Paris Métro Line 8

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     Line 8
Metro-M.svg Paris m 8 jms.svg
Overview
Stations 38
Ridership 92,041,135 journeys per year
Operation
Opening 1913
(last extension in 2011)
Rolling stock

MF 77

5 carriages per trainset
Technical
Line length 23.4 km (14.5 mi)
Track gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in)

Paris Métro Line 8 is one of 16 lines of the Paris Métro, France. It connects the Balard station in southwestern Paris, to Créteil – Pointe du Lac station in Créteil, a town south-east of the French capital, following a parabolic route on the right bank of Seine River. It was the last line of the original 1898 Paris Métro plan and was initially meant to link the Porte d'Auteuil and the Opéra stations. This initial section opened in December 1913.

It was deeply modified during the 1930s as line 10 took over the western section. The current route, starting in southwestern Paris at the Balard station, serves successively the south-west part of the city, the Grands Boulevards, the Bois de Vincennes, and ending in the southeastern inner suburbs through the cities (communes) of Charenton-le-Pont, Maisons-Alfort and finally Créteil that the line reached in 1974 at the Créteil – Préfecture station following several extensions. It became the first underground line to connect the prefecture of one of the new departments of Île-de-France.

It is the only Paris underground line to cross the Seine and its principal tributary, the Marne, in the air via a bridge between Charenton - Écoles and École Vétérinaire de Maisons-Alfort, as well as the Seine in underground between Concorde and Invalides. With 89 million travellers in 2004, it is the eighth line of the network for its traffic.

Map of the line.

History[edit]

Chronology[edit]

A metro move towards the new terminus Charenton – Écoles.
  • 13 July 1913: line 8 was opened between Beaugrenelle and Opéra.
  • 30 September 1913: The line was extended from Beaugrenelle to Porte d'Auteuil.
  • 30 June 1928: The line was extended northbound from Opéra to Richelieu-Drouot.
  • 5 May 1931: The line was extended from Richelieu-Drouot to Porte de Charenton.
  • 27 July 1937: The section between La Motte-Picquet and Porte d'Auteuil was transferred to line 10. Line 8 was extended from La Motte-Picquet to Balard.
  • 2 September 1939: In common with many other stations, trains stopped serving Croix Saint-Martin and Champ de Mars because of the war. However, both stations were eventually permanently closed.
  • 5 October 1942: The line was extended eastbound from Porte de Charenton to Charenton – Écoles.
  • 19 September 1970: The line was extended from Charenton – Écoles to Maisons-Alfort – Stade.
  • 27 April 1972: The line was extended from Maisons-Alfort – Stade to Maisons-Alfort – Les Juillottes.
  • 24 September 1973: The line was extended from Maisons-Alfort – Les Julliottes to Créteil – l'Echat.
  • 9 September 1974: The line was extended from Créteil – l'Echat to Créteil – Préfecture.
  • 8 October 2011: The line was extended from Créteil – Préfecture to Pointe du Lac.

Birth of the line[edit]

Line 8 is the last line created by the concession of 30 March 1898. The déclaration d'utilité publique was approved on 6 April 1903. The project consisted of connecting Opéra with Porte d'Auteuil via Grenelle with a shuttle in the same manner as the other lines of the network. But following the idea to operate line 7 with a junction in the periphery of Paris, a branch towards the Porte de Sèvres (today Balard) starting from the Grenelle station in 1910, the trains were sent alternately on the two branches.[1]

Plan of the underwater crossing, downstream from pont de la Concorde.

The works started with the construction of the underwater crossings of the Seine from April 1908, between the stations Concorde and Invalides at the level of Pont Mirabeau.[2] It was finished in January 1911 after a significant delay caused by the flood of the building site during the historical great flood of Paris in 1910. The crossing of the river was routed via a curve two hundred and fifty metres away.

