||It has been suggested that Park51 controversy be merged into this article. (Discuss) Proposed since April 2013.|
An artist's rendering of the proposed Park51
|Location||45–51 Park Place, Manhattan, New York City, U.S.|
|Status||Planned; 100,000 square feet (9,300 m2)|
|Leadership||Feisal Abdul Rauf
|Groundbreaking||Late 2011 (est.)|
|Construction cost||$100 million|
|Height (max)||13 stories|
|Materials||Glass and steel|
Park51 (originally named Cordoba House) is a planned 13-story Islamic community center in Lower Manhattan. The majority of the center will be open to the general public and its proponents have said the center will promote interfaith dialogue. Plans for the center include a Muslim prayer space which, due to its location two blocks from the World Trade Center site, has controversially been referred to as the "Ground Zero mosque", though numerous commentators argued that it was neither a mosque nor at Ground Zero.
Sharif El-Gamal, the developer, controls 3 existing adjacent buildings on the site (43, 45-47 and 51 Park Place). El-Gamal owns 45-47 (which started the controversy) and 43 (which he acquired in December 2012). El-Gamal has a long term lease through 2071 from Con Edison on 51 Park Place on space that was formerly an electrical substation. In recent years 45-47 and 51 operated as a Burlington Coat Factory (which is no longer there).
It would replace an existing 1850s building of Italianate style of architecture that was being used as a Burlington Coat Factory before it was damaged in the September 11 attacks. The proposed multi-faith aspects of the design include a 500-seat auditorium, theater, a performing arts center, a fitness center, a swimming pool, a basketball court, a childcare area, a bookstore, a culinary school, an art studio, a food court, and a memorial to the victims of the September 11 attacks. The prayer space for the Muslim community will accommodate 1,000–2,000 people. Park51 was designed by the Principle of SOMA, Michel Abboud, who wrestled for months with a key problem to make the building fit naturally into its surrounds in lower Manhattan : on the one hand, it should have a contemporary design, and, at the same time, it should look Islamic.
In late September 2011, the project developer opened a 4,000-square-foot (370 m2) Islamic center in renovated space at the Park 51 location. He hopes to build the larger planned project within several years.
- 1 Background
- 2 Naming of the project
- 3 Project history
- 4 Controversy
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
Plans to build then-named Cordoba House were reported in The New York Times in December 2009, at a location that was already in use for Muslim worship. Early response to the project was not pronounced, and one conservative commentator provided positive coverage. The plans were reviewed by the local community board in May 2010, at which time they attracted some national media attention. Protests were sparked by a campaign launched by conservative bloggers Pamela Geller and Robert Spencer, founders of the group Stop Islamization of America, who dubbed the project the "Ground Zero mosque", and a national controversy ensued.
Some opponents have also said that the building itself would serve as a "victory memorial" to Islam. Supporters have said that arguments against the building are based on the false notion that Islam, rather than Islamic radicals, is responsible for the terrorist attack. The New York Times reported that Muslim religious facilities previously existed at the World Trade Center itself before the attacks. Opponents have also argued that the project should not be built because polls have shown that most Americans, including most residents of New York State and New York City (though not most residents of Manhattan), oppose it. Most Americans and residents of New York State do, however, believe the Park51 developers have a legal right to proceed with the project.
The project's organizers state that it is intended to be "a platform for multi-faith dialogue. It will strive to promote inter-community peace, tolerance and understanding locally in New York City, nationally in America, and globally," and have stated that it is modeled on the noted Manhattan Jewish Community Center, the 92nd Street Y. The project's sponsors explained that the original name of the center was meant to invoke 8th–11th century Córdoba, in Spain, which they call a model of peaceful coexistence between Muslims, Christians, and Jews. The proposal triggered an intense nationwide controversy, with opponents of the project objecting to its proximity to the site of the September 11 attacks, its scale, sources of funding, or expressing concern that the project's name was intended as a reference to the Islamic conquest of the Christian city of Córdoba. Supporters have appealed to the First Amendment as well as the opportunity for Muslims to demonstrate peaceful Islamic values and for Americans to reassert their commitment to tolerance and diversity.
Naming of the project
The project was originally called Cordoba House, then renamed Park51, in reference to the street address on Park Place. Later, the Imam leading the project introduced some ambiguity by again referring to the project as "Cordoba House". The Park51 website then clarified that Park51 is the community center, while Cordoba House is the "interfaith and religious component of the center".
