, which are secure, insecure-avoidant, and insecure-resistant and disorganized attachment.[42]
Concerted cultivation
A style of parenting that is marked by the parents' attempts to foster their child's talents through organized leisure activities, such as music lessons.
Narcissistic parenting
A narcissistic parent is a parent affected by narcissism or narcissistic personality disorder. Typically narcissistic parents are exclusively and possessively close to their children and may be especially envious of, and threatened by, their child's growing independence.[43] The result may be what has been termed a pattern of narcissistic attachment, with the child considered to exist solely for the parent's benefit.[44]
Nurturant parenting
A family model where children are expected to explore their surroundings with protection from their parents.
Parents who try to involve themselves in every aspect of their child's life, often attempting to solve all their problems and stifling the child's ability to act independently or solve his own problems. A helicopter parent is a colloquial, early 21st-century term for a parent who pays extremely close attention to his or her children's experiences and problems, and attempts to sweep all obstacles out of their paths, particularly at educational institutions. Helicopter parents are so named because, like helicopters, they hover closely overhead, especially during the late adolescence to early adulthood years, when a level of independence and self-sufficiency is normal. Modern communication technology has promoted this style by enabling parents to keep watch over their kids through cell phones, emails, and online grades.[45]
Positive parenting
Consistent support, guiding them and supporting them for healthy development.
Slow parenting
Encourages parents to plan and organise less for their children, instead allowing them to enjoy their childhood and explore the world at their own pace. Allowing the child to develop their own interests and allowing them to grow into their own person, lots of family time, allowing children to make their own decisions, limit electronics, simplistic toys.
Strict parenting
An authoritarian approach, places a strong value on discipline and following inflexible rules as a means to survive and thrive in a harsh world. Focused on strict discipline, demanding, with high expectations from the parents with limited warmth.
Taking Children Seriously
The central idea of this movement is that it is possible and desirable to raise and educate children without doing anything to them against their will, or making them do anything against their will.
Toxic parenting
Poor parenting, with a toxic relationship between the parent and child. It results in complete disruption of the child's ability to identify one's self and reduced self-esteem, neglecting the needs of the child and abuse is sometimes seen in this parenting style.[46]Adults who have suffered from toxic parents are mostly unable to recognize toxic parenting behavior in themselves. Children with toxic parents grow up with damages and pass their damages to their own children.[47]

Differing parenting styles for male and female children[edit]