Originally metal "caissons" were to be sunk vertically, as had already been done at line 4; instead, a tunnel was drilled following a single circular tube with the help of a shield, as the public authorities opposed the initial method because of the risks to boating activity above. On the other hand, the crossing close to Pont Mirabeau was carried out using said vertical caissons. The Invalides-Javel section which does not raise particular difficulties had been completed in 1910. The Grenelle station was built as a double station, which allows sending the trains towards Auteuil and the junction saw Porte de Sèvres on a level with single platform, and to receive trains of the two branches in opposite directions around a central platform on another level.

Without waiting for the completion of work close to the Pont Mirabeau, the line was opened to the public 13 July 1913 between the stations Beaugrenelle and Opéra; the extension with Porte d'Auteuil followed on 30 September 1913. At that time, Invalides and Concorde stations were still unfinished and were finally opened on 24 December 1913 and 12 March 1914 respectively.[3] In 1914, the line comprised fifteen stations between Porte d'Auteuil and Opéra.[4]

First extensions[edit]

The project of extension of the line started with the deliberation of 29 December 1922[3] which modified the consistency of the principal network. The aim was to transform line 8 into a parabolic axis which connects Auteuil to Porte de Charenton while passing by Opéra, Place de la République, Place de la Bastille, Avenue Daumesnil in the 12th arrondissement and Porte de Picpus. As part of the framework of the extension, a common path with line 9 between the stations Richelieu - Drouot and République was envisaged in order to limit impact of this problematic section on traffic in the streets. Located right in the axis of former path of the Seine, the ground at this place is particularly soft and the initial plan of building two parallel tunnels caused a long controversy.[5]

The central abutment of Grands Boulevards station.

The work started straight away and the first new section opened on 30 June 1928[3] extending the line by 643 meters to station Richelieu – Drouot from Opéra. Considering the forecasted increase in the traffic considered, the Municipal council of Paris at meeting of 21 March 1926 decided to increase to 105 metres the length of the new stations of lines 7,8 and 9 in order to be able in the long term to exploit stock trains of seven carriages. Lengthening of the old stations was envisaged later on, but this work will never be completed. The new station Richelieu – Drouot was first opening after this decision: it was thus the first of the network to be 105 metres long[3] while the preceding stations was only 75 meters long,[6] which created an operation issue after the opening of the remaining line, the length of the trains being always limited by the shortest stations.[7]

The organization of the Paris Colonial Exposition of 1931 in Bois de Vincennes required the completion of line 8 for its opening. The extension of the line up to Porte de Charenton including the construction of seventeen new stations of 105 metres was then agreed on 25 March 1924.[8] Work was launched in 1928. The particular configuration of lines 8 and 9, located under the Grands Boulevards in unstable watery ground, drove the decision to implement the line extensions at the same time on two levels. The stations of line 8 are at the higher level, and are made up of two half-stations separated by a central supporting wall in order to ensure overall stability. The infrastructure works were completed in March 1931. The extension of 7.8 km was opened to the public on 5 May 1931, the new end station being Porte de Charenton[6] for the opening of the Paris Colonial Exposition of 1931. On this date, the line included thirty-three stations between Auteuil and Porte de Charenton.[9]

Major restructuring of the line[edit]

Diagram of the restructuring of lines in 1937.

The line undergoes a modification in the south-western part in the 1930s.[6] The principle of circular lines is replaced by axes crossing Paris right through. Thus, line 8 loses its main aim to connect the parks Bois de Boulogne and of Bois de Vincennes but to connect the only branch towards Balard with Porte de Charenton. The project consists in modifying the station of La Motte-Picquet so that the trains leave directly towards Balard, although initially the trains were meant to move towards Auteuil or Balard.[2]

These modifications involve consequences on several lines:[6] line 8 has a new terminus with Balard and the old section of line 8 between La Motte-Picquet and Porte d'Auteuil is reassigned to line 10. However this line had as a terminus the station Invalides; therefore, the section between Duroc and Invalides is transferred to old line 14 (now line 13).

