|First winner||Charles Terront (FRA)|
|Final winner||Maurice Diot (FRA)|
Paris–Brest–Paris (PBP) was originally a 1200km bicycle race from Paris to Brest and back to Paris. It is one of the oldest bicycling events still regularly run (the oldest being the Catford CC Hill Climb). The last time it was run as a race was 1951.
In 1931 amateur cyclists were separated from professionals. There are two independent long distance bicycle tours. One is the brevet (also called randonnée), in which cyclists ride individually. The goal is to make it within 90 hours, but with no competition. This is held every four years. The other is an audax where cyclists ride in a group, held every five years. So in 1931 there were three independent cycling events, sharing the same route.
The audax is organised by the Union des Audax Françaises, while the brevet is organised by the Audax Club Parisien.
The brevet 
As in all brevet events, there is emphasis on self-sufficiency. Riders buy supplies anywhere along the course, but support by motorized vehicles is prohibited except at checkpoints. There is a 90-hour limit and the clock runs continuously. Many riders sleep as little as possible, sometimes catching a few minutes beside the road before continuing.
Participants must first complete a series of brevets (randonneuring events) within the same calendar year as PBP. The time frame is different for Australia and Oceania, so riders can qualify in summer. A series consists of 200 km, 300 km, 400 km and 600 km. Each can be replaced by a longer ride. Prior to 2007, the qualifying rides had to be completed from shortest to longest.
Where once PBP was contested by a few professionals as a demonstration of the bicycle's potential, today the focus is on the ordinary rider. PBP continues to attract competitive riders. Despite insistence that it isn't a race, PBP offers trophies and prestige to the first finishers.
In an era when diamond safety frames and pneumatic tires were taking over from high-wheelers with solid rubber tires, Paris-Brest was an "épreuve," a test of the bicycle's reliability. Giffard promoted the event through editorials signed "Jean-sans-Terre." He wrote of self-sufficient riders carrying their own food and clothing. Riders would ride the same bicycle for the duration. Only Frenchmen were allowed to enter, and 207 participated.
The first (1891) Paris-Brest saw Michelin's Charles Terront and Dunlop's Jiel-Laval contest the lead. Terront prevailed, passing Jiel-Laval as he slept during the third night, to finish in 71 hours 22 minutes. Both had flats that took an hour to repair but enjoyed an advantage over riders on solid tires. Ultimately, 99 of the 207 finished.
The race was a coup for Le Petit Journal, bringing circulation increases. However, the logistics were daunting enough that organizers settled on a ten-year interval between editions.
1891 Quadricycle 
Perhaps the most unusual entrant was a petrol-powered Peugeot Type 3 Quadricyle, driven by Auguste Doriot and Louis Rigoulot. In order to publicly prove its reliability and performance Armand Peugeot had persuaded Pierre Giffard to have its progress certified by his network of monitors and marshals, the distance being about three times further than any road vehicle had travelled before. After a 3 day journey from Valentigny to Paris, they started immediately behind the bicycles. They covered 200 kilometres on the first day and 160 km on the second, but then lost 24 hours when a gear failed near Morlaix. After effecting a repair using local resources (a shoemaker's tools) they arrived at Brest after dark where they were received by a large crowd and the local Peugeot bicycle dealer.
For comparison, by the time Doriot and Rigoulot had reached Brest, Charles Terront and Jiel Laval had already returned to Paris. The next day they set off for Paris.     [Note 1] [Note 2] [Note 3]
The 1901 Paris-Brest was sponsored not only by Le Petit Journal but L'Auto-Velo, edited by Henri Desgrange. For the first time, professionals were segregated from the "touriste-routier" group (in which a 65-year-old finished in just over 200 hours). The newspapers organized a telegraph system to relay results to their Paris presses, and the public followed the exploits of Maurice Garin, who won in just over 52 hours over 112 other professionals.
The next Paris-Brest was in 1911 and saw pack riding rather than solo breaks. Five riders stayed together until nearly the last control, Emile Georget finally pulling away from Ernest Paul to finish in 50 hours and 13 minutes.
The 1921 PBP, following World War I, was small, with 43 professionals and 65 touriste-routiers. It was fought between Eugène Christophe and Lucien Mottiat, Mottiat finally prevailing in 55 hours 7 minutes.
In 1931, there was a change in the regulations. Proposed by André Griffe (president of the Union des Audax Cyclistes Parisiens), Desgrange (president of l'Auto) replaced the touriste-routier group by an Audax, where cyclists rode in groups of 10 at an average 20kmh (22.5kmh since 1961).
Many people disliked that change. So Camille Durand (president of the Audax Club Parisien, ACP) organised another PBP at the same time on the same road. Cyclists could ride individually (French allure libre) and there was a limit of 96 hours. 57 participated, among them two women, a tandem with two men, four mixed tandems and a triplet.
The 1931 professional event saw victory by Australian Hubert Opperman with a sprint on the finish velodrome after his long solo breakaway was neutralized just outside Paris. Opperman's finishing time was a record 49 hours 21 minutes, despite constant rain. His diet included 12 pounds of celery, which he thought an important energy source (celery's energy content is minuscule, but it may have been a source of fluid and salt).
