|This article needs additional citations for verification. (March 2009)|
|Human parietal cells (pink staining) - stomach|
|Control of stomach acid|
Parietal cells (also known as oxyntic or delomorphous cells), are the stomach epithelial cells that secrete gastric acid (HCl) and intrinsic factor. These cells are only located in glands found in a particular area of the stomach, known as the fundus. They contain an extensive secretory network (called canaliculi) from which the HCl is secreted by active transport into the stomach. The enzyme hydrogen potassium ATPase (H+/K+ ATPase) is unique to the parietal cells and transports the H+ against a concentration gradient of about 3 million to 1, which is the steepest ion gradient formed in the human body. Parietal cells are primarily regulated via histamine, acetylcholine and gastrin signaling from both central and local modulators (see 'Regulation').
Secretion of Hydrochloric Acid
Hydrochloric acid is formed in the following manner:
- Hydrogen ions are formed from the dissociation of water molecules. The enzyme carbonic anhydrase converts one molecule of carbon dioxide and one molecule of water indirectly into a bicarbonate ion (HCO3-) and a hydrogen ion (H+).
- The bicarbonate ion (HCO3-) is exchanged for a chloride ion (Cl-) on the basal side of the cell and the bicarbonate diffuses into the venous blood, leading to an alkaline tide phenomenon.
- Potassium (K+) and chloride (Cl-) ions diffuse into the canaliculi.
- Hydrogen ions are pumped out of the cell into the canaliculi in exchange for potassium ions, via the H+/K+ ATPase.
As a result of the cellular export of hydrogen ions, the gastric lumen is maintained as a highly-acidic environment. The acidity aids in digestion of food by promoting the unfolding (or denaturing) of ingested proteins. As proteins unfold, the peptide bonds linking component amino acids are exposed. Gastric HCl simultaneously activates pepsinogen, an endopeptidase that advances the digestive process by breaking the now-exposed peptide bonds, a process known as proteolysis.
- Histamine, stimulates H2 histamine receptors (most significant contribution).
- Acetylcholine, from parasympathetic activity via the vagus nerve and enteric nervous system, stimulating M3 receptors.
- Gastrin, stimulating CCK2 receptors (least significant contribution, but also causes histamine secretion by local ECL cells)
Input through these receptors regulates acid secretion by increasing intracellular levels cAMP and Ca2+ by independent signaling pathways. The histamine receptors act by causing activation of increasing adenylate cyclase in the parietal cell. This increases intracellular cyclic AMP, which leads to activation of protein kinase A. By contrast, the M3 and gastrin receptor pathways lead to protein kinase activation by a different pathway that involves increasing intracellular Ca2+ levels. Protein kinase A then phosphorylates proteins involved in the transport of H+/K+ ATPase from the cytoplasm to the cell membrane. This causes resorption of K+ ions and secretion of H+ ions. The pH of the secreted fluid can fall by 0.8.
Gastrin primarily induces acid-secretion indirectly, increasing histamine synthesis in ECL cells,which in turn signal parietal cells via histamine release/H2 stimulation. Gastrin itself has no effect on the maximum histamine-stimulated gastric acid secretion.
Parietal cells also produce intrinsic factor. Intrinsic factor is required for the absorption of Vitamin B12 in the diet. A long-term deficiency in vitamin B12 can lead to megaloblastic anemia, characterized by large fragile erythrocytes.Pernicious anaemia is a condition where intrinsic factor is not produced and leads to the same type of anemia. Atrophic gastritis, particularly in the elderly, will cause an inability to absorb B12 and can lead to deficiencies such as decreased DNA synthesis and nucleotide metabolism in the bone marrow.
A canaliculus is an adaptation found on gastric parietal cells. It is a deep infolding, or little channel, which serves to increase the surface area, e.g. for secretion. The membrane of parietal cells is dynamic; the numbers of canaliculi rise and fall according to secretory need. This is accomplished by the fusion of canalicular precursors, or "tubulovesicles", with the membrane to increase surface area, and the reciprocal endocytosis of the canaliculi (reforming the tubulovesicles) to decrease it.
Diseases of parietal cells
- Peptic ulcers can result from over-acidity in the stomach. Antacids can be used to enhance the natural tolerance of the gastric lining. Antimuscarinic drugs such as pirenzepine or H2 antihistamines can reduce acid secretion. Proton pump inhibitors are more potent at reducing gastric acid production since that is the final common pathway of all stimulation of acid production.
- In pernicious anemia, autoantibodies directed against parietal cells or intrinsic factor cause a reduction in vitamin B12 absorption. It can be treated with injections of replacement vitamin B12 (methylcobalamin, hydroxocobalamin or cyanocobalamin).
- Achlorhydria is another autoimmune disease of the parietal cells. The damaged parietal cells are unable to produce the required amount of gastric acid. This leads to an increase in gastric pH, impaired digestion of food and increased risk of gastroenteritis.
- Gastric chief cell
- Fundic glands
- Gastroesophageal reflux disease
- Discovery and Development of Proton Pump Inhibitors
- Boulpaep, Walter (2009). Medical Physiology. Philadelphia: Saunders. pp. 898–899. ISBN 978-1-4160-3115-4.
- "Gastric acid secretion - Homo sapiens". KEGG. Retrieved June 1, 2011.
- Waldum, Helge L., Kleveland, Per M., et al. (2009)'Interactions between gastric acid secretagogues and the localization of the gastrin receptor',Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology,44:4,390 — 393
- Kleveland PM, Waldum HL, Larsson M. Gastric acid secretion in the totally isolated, vascularly perfused rat stomach. A selective muscarinic-1 agent does, whereas gastrin does not, augment maximal histamine-stimulated acid secretion. Scand J Gastroenterol 1987;/22:/705�13.
- Illustration of Chief cells and Parietal cells at anatomyatlases.org
- The Parietal Cell: Mechanism of Acid Secretion at vivo.colostate.edu
- BU Histology Learning System: 11303loa - Digestive System: Alimentary Canal: fundic stomach, gastric glands, lumen"
- Physiology at MCG 6/6ch4/s6ch4_8
- Physiology at MCG 6/6ch4/s6ch4_14
- Parietal cell antibody
- Antibody to GPC