The section between La Motte-Picquet and Balard is open on 27 July 1937,[10] at the same time as the new maintenance workshop of Javel. In 1937, the line includes thirty-one stations between Balard and Porte de Charenton.

Second wave of extensions in direction of Créteil[edit]

The extension to Charenton-le-Pont is declared of public utility on 24 December 1929.[11] The Work starts in 1936 by an extension of 1,410 metres (4,630 ft) brought into service on 5 October 1942. Two new stations were created, Liberté and Charenton – Écoles on the commune of Charenton. In 1942, the line includes thirty-three stations, but following the start of Second World War, the stations Champ de Mars and Saint-Martin were closed since on 2 September 1939 and the line actually had only thirty one stations in operation.

After the war, there were no metro extensions except for line 13 to Carrefour Pleyel in 1952. But finally the investment programmes of 1965 and 1967 envisaged three extensions, one of which was that of line 8 as far as Maisons-Alfort, because of the saturation of the pont de Charenton due to the large-scale urbanization of the surrounding communes, which disrupted the service of suburban buses towards the terminus of the line in Charenton. The extension required the crossing of the Marne on a viaduct because of the topography of the sector, the station Charenton – Écoles being located at the edge of a cliff on the North of the Marne.

A concrete structure of 199 metres total range was built in the spring of 1968. Designed with an aesthetic research to integrate into the landscape, it is carried by six supports, including one of the three piers of the structure in the course of the river. The two central spans are 55.5 metres long; the two side spans only 30 metres long. The structural steel is made of a continuous metal beam, supported by two vertical beams with heart full. These beams frame the low part of the trains, in order to reduce the noise emitted. The rail tracks are laid on track ballast for the same reason. In the north, the viaduct overhangs the A4 autoroute (motorway) and then goes underground after an access ramp of 100 metres. In the south, the line immediately goes underground by a 70 metre long access ramp. The viaduct has a continuous slope of 40 mm/m, which makes it possible for the line to go underground once it passes over the left bank of the Marne. In June 1969, the metal beams were put in place; the structure was completed in November of the same year.[12]

This viaduct was the first to be built since the one of line 6 in 1909. The path is then planned in cut-and-cover up to the terminus with three tracks.[13] The section of Charenton – Écoles to Maisons-Alfort – Stade was opened on 19 September 1970.[10]

The extension to Créteil[edit]

The open-air tracks in the new terminus Créteil – Préfecture

Créteil was promoted to a prefecture following the creation of the department of Val-de-Marne, which resulted in an important demographic boom. A new extension is thus quickly put in building site, in several stages. The line reached Maisons-Alfort – Les Juilliottes on 27 April 1972, build as cut-and-cover. Then it goes into Créteil,also on cut-and-cover or in open-air, with a path located in the middle of fast road way on two km. The station Créteil – L' Échat is open air with a central platform. It is open on 24 September 1973. The station of Créteil – Préfecture is open on 10 September 1974, being a terminus organised with three tracks and two platforms.[14] In 1974, it is the first time the subway of Paris enable to connect Paris to the prefecture of a bordering department. The final configuration of the line increases its length to 22,057 km and thirty-seven stations.

The length of the extension does not make it possible any more to maintain the single tariff principle: for the first time, a tariff by section is applied to the underground railway network of Paris starting from 19 September 1970 at the time of the opening of the prolongation to Maisons-Alfort – Stade. The stations are equipped with an automatic check at the exit with turnstile, travellers having to pay a supplement before this control.[15] However, as of 1 November 1982, this particular tariff was abandoned to return to the unique tariff.[16]

Particular events[edit]

Line 8 is also the spot of the first perfect crime in the history of the metro. This event is extensively discussed in the news.[17][18] On Sunday 16 May 1937 towards 18:30, passengers at Porte Dorée station discovered an elegant brunette young woman stabbed in a first class carriage where she was alone. Laetitia Toureaux was twenty-nine years old, of Italian origin and a widow of a Parisian craftsman. The inquiry carried out by police chief Badin quickly revealed that this woman had a tumultuous life, working under a false name in a detective agency, visiting frequently and discreetly the embassy of Italy, while looking after the cloakroom of a dance hall. La Cagoule is accused, but the war erupts two years later and the case is closed unsolved. This story inspired writer Pierre Siniac for his novel Le Crime du dernier métro, published in 2001.[19]

Route and stations[edit]

Paris Métro Line 8
Route map
Geographically accurate path of Paris metro line 8.