Mothers and fathers tend to pick up different behaviors of parenting based on the sex of their child. Studies have shown that fathers can affect their daughters' emotional adjustment more through the style of parenting they demonstrate rather than through using disciplinary approaches, such as punishment. Also, both a father and mother sometimes tend to use an authoritative style towards their daughters, while feeling more comfortable switching over to an authoritarian style for sons.[48]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Darling & Steinburg, Nancy & Laurence. "Parenting style as context: An integrative model". US: American Psychological Association. Retrieved 22 October 2014. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Santrock, J.W. (2007). A topical approach to life-span development, third Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  3. ^ Campione & Smetana, Nicole & Judith. "Parenting Styles". James J. Ponzetti Jr. Retrieved 22 October 2014. 
  4. ^ Amato & Fowler, Paul & Frieda. "Parenting Practices, Child Adjustment, and Family Diversity". Wiley Online Library. Retrieved 22 October 2014. 
  5. ^ Rousseau, Jean-Jacques (1762). Émile, ou De l'éducation. 
  6. ^ White, F., Hayes, B., & Livesey, D. (2005). Developmental Psychology: From Infancy to Adulthood. NSW:Pearson Education Australia. 
  7. ^ Constantinople, A. A. (1969). An Eriksonian measure of personality development in college student. Developmental Psychology, 1357-372.
  8. ^ GODDARD, H. WALLACE; DENNIS, STEVEN A. (2003). "Parenting Education". In James J. Ponzetti Jr. International Encyclopedia of Marriage and Family. Gale, Farmington, USA. Retrieved 13 October 2014. 
  9. ^ Jon, Roeckelein. ""Developmental Theory". In Elsevier's Dictionary of Psychological Theories". Credo. Elsevier Science & Technology, Oxford, United Kingdom. Retrieved 13 October 2014. 
  10. ^ Furedi, Frank (2001). Paranoid Parenting: Why Ignoring the Experts May Be Best for Your Child. Allen Lane. p. 240. ISBN 978-0-7139-9488-9. 
  11. ^ Petersen, Steve (January 10, 2000). "Baby Steps". 
  12. ^ Gill, Tim (2007). No fear: Growing up in a Risk Averse Society. Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation. p. 81. ISBN 978-1-903080-08-5. 
  13. ^ Smith, P. "Group socialization theory. In Reader's guide to the social sciences". Retrieved 2001. 
  14. ^ Baumrind, D. (1967). Child care practices anteceding three patterns of preschool behavior. Genetic Psychology Monographs, 75(1), 43-88.
  15. ^ Ewing, Allison. "Baumrind's Parenting Typology". Credo Reference. Encyclopaedic dictionary of psychology. Retrieved 2 October 2014. 
  16. ^ Ewing, Allison. "Authoritative Parenting". Credo Reference. Encyclopaedic dictionary of psychology. Retrieved 2 October 2014. 
  17. ^ Ewing, Allison. [Ewing, A. (2006). Authoritarian parenting. In Encyclopaedic dictionary of psychology. Retrieved from "Authoritarian Parenting"]. Credo Reference. Encyclopaedic dictionary of psychology. Retrieved 2 October 2014. 
  18. ^ Ewing, Allison. "Permissive Parenting". Credo Reference. Encyclopaedic dictionary of psychology. Retrieved 2 October 2014. 
  19. ^ Vilcherrez Pizzaro, Kathy. "Baumrind's Parenting style and Maccoby & Martin's Parenting Style Typologies". Retrieved 9 October 2014. 
  20. ^ Vilcherrez Pizzaro, Kathy. "Baumrind's Parenting style and Maccoby & Martin's Parenting Style Typologies". Retrieved 9 October 2014. 
  21. ^ Parenting Style and Its Correlates Retrieved 2009-06-14
  22. ^  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  23. ^ Strassen Berger, Kathleen (2011). The Developing Person Through the Life Span. Worth Publishers. p. 273. 
  24. ^ "All about the authoritative parenting style". Pagewise. Retrieved 2007-09-23. 
  25. ^ a b "Parenting Styles", "Parenting Styles"
  26. ^ Stassen Berger, Kathleen (2011). The Developing Person Through the Life Span. Worth Publishing. pp. 273–274. 
  27. ^ Ewing, Allison. "Authoritative Parenting". Credo Reference. Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Psychology. Retrieved 25 November 2014. 
  28. ^ "What Kind of Parent are you?". Retrieved 2007-09-23. 
  29. ^ "The Role of Parents in the Development of Peer Group Competence. ERIC Digest". Eric Digests. Retrieved 2007-09-23. 
  30. ^ Stassen Berger, Kathleen (2011). The Developing Person Through the Lifespan. Worth Publishers. p. 274. 
  31. ^ Stassen Berger, Kathleen (2011). The Developing Person Through the Lifespan. Worth Publishers. p. 274. 
  32. ^ Stassen Berger, Kathleen (2011). The Developing Person Through the Lifespan. Worth Publishers. p. 274. 
  33. ^ a b What's Your Parenting Style? Parents. The Anti-Drug. National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign. Retrieved 2009-06-14
  34. ^ Rosenthal, Maryann. "Knowing yourself and your children". Maryann Rosenthal. Retrieved 10 October 2014. 
  35. ^ "Do You Know Your Parenting Style? Authoritarian Parenting, Permissive Parenting or Authoritative Parenting". Brainy Child. Retrieved 2007-09-23. 
  36. ^ "Teens and alcohol study: Parenting style can prevent binge drinking". Brigham Young University and Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs. Retrieved 2010-07-06. 
  37. ^ "Neuroscience, Psychoanalysis & Psychopharmacology: [Meeting] #40". NPSA: Neuropsychoanalysis. Retrieved 2007-09-23. 
  38. ^ [1] Consistent Parenting Advice. 9 Apr. 2012.
  39. ^ "Individual and family wellness". Angela M. Pfeiffer, Ph.D. Retrieved 13 October 2014. 
  40. ^ Laurence Steinberg, Susie D. Lamborn, Nancy Darling, Nina S. Mounts and Sanford M. Dornbusch. Over-Time Changes in Adjustment and Competence among Adolescents from Authoritative, Authoritarian, Indulgent, and Neglectful Families Child Development , Vol. 65, No. 3. pp. 754-770.
  41. ^ Stassen Berger, Kathleen (2011). The Developing Person Through the Life Span. p. 194. 
  42. ^ Stassen Berger, Kathleen (2011). The Developing Person Through the Life Span. p. 196. 
  43. ^ Stephen E. Levich, Clone Being (2004) p. 31 and p.89-91
  44. ^ David Stafford & Liz Hodgkinson, Codependency (London 1995) p. 41
  45. ^ Gordon, Larry, and Victoria Kim. 2008. "Hovering Parents No Big Deal for Freshmen." Los Angeles Times (January 24) B1.
  46. ^ "12 Types of Parenting Styles and Child Discipline Strategies". Retrieved 2012-05-02. 
  47. ^ "Practical Advise And Deep Insights". Birgitte Coste. Retrieved 13 October 2014. 
  48. ^ Article: Parenting and Late Adolescent Emotional Adjustment: Mediating Effects of Discipline and Gender

