London and Paris Conferences
The London and Paris Conferences were two related conferences in London and Paris in September–October 1954, that decided about full sovereignty of West Germany, ending of its occupation, and its admittance to NATO. Furthermore, both West Germany and Italy joined Brussels Treaty. The talks concluded with signing Paris Agreements (Paris Pacts, or Paris Accords) on 23 October 1954. They went into force on 5 May 1955. The participating powers included France, the United Kingdom, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, West Germany, Italy, Canada, the United States, and remaining NATO members.
Since the end of World War II, West Germany had been occupied by Allied forces and lacked its own means of defense. On 23 July 1952, the European Coal and Steel Community came into existence, bonding the member states economically. By 1951, fear of possible Soviet aggression in Europe led to preparation of an ill-fated European Defense Community (EDC). EDC was a proposed joint Western European military force, at the time favored over admitting Germany to NATO. The General Treaty (German: Deutschlandvertrag) of 1952 formally named the EDC as a prerequisite of the end of Allied occupation of Germany. EDC was, however, rejected by the French National Assembly on August 30, 1954, and a new solution became necessary.
At the London Conference, often called the Nine-Power Conference (not to be confused with the Nine Power Treaty), it was agreed that the occupying powers would make every effort to end the occupation. The limits of German re-armament were also very important especially to France, which was still concerned with a powerful Germany. It was agreed that West Germany would be forbidden to build atomic or biological weapons.
Belgium was represented by Paul-Henri Spaak, Canada by Lester B. Pearson, France by Pierre Mendès-France, Germany by Konrad Adenauer, Italy by Gaetano Martino, Luxembourg by Joseph Bech, the Netherlands by Jan Willem Beyen, the United Kingdom by Anthony Eden, and the United States by John Foster Dulles.
The powers met again in Paris on October 20–23, in an intergovernmental conference followed by a NATO Council meeting, to put the decisions reached in London into formal declarations and protocols to existing treaties. "Protocol No. I Modifying and Completing the Brussels Treaty" formally added West Germany and Italy to the Brussels Treaty, creating the Western European Union (WEU), which, while not as broad or powerful as the previously proposed EDC, nevertheless was sufficient for the Deutschlandvertrag to come into force and therefore to end the occupation of West Germany and admit it as an ally in the Cold War.
Altogether there were as many as twelve international agreements signed in Paris. A treaty ended the occupation of West Germany and restored its full sovereignty under the name "Federal Republic of Germany". The treaty allowed Allied troops to remain in the country.
An agreement expanded the Brussels Treaty of 1948 to include West Germany and Italy, creating the Western European Union. This agreement allowed West Germany to start a limited rearmament program though it banned development of certain weapons, such as large warships and nuclear devices. It was signed by the Brussels Treaty countries (Belgium, France, Great Britain, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands) and by West Germany and Italy.
The negotiations on Saar status, only between France and West Germany, were held on the night before the conference, on 19 October. The territory had been essentially annexed by France and a referendum was set up to determine the will of its people (surprisingly, outcome was that Saarland rejoined West Germany in 1956-1957). On 27 October 1956 the Saar Treaty officially made Saarland a state of the Federal Republic of Germany.
See also 
Modified Brussels Treaty
European Council conclusion
Single European Act
|Three pillars of the European Union:|
|European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM)|
|European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC)||Treaty expired in 2002||European Union (EU)|
|European Economic Community (EEC)|
|Schengen Rules||European Community (EC)|
|TREVI||Justice and Home Affairs (JHA)|
|Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal Matters (PJCC)|
|European Political Cooperation (EPC)||Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP)|
|Unconsolidated bodies||Western European Union (WEU)|
|Treaty terminated in 2011|
- Sutton, Michael (2011-03-18). France and the Construction of Europe, 1944-2007: The Geopolitical Imperative. pp. 74–76. ISBN 9780857452900.
- Haftendorn, Helga (2006-02-28). Coming of Age: German Foreign Policy Since 1945. pp. 30–32. ISBN 9780742538764.
- Critchfield, James H (2003). Partners at the Creation: The Men Behind Postwar Germany's Defense and Intelligence Establishments. pp. 177–178. ISBN 9781591141365.
- Final Act of the London Conference Full text.
- Declaration Inviting Italy and the Federal Republic of Germany to Accede to the Brussels Treaty, October 23, 1954 Full text.
- Protocol No. I (and Annex) Modifying and Completing the Brussels Treaty, October 23, 1954 Full text.
- Protocol No. II on Forces of Western European Union, October 23, 1954 Full text.
- Protocol No. III (and Annexes) on the Control of Armaments, October 23, 1954 Full text.
- Protocol No. IV on the Agency of Western European Union for the Control of Armaments, October 23, 1954 Full text.
- NATO on the Paris Agreements