Route[edit]

The station École Militaire, before its refurbishment beginning of 2008.

The overall length of line 8 is 22.057 km, including 2.8 km in open-air in the south-eastern suburbs. It is the second longest line after line 13, but it is the longest distance between two termini because it has no branch.

The line starts in 15th arrondissement of Paris at the level of Porte de Sèvres. The back-station of the station Balard is located under the grounds of the heliport of Paris, beyond the viaduct of Boulevard périphérique de Paris. This station is made up of three tracks with a central platform used for departures and arrivals. The end of the line is supplemented by four parking tracks.[20]

The line leaves in direction of Hôtel des Invalides by following the avenue Félix-Faure, passes under the viaduct of Chemin de fer de Petite Ceinture and arrives at the station Lourmel with three tracks with platforms one of which is used for the connection with the maintenance workshop of Javel. Then, it serves the stations Boucicaut and Félix Faure staying underneath the same avenue.[21]

After this station, the line follows the Rue du Commerce. Because of the narrowness of this street, the station Commerce has staggered platforms. Then, at the level of the intersection between rue du Commerce and avenue Emile-Zola, the tunnel of line 8 is located under line 10 in a common structure. As the line reaches the station La Motte-Picquet – Grenelle, the eastbound tracks of lines 8 (direction Créteil – Préfecture) and 10 (direction Austerlitz) serve the same central platform whereas the westbound track of line 8 (direction Balard) is located underneath the westbound track of line 10 for historical reasons.[21]

Beyond the station, the line follows Avenue de la Motte-Picquet, the tracks present a profile in slope of 40 ‰ which brings them to a level close to the surface of the ground. The old station Champ de Mars, which is located between La Motte-Picquet – Grenelle and École Militaire, was closed on 2 September 1939. A rather unusual (on the network) park track accessible "at a peak" is located between the stations La Motte-Picquet – Grenelle and Champ de Mars. On this section, there is also a connection mentioned further.[21]

The Madeleine station .

After the ghost station of Champ de Mars, the line serves École Militaire and La Tour-Maubourg, the line curves right then left under the esplanade of the Invalides and starts a descent of 40 ‰ to pass under the park tracks, then under the main tracks of line 13. It reaches the station Invalides located under the rue de Constantine. At the level of the rue Robert-Esnault-Pelterie the line starts its second descent of 40 ‰ after passing under the line C of the RER in order to cross the Seine through an underwater crossing, thanks to a metal tunnel drilled under the river. Then, the line goes up on the Right Bank with a slope in curve of 35 ‰ and reaches the station Concorde.[22]

The line runs under Rue Royale and passes under the collector of urban waste water of Asnières, then above line 12, to reach Madeleine. Then, it spans the line 14, passes the collector of urban waste water of Clichy and arrives at Opera. It skirts the Grands Boulevards and reaches the station Richelieu – Drouot. Starting from this station, lines 8 and 9 share a common infrastructure where line 8 is located directly above the line 9.[22]

The lines will get to the same level when they reach station République. Before that, both lines serve successively Grands Boulevards, Bonne Nouvelle, Strasbourg – Saint-Denis and the closed station Saint Martin. On the east side of République, the tunnel widens and includes three then four tracks. These garages are used for the trains of line 8 as for those of line 9 which reach it by the connections located on the west side of this station.[23]

The path continues under the Grands Boulevards to reach Bastille, after serving the stations Filles du Calvaire, Saint-Sébastien – Froissart and Chemin Vert. The line then passes under the collector of the Center, and, before arriving at Bastille, plunges under line 5 and under Canal Saint-Martin by a slope of 40 ‰. Then the line follows the Rue du Fauborg-Saint-Antoine and serves the stations Ledru-Rollin and Faidherbe – Chaligny. After this station, the path forms a curve to follow the Rue de Reuilly in order to reach the station Reuilly – Diderot.[11]

Ways out of drawer beyond the terminus Créteil – Préfecture.