Three years later, the 1951 event saw a record of 38 hours 55 minutes. This is unlikely to fall. It was the last time PBP was raced by professionals and from then on the course used smaller roads and more hills. Maurice Diot set this record. He won a sprint over breakaway companion Eduoard Muller after waiting for Muller to fix a puncture in Trappes, 22 km from the finish.
Amateur event 
Though listed on the professional calendar in 1956 and 1961, too few racers signed up to make the event happen. Nonetheless, hundreds randonneurs turned out. And the randonneur division even featured racing, René Herse-sponsored Roger Baumann winning over Lheuillier in 52 hours 19 minutes.
PBP was held every five years between 1956 and 1975, with more participants and less media coverage. From 1948 until the 1980s, the randonneur event included a "Challenge des Constructeurs" for the bicycle maker with the three best-placed riders. René Herse won this "Challenge" every time from 1948 until 1971, and again in 1975. No other builder won the "Challenge" more than once.
The Belgian former professional Herman de Munck came 5th in 66, first in 71, 75, 79 and 83. He was disqualified in 79, most believe unfairly. De Munck continues to place highly, finishing the 1999 PBP 109th place at the age of 60.
The randonneur Paris–Brest–Paris has always allowed women to participate. In 1975, Chantal de la Cruz and Nicole Chabriand lowered the women's time to 57 hours. In 1979, Suzy de Carvalho finished in 57h02m.
American Scott Dickson came third in 1979, though at just less than 49 hours he was four hours behind the winners. In 1983 he again came third, this time by only one hour. He won his first PBP in 1987 by breaking away in Brest, aided by a tailwind and a few strong riders from the "touring" group, which that year started many hours before the "racing" group. Dickson also won in 1991 and in 1995.
Susan Notorangelo set a women's record of 54 hours 40 minutes in 1983, but that was obliterated in 1995 when it fell to Brigitte Kerlouet 44 hours 14 minutes. American Melinda Lyon finished as first women 1999 in and 2003. In 2007 the first woman was Christiane Thibault, and in 2011 it was Isabelle Esclangon, both from France.
The 2007 Paris–Brest–Paris was the first poor weather event since 1987. It was the worst weather PBP riders had faced since 1956. 30.2% failed to finish. Normally the rate of non-finishers is around 15%.
Since 1991, the starting and finishing point has been in Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, 22 km southwest of Paris.
This is an extremely important aspect of randonneuring, where "riders aim to complete the course within specified time limits, and receive equal recognition regardless of their finishing order.". So there is no actual "winner" but a "first place finisher"
|1891||Charles Terront||Bayonne||71 hours 22 minutes||Pierre Jiel-Laval||Henri Couillibeuf|
|1901||Maurice Garin||La Française||52 hours plus||Gaston Rivierre||Hippolyte Aucouturier|
|1911||Émile Georget||Coureur de vitesse||50 hours 13 minutes.||Octave Lapize||Ernest Paul|
|1921||Louis Mottiat||Coureur de vitesse||55 hours 7 minutes||Eugène Christophe||Émile Masson senior|
|1931||Hubert Opperman||Alleluia-Wolber||49 hours 21 minutes||Léon Louyet||Giuseppe Pancera|
|1948||Albert Hendrickx||Independent||41 hours 36 mins 42 secs||François Neuville||Mario Fazio|
|1951||Maurice Diot||Mercier - Hutchinson||38 hours 55 minutes.||Édouard Muller||Marcel Hendrickx|
|1931||Alexis Cottard||68h 30'|
|1948||Jo Routens||49h 20'|
|1951||Jo Routens||47h 54'|
|1956||Jo Routens||50h 29'|
|1961||Jean Fouace||46h 18'|
|1966||Robert Demilly||44h 21'|
|1971||Herman De Munck||45h 39'|
|1975||Yves Cohen||43h 27'|
|1979||Pierre Baleydier||44h 01'|
|1983||Herman De Munck||43h 24'|
|1987||Scott Dickson||44h 05'|
|1991||Scott Dickson||43h 42'|
|1995||Scott Dickson||43h 20'|
|1999|| Philippe Deplaix and
|2003|| Marc Leuckx and
|2007||Michel Mingant||44h 33'|
The Paris–Brest, a French dessert made of choux pastry and a praline flavoured cream, with a circular shape representative of a tyre or wheel, was reportedly created in 1891 to commemorate the race.[dubious ] It became popular with participants, partly because of its energy-giving high caloric value, and is now found in pâtisseries all over France.
- Le Petit Journal Paris, 12 September 1891 states:
Le Petit Journal Paris, 12 September 1891.
The National Race , Paris to Brest and return. Brest 11 September
Le Petit Journal Paris, 12 September 1891.
