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A pariah state is a nation whose conduct is considered to be out of line with international norms of behavior by either the rest of the international community (such as the United Nations), or by some of its most powerful states. A pariah state may face International isolation, sanctions or even an invasion by nations who find its policies or actions unacceptable. The term is closely related to the phrase "Rogue state".
There is no definitive definition of a pariah state, the term has been applied to different states at different times, and is often a designation made for political purposes. Some proposed definitions have included states with provocative policies or expansionary territorial ambitions, measures of the absence of diplomatic relations with neighboring states or the situational harm posed to other states if the state in question acquired nuclear weapons. Another candidate for definition has been a state lacking any significant soft power.
At various times in the past, the following states have been labeled or treated as pariahs in the international system. Some of them are still labeled as such at present:
- Michael P. Marks (2011). Metaphors in International Relations Theory. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 129–132. ISBN 9780230339187.
- Ian Bellany (2007). Terrorism and Weapons of Mass Destruction: Responding to the Challenge. Routledge. p. 21. ISBN 9781134115266.
- Abkhazia: A promising pariah on the Black Sea - Editorials & Commentary - International Herald Tribune
- Belarus Cracks Down, VOA, April 1, 2008
- "Ethiopia troops attack rebels inside pariah state Eritrea". National Post. Reuters. 15 March 2012. "Despite the repeated denials that it is not a destabilising force in the volatile Horn of Africa region, Eritrea is widely regarded in the international community as a pariah state and is deeply mistrusted by its neighbours"
- Michela Wrong (3 August 2011). "How double-dealing built a pariah state". Financial Times.
- Djibouti says Eritrea will bow to UN sanctions, Reuters Africa, April 21, 2010
- Obiang, dictator in fashion in New York, afrol.com, September 9, 2000
- Trita Parsi (2007). Treacherous Alliance, The Secret Dealings of Israel, Iran and the United States. London: Yale University Press. p. 97. ISBN 0-300-12057-5.
- David Rodman (2000). "5. "Normal" or "Special" ?". In Laura Zittrain Eisenberg, Neil Caplan. Review Essays in Israel Studies. Suny Series in Israeli Studies, Vol. 5. State University of New York Press. p. 93. ISBN 978-0-7914-4422-1. "For most of the post-1967 period, Israel has been a pariah state in the world community"
- Robert E. Harkavy (1981). "Pariah states and nuclear proliferation". International Organization (Cambridge University Press) 35 (1): 135–163. doi:10.1017/S0020818300004112. "In recent years, a new international actor—the pariah state—has mounted the global stage. Although rough historical precedents may be discerned, the present international system appears to have produced a novel phenomenon, whereby some isolated small states, lacking assured and credible outside security support, find themselves unable to take advantage of traditional balance-of-power mechanisms. Taiwan, South Africa, and Israel fit this description best, South Korea less so; Pakistan and Chile are also candidates."
- Irving Louis Horowitz (1976). "24. From Pariah People to Pariah Nation: Jews, Israelis and the Third World". In Michael Curtis, Susan Aurelia Gitelson. Israel in the Third World. Transaction Publishers. p. 384. ISBN 978-0-87855-603-8. "Israel has been defined as a pariah nation, suited to harboring a "settler people""
- Ian Bellany (2007). "1. Material dangers". In Ian Bellany. Terrorism and Weapons of Mass Destruction: Responding to the challenge. Routledge. pp. 21–22. ISBN 978-0-415-57065-7. "Israel is a pariah"
- L. Carl Brown (2004). "VI. Conclusion: Making Sense of Middle East Diplomacy". In L. Carl Brown. Diplomacy in the Middle East: The International Relations of Regional and Outside Powers. I. B. Tauris. p. 305. ISBN 978-1-86064-899-1. "Israel has been throughout most of its existence a pariah state in the midst of the Arab world"
- Micah Zenko (8 March 2012). "Come Out of the Nuclear Closet". The New York Times. "Israel has pigeonholed itself as an international pariah, allowing adversaries and the nonaligned movement to use Israeli intransigence as an excuse to slow progress on nuclear nonproliferation objectives, including preventing a nuclear Iran"
- Rupert Cornwell (October 18, 2002). "North Korea: A pariah state, its secret nuclear programme – and a new crisis for Bush". London: The Independent. Retrieved 2008-01-19.
- "Putin is a pariah - he must now be treated as such". BBC News. 20 July 2014. Retrieved 20 July 2014.
- "Kinzinger: 'Reset' is Over, Russia is a 'Pariah State'". Newsmax. 02 March 2014. Retrieved 02 March 2014.
- Sudan's War on Itself; From Rogue State to Pariah State
- , OpenDemocracy, June 6, 2000
- Ash, Lucy (1 April 2004). "Misery in a pariah state". BBC News. Retrieved 5 April 2013.
- Leonard, Peter (6 July 2012). "US cozies up to outcast Uzbekistan for Afghan role". Associated Press. Retrieved 5 April 2013.
- Kendzior, Sarah (5 March 2013). "Does it matter if the West gives military aid to Uzbekistan?". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 5 April 2013.
- Mugabe made Zimbabwe a pariah state, says Straw, Daily Telegraph, August 25, 2002
- Frozen In Time, TIME, 156(21), May 29, 2000
- En route to the EU, European Policy Centre, April 2010
- The Argentine Pariah
- Asean Can Act as Burma's Bridge to the World
- At Last, Justice Comes to Cambodia, Yale Global Online, February 13, 2009
- Chile, International War Crimes Report, June 4, 2010
- Zaire - Involvement in the Angolan Civil War, countrydata.com, 1993
- Haiti Crisis, Washington Post, March 1, 2004
- Iraq 10: The spring never came
- Arrest warrant for Liberian leader, BBC News, June 4, 2003
- Taylor's Liberia becoming pariah nation, afrol.com, January 20
- Paul Keller (January 6, 2004). "Libya's two decades as pariah state". BBC News. Retrieved 2008-01-19.
- Alfredo Stroessner; Paraguayan Dictator, Washington Post, August 17, 2006
- Thomas H. Henriksen, 'The Rise and Decline of Rogue States'. Journal of International Affairs, 54(2), 2001, 349-373.
- Susan Willett (1995). "The Legacy of a Pariah State: South Africa's Arms Trade in the 1990s". Review of African Political Economy 64: 151–166.
- Turkmenistan: Introduction
- Litwak, Robert. Rogue States and U.S. Foreign Policy: Containment After the Cold War. p. 50.
- War crimes fugitive Mladic arrested MSN News UK, May 26, 2011