The line reaches Montgallet with a slope of 40‰, then, before reaching the Bois de Vincennes, it serves successively the stations Daumesnil, Michel Bizot and Porte Dorée. It then takes a south-western direction in order to serve the station Porte of Charenton. After this station, the line changes again of orientation and moves towards south-east; it leaves Paris to cross the commune of Charenton-le-Pont following the street of Paris via the stations Liberté and Charenton – Écoles. This station has two tracks with platforms and two sidings because it was the terminus of the line for a long time.[24]

The path continues in the open-air on 353 meters before it spans over autoroute A4 (motorway) and the Marne. The line borrows two metal structures coupled together, each one mode of four spans, long of 199 m and with a slope of 40,14 ‰. The lines goes underground again in order to pass through Maisons-Alfort following the avenue of the Général-Leclerc, serving the stations École Vétérinaire de Maisons-Alfort, Maisons-Alfort – Stade and Maisons-Alfort – Les Juilliottes. This station, which was used as terminus, has three tracks with platform and a depot.[24]

The line has three tracks until the terminus. Before arriving at Créteil – L'Échat, it crosses the highway exchange RN19 (highway)/autoroute A86 (motorway) then continues in the open air. The tracks lies between the ways of the road CD 1 and serves the stations Créteil – Université and Créteil – Préfecture.[25]

Within the framework of the future extension, the line will continue full south to arrive at the crossroads CD 1/CD 60. A new station will be created after this crossing. The line will continue to arrive behind the Stade Dominique Duvauchelle at Créteil where a new workshop of maintenance will be located.[26]

List of stations[edit]

Line (8) has 37 stations, including 13 which connect to 12 other metro and two RER lines.

Station Arrondissement / Municipality Connections Notes
Balard 15th (T)(3a) Named after French chemist Antoine Jérôme Balard
Lourmel 15th
Boucicaut 15th
Félix Faure 15th Named after Félix Faure, 7th President of the French Republic
Commerce 15th
La Motte-Picquet — Grenelle 15th (6)(10) Named after French 18th Century admiral Toussaint-Guillaume Picquet de la Motte and the quartier of Grenelle
École Militaire 7th Near École Militaire
La Tour-Maubourg 7th
Invalides 7th (13) (RER)(C) Near Les Invalides
Concorde 1st, 8th (1)(12) Near the Place de la Concorde
Madeleine 8th (12)(14) Near the Église de la Madeleine
Opéra 2nd, 9th (3)(7) (RER)(A)(E) Located near the Opéra Garnier
Richelieu — Drouot 2nd, 9th (9) Named after Louis XIII of France 1st minister Cardinal Richelieu and Napoleon's general Antoine Drouot.
Grands Boulevards 2nd, 9th (9) Originally Rue Montmartre, but renamed to avoid confusion with Montmartre
Bonne Nouvelle 2nd, 9th, 10th (9) Named after nearby church Notre-Dame de Bonne-Nouvelle (Our Lady of the Good News)
Strasbourg — Saint-Denis 2nd, 3rd, 10th (4)(9) Named after streets that refer to the French city Strasbourg and 1st bishop of Paris Saint-Denis
République 3rd, 10th, 11th (3)(5)(9)(11) Located under Place de la République
Filles du Calvaire 3rd, 11th Means Daughters of Calvary, named after the old convent of this order.
Saint-Sébastien — Froissart 3rd, 11th Named after the streets that refer to Saint Sebastian and 14th century poet and writer Jean Froissart.
Chemin Vert 3rd, 11th
Bastille 4th, 11th, 12th (1)(5) Under the Place de la Bastille, near the former location of the Bastille
Ledru-Rollin 4th, 11th, 12th Named after the avenue of 19th century lawyer Alexandre Auguste Ledru-Rollin
Faidherbe — Chaligny 11th, 12th Nmed after streets, 19th century General Louis Faidherbe, and Chaligny family of metal-founders.
Reuilly — Diderot 12th (1) Named after 18th century philosoph Denis Diderot
Montgallet 12th
Daumesnil 12th (6) Named after general Pierre Yrieix Daumesnil
Michel Bizot 12th Named after general Michel Bizot fr:Michel Bizot
Porte Dorée 12th (T)(3a)
Porte de Charenton 12th (T)(3a)
Liberté Charenton-le-Pont
Charenton — Écoles Charenton-le-Pont
École Vétérinaire de Maisons–Alfort Maisons-Alfort
Maisons-Alfort — Stade Maisons-Alfort
Maisons-Alfort — Les Juilliottes Maisons-Alfort
Créteil — L'Échat Créteil
Créteil — Université Créteil
Créteil — Préfecture Créteil
Pointe du Lac Créteil