La Course National de Paris a Brest et Retour. Brest 11 Septembre
The petrol/gasoline powered Peugeot Quadricycle which arrived the day before yesterday took 39 hours since leaving Paris, tomorrow it leaves for the capital. Le Quadricycle à gazoline Peugeot, arrivé avant-hier de Paris en 39 hours, repart demain pour la capitale.
- Le Petit Journal Paris, 11 September 1891 states:
Le Petit Journal Paris, 11 September 1891.
Arrival in Paris
Le Petit Journal Paris, 11 September 1891.
ARRIVÉS Á PARIS
We reveal that the third and last sections of the race have arrived in Paris.
It goes without saying that this is a preliminary statement of fact. The final rankings will be confirmed in a few days, after the return and checking of our control books. We hope, however, that no serious objections will change each competitor's position in the final standings. They have valiantly conquered by leg power!
- 1st MM Ch Terront, Bayonne, arrived at 6:37 in the morning, from Paris to Brest and back in 71 hours 37 minutes.
- 2nd Jiel-Laval, Bordeaux, arrived at 3:04 pm, a total time of 80 hours 4 minutes.
Nous ouvrons aujourd'hui la troisième et derniere rubrique de la course :celle des arrivés à Paris.
Il va de soi que ce n'est là qu'une mention la constatation d'un fait. Pour que le classement soit definitive il faudra délai de quelques jours, le retour de nos livres de contrôle, la vérification de diverses pièces. Nous espérons, toutefois, que pour chacun des concurrents nulle objection sérieuse, ne viandra modifier leur rang au classement final. Ils l'ont trop vaillamment conquis a la force du jarret!
Journee du 9 Septembre
- 1er MM Ch. Terront de Bayonne arrivé à 6 heures 37 minutes du matin, traject de Paris à Brest, et retour en 71 heures 37 minutes.
- 2nd Jiel-Laval, de Bordeaux, arrivé à 3 heures 4 du soir, trajet en 80 heures 4 minutes
- Le Petit Journal Paris, 16 September 1891 states:
Le Petit Journal Paris, 16 September 1891.
The National Race , Paris to Brest and return
Le Petit Journal Paris, 16 September 1891.
La Course National de Paris a Brest et Retour
The petrol/gazoline powered Quadricyle continued its superb journey. It arrived on Sunday evening at Vitré, Ille-et-Vilaine and left the next morning to Mortagne-au-Perche where it spent yesterday morning. It arrived in Paris yesterday evening at seven o'clock at the Porte Maillot. [15 September 1891] Le Quadricyle à gazoline Peugeot à poursuive brillament son voyage. Il est arrivé Dimanche soir à Vitré, et est parti le lendemain matin pour Mortagne ou il à passé hier matin. Il est arrivé hier soir à sept heures à la Porte Maillot.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Paris–Brest–Paris|
- Gallica online archive of the Library of France. Le Petit Journal, 9 September 1891. La Course National de Paris a Brest et Retour. Departure from Paris
- Gallica online archive of the Library of France. Le Petit Journal, 11 September 1891. Charles Terront arrives in Paris
- Gallica online archive of the Library of France. Le Petit Journal, 12 September 1891. More arrivals in Paris
- Creative Capital: Georges Doriot and the Birth of Venture Capital By Spencer E. Ante
- "Gallica online archive of the Library of France.", Le Petit Journal, 16 September 1891. Peugeot arrives in Paris (Le Petit Journal), retrieved 7 February 2013
- Heine, Jan (2002). "Interview with Roger Baumann, Pilote de René Herse and Winner of PBP 1956". Vintage Bicycle Quarterly 1 (2).
- Heine, Jan (2011). "The History of Randonneuring , Part 3: Post-War Boom, 1950s Decline and the End of Competition". Bicycle Quarterly 9 (3): 55.
- Heine, Jan (2012). Rene Herse - The Bikes - The Builder - The Riders. Seattle: Bicycle Quarterly Press. p. 424. ISBN 976546023-6.
- Heine, Jan (2010). "The History of Randonneuring , Part 1: Vélocio, the Audax and Paris-Brest-Paris". Bicycle Quarterly 8 (3): 54.
- Mollois, Emmanuel. Et Voila. Fremantle Press
- Randonneurs. Paris Brest... the pastry
Other sources 
- Official site of Paris–Brest–Paris: http://www.paris-brest-paris.org/
- Paris–Brest–Paris TV. Quasi official web site maintained by the start city Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines : http://www.parisbrestparis.tv
- The PBP Hub. Eric Fergusson's site focuses on history, photos, stats and links. http://www.randonneurs.bc.ca/pbp/main.html
- Bill Bryant, A Short History of Paris–Brest–Paris, Randonneurs USA . The definitive English language history of PBP http://www.rusa.org/pbphistory.html
- McCray, Phil. 1989. "PBP — 1891 to 1991" Journal of the International Randonneurs
- This source provided much of the historical background for this article. Available on "The PBP Hub" : http://www.randonneurs.bc.ca/pbp/books-collections/journal-IR-1989/mccray-hist/main.html
- Fleur Whitlock: A Film of the 2003 Paris–Brest–Paris event : http://www.pbp-films.com