"The Four Types of Parenting Styles." 5 Nov 2011. Web. 4 July 2014. < styles.html>

Further reading[edit]

  • Bower, Bruce (September 2011). "Humans: Recession alters parenting style: Mothers with gene variant became more aggressive". Science News 180 (7): 9. doi:10.1002/scin.5591800706. ISSN 0036-8423. 
  • Robert Feldman, Ph.D. at the University of Massachusetts Amherst. Child Development Third Edition
  • Morris, A. S., Cui, L., & Steinberg, L. (2013). Parenting research and themes: What we have learned and where to go next. In R. E. Larzelere, A. S. Morris, & A. W. Harrist (Eds.), Authoritative parenting: Synthesizing nurturance and discipline for optimal child development (pp. 35-58). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Harris. Judith R.. "The Nurture Assumption: Why Children Turn Out the Way They Do," New York Times 1998. (login required)
  • Warash, Bobbie. "Are Middle Class Parents Authoritative with a Touch of Permissiveness?." Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin 74. 22007 28-31.
  • Chua, Amy. Why Chinese Mothers Are Superior The Wall Street Journal
  • Alizadeh, S., Abu Talib, M. B., Abdullah, R., & Mansor, M. (2011). Relationship between Parenting Style and Children's Behavior Problems. Asian Social Science, 7(12), 195-200.
  • Estep, H. M., & Olson, J. N. (2011). Parenting Style, Academic Dishonesty, and Infidelity in College Students. College Student Journal, 45(4), 830-838.
  • Grobman, K.H. (2003). Diana Baumrind's (1966) Prototypical Descriptions of 3 Parenting Styles. Retrieved from
  • Kordi, A., & Baharudin, R. (2010). Parenting Attitude and Style and Its Effect on Children's School Achievements. International Journal Of Psychological Studies, 2(2), 217-222.
  • Rinaldi, C. M., & Howe, N. (2012). Mothers’ and fathers’ parenting styles and associations with toddlers’ externalizing, internalizing, and adaptive behaviors. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 27(2), 266-273.
  • Rivers, J., Mullis, A. K., Fortner, L. A., & Mullis, R. L. (2012). Relationships Between Parenting Styles and the Academic Performance of Adolescents. Journal Of Family Social Work, 15(3), 202-216.
  • Schary, D. P., Cardinal, B. J., & Loprinzi, P. D. (2012). Parenting style associated with sedentary behaviour in preschool children. Early Child Development & Care, 182(8), 1015-1026.
  • Williams, K., Ciarrochi, J., & Heaven, P. (2012). Inflexible Parents, Inflexible Kids: A 6-Year Longitudinal Study of Parenting Style and the Development of Psychological Flexibility in Adolescents. Journal Of Youth & Adolescence, 41(8), 1053-1066.
  • Spera, C. (2005). A review of the relationship among parenting practices, parenting styles, and adolescent school achievement. Educational Psychology Review, 17(2), 125-146.