Renamed stations[edit]

Five stations on line 8 have been renamed:[27]

Date Old name New name
15 May 1921 Wilhelm Eglise d'Auteuil
12 January 1932 Saint-Sébastien Saint-Sébastien – Froissart
1996 Maisons-Alfort – Ecole Vétérinaire Ecole Vétérinaire de Maisons-Alfort
September 1998 Rue Montmartre Grands Boulevards

List of stations with a theme or specificity[edit]

La Motte-Picquet – Grenelle conniectin passageways decorated with several coats of arms of the family of Toussaint-Guillaume Picquet de la Motte. A fresco depicting the toll barrier of the Cunette, one of the entrances of the Wall of the Farmers was previously located here.

Richelieu – Drouot has a war memorial dedicated to the agents of the metropolitan railway who died in service for France. It was carved out black marble by sculptor Carlo Sarrabezolles in 1931. The central sculpture is decorated with a caryatid who supports with its raised arms the surrounding stone twist. The statue separates into two parts the half-circle where the names of the agents of the subway who disappeared during First World War are registered. The base of the monument bears the names of the battle fields of the Great War. The word "Release" was added in the bottom right after Second World War, in order to mark the participation of the agents of the network in Résistance.[28]

Bonne Nouvelle was redecorated on the topic of cinema for the celebrations of the centenary of the Métro. The way the name of the station is written is a reference to the famous Hollywood Sign (the gigantic "HOLYWOOD" letters on Hollywood Hills in Los Angeles).

Repositioned platforms at Commerce station.

Some stations still show signs of difficulties of construction or of integration in the urban space:[25]

  • Commerce is a station with offset paltforms because of the narrowness of rue du Commerce;
  • The platforms of La Motte-Picquet – Grenelle are not facing each other because of the original role of the station to serve at the same time the branch d'Auteuil and the branch of Balard. The platform in direction of Balard is located below, and slightly shifted, with respect to the platform in direction of Créteil;
  • Champ de Mars and Saint-Martin are two phantom stations of the line: they were definitively closed the 2 September 1939;
  • République is used as terminus at the time of certain missions because [clarification needed] the length of the line;
  • Porte de Charenton, which is an old terminus of the line, has four tracks with platforms, the configuration consists of two sidings framed by the two main roads;
  • Charenton – Écoles, which it also is an old terminus, includes/understands two tracks with platform and two sidings;
  • Maisons-Alfort – Les Juilliottes, in the same way that the two preceding stations, has three tracks with platform, the middle one being used for departures and the arrivals of certain missions for which the station is a terminus;
  • Créteil – L'Échat and Créteil – Université are two-track stations framing a central platform.

Connections[edit]

The station Richelieu – Drouot, eastbound terminus from 1928 to 1931.

The lines has eight technical interconnections with the other lines of the network:[29]

  • with the ligne 10 between stations École Militaire and La Motte-Picquet – Grenelle on the track direction Balard, facing the exit of the closed station Champ de Mars,
  • with the line 13 : two points of connections within the Invalides complex, one trailing between stations Invalides and Concordeon the track direction Créteil – Préfecture, but actually not usable since it was transformed into a reception area, the other facing the entrance of station La Tour-Maubourg, on the track direction Balard
  • with the line 1 facing at the exit of station Concorde on the track direction Balard
  • with the line 5 between stations République and Strasbourg – Saint-Denis, trailing, at the entrance of the closed station Saint-Martin, on the track direction Balard
  • with the line 9 : two points of connection between stations Strasbourg – Saint-Denis and République on both tracks, crossover connected at République for the line 9, at Strasbourg – Saint-Denis for the line 8
  • with the line 6 between stations Daumesnil and Montgallet on the track direction Balard, trailing.

Workshops[edit]

Operation[edit]

Service road[edit]

Rolling stock[edit]

Categories of personnel[edit]

Tariffing and financing[edit]

Traffic[edit]

Extension towards south-east[edit]

Line 8 is being extended 1.3 km east from Créteil – Préfecture to Créteil – Parc des Sports, with opening scheduled for 2011.

Tourism[edit]

Le dôme des Invalides.

Metro line 8 passes near several places of interest in Paris:

Further east, the line reaches place of interest in Val-de-Marne:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Tricoire 1999, p. 238
  2. ^ a b Tricoire 1999, p. 239
  3. ^ a b c d Tricoire 1999, p. 240
  4. ^ Robert 1983, p. 95
  5. ^ Robert 1983, p. 112
  6. ^ a b c d Tricoire 1999, p. 241
  7. ^ Robert 1983, p. 114
  8. ^ Morton, Patricia A. (1 April 2003). Hybrid Modernities: Architecture and Representation at the 1931 Colonial Exposition, Paris. The MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-63271-3. 
  9. ^ Robert 1983, p. 121
  10. ^ a b Tricoire 1999, pp. 242–243
  11. ^ a b Tricoire 1999, p. 253
  12. ^ Robert 1983, p. 216
  13. ^ Robert 1983, p. 162
  14. ^ Tricoire 1999, pp. 244–245
  15. ^ Robert 1983, p. 163
  16. ^ Robert 1983, p. 500
  17. ^ "The crime of the subway Porte-dorée", article of Liliane Riou published in Gavroche n° 149, January–March 2007, p. 26 to 35
  18. ^ L'Express – "Le crime était vraiment parfait", article of Cécile Guéry of 30.08.2004
  19. ^ Parutions.com Pierre Signac, Le Crime du dernier métro
  20. ^ Tricoire 1999, p. 246
  21. ^ a b c Tricoire 1999, p. 247
  22. ^ a b Tricoire 1999, p. 248
  23. ^ Tricoire 1999, p. 251
  24. ^ a b Tricoire 1999, p. 254
  25. ^ a b Tricoire 1999, p. 255
  26. ^ "Prolongement M8 Créteil-Préfecture / Pointe du lac" [Prolongation of the line 8 Créteil-Préfecture / Pointe du lac] (in French). 
  27. ^ Robert 1983, p. 49
  28. ^ Zuber 1996, p. 241
  29. ^ "Carte détaillée du Métropolitain de Paris" [Detailed map of Paris Métro] (in French). 
  • Robert, Jean (1983). Notre Métro [Our metro] (in French). p. 512. OCLC 461957199. 
  • Tricoire, Jean (1999). Un siècle de métro en 14 lignes. De Bienvenüe à Météor [A century of metro in 14 lines. From Bienvenüe to Météor] (in French). Paris: Éditions La Vie du Rail. ISBN 2-915034-32-X. 
  • Zuber, Henri (1996). Le patrimoine de la RATP [The Patrimony of the RATP] (in French). éditions Flohic. p. 400. ISBN 2-84234-007-8. 

External links[edit]