Cordoba Initiative said the name "Cordoba House" was meant to invoke 8th–11th century Córdoba, Spain, which they called a model of peaceful coexistence between Muslims, Christians, and Jews. According to The Economist, the name was chosen because Muslims, Jews and Christians created a center of learning in Córdoba together. The name was criticized; for example, Newt Gingrich said that it was "a deliberately insulting term" which symbolizes the Muslim conquerors' victory over Christian Spaniards, and noted that the Muslims had converted a Cordoba church into the third largest mosque in the world. Similarly, Raymond Ibrahim, a former associate director of the Middle East Forum, said the project and name were not "a gesture of peace and interfaith dialogue" but were "allusive of Islamic conquest and consolidation" and that Americans should realize that mosques are not "Muslim counterparts to Christian churches" but rather, "are symbols of domination and centers of radicalization". The opposition to Park51 believes that Islam builds mosques on "conquered territory" as symbols of "victory" and "conquest".
Park51 is often referred to as the "Ground Zero mosque". Since it is neither located directly on the former World Trade Center site, Ground Zero, nor primarily a mosque, some news media have advised against the use of this term. The Associated Press suggested several alternate terms including "mosque 2 blocks from WTC site", "Muslim (or Islamic) center near WTC site", "mosque near ground zero", and "mosque near WTC site". Cordoba Initiative says the building is not strictly a mosque. Anushay Hossain in The Huffington Post criticises the use of the name Ground Zero mosque, and says it is "Not a mosque but an Islamic Community Center". Jean Marbella in The Baltimore Sun says the building is closer to a YMCA center than a house of worship.
Site use 1858-2001
The stone-faced building, designed by Daniel Badger, was originally constructed for a shipping firm of a prominent New York shipping magnate. Its Italian palazzo style was a throwback to a prior time of European grandeur, and was intended to evoke images of economic might. The building is an example of the "store and loft" structures that were prevalent in the dry goods warehouse districts of Lower Manhattan.
The building was one of only a few stand-alone structures in southern Tribeca that were nominated – but never designated – as individual landmarks, during an effort in the 1980s to create a Tribeca historic district. In September 1989, the Commission had held public hearings and considered the building for landmark status, but it never acted on the matter, and the building was "calendared" ever since. The New York Post reported that city building records reflected that out of a group of 29 buildings, including 45–47 Park Place, that were proposed for historic landmark designation in 1989, 23 had been deemed landmarks and 6 (including 45–47) were pending as of August 2010. New York City has more than 11,000 landmarked buildings.
During the attacks, the then-five-story building at 45–47 Park Place, between West Broadway and Church Street, was severely damaged. When United Airlines Flight 175 struck the South Tower of the World Trade Center, part of the plane's landing gear, engine and fuselage came out the north side of the tower and crashed through the roof of 45–47 Park Place, and through two of its floors. The plane parts destroyed three floor beams, and severely compromised the building's internal structure. The damage was not immediately noticed during an exterior assessment. It was later discovered during an interior assessment. In April 2013, the New York Police Department announced that surveyors inspecting the building had discovered a 17-inch-wide piece, five foot long airplane part complete with Boeing identification number wedged in an 18-inch-wide alley between 51 Park and 50 Murray Street. Initially officials thought it was part of the landing gear but Boeing confirmed it was the trailing edge flap actuation support structure of an airplane flap from a Boeing 767. 767's hit both towers. A photograph of the piece initially showed a rope around it. Police said the rope was used by an officer who lassoed it to see the identification number. Boeing could not say which specific plane it was from.
Site use 2001-2009
Muslims had a presence in Lower Manhattan for many years prior to the September 11 attacks. At least two mosques existed near the World Trade Center, and several designated Muslim prayer rooms existed within the World Trade Center buildings.
The 45–47 Park Place building, located about two blocks (600 feet or 180 meters) north of the World Trade Center site, was owned by Stephen Pomerantz and his wife Kukiko Mitani and leased to the Burlington Coat Factory. For years, Mitani attempted to sell the building, at one point asking for $18 million. It lay abandoned until its purchase in July 2009. For several months thereafter, the building was used as an overflow prayer space for up to 450 Muslims, with services led by Feisal Abdul Rauf, an Imam based at the al-Farah mosque in nearby TriBeCa.
Purchase and investors
Soho Properties' Chairman and CEO, Sharif El-Gamal, initially planned to build a condominium complex at the site, but was convinced by Imam Feisal Abdul Rauf's idea for a community center with a prayer space. El-Gamal's partner is Nour Mousa, the nephew of Amr Moussa, the Secretary General of the Arab League.
The investors in the transaction were the Cordoba Initiative, a tax-exempt foundation with assets of $20,000, and the American Society for Muslim Advancement (ASMA), also a non-profit organization. Rauf is founder, CEO, and Executive Director of Cordoba Initiative, and founder and CEO of ASMA, and his wife, Daisy Khan, is the ASMA Executive Director. In the Cordoba Initiative's first five years, from 2004–08, it raised less than $100,000. Both organizations are run out of the same New York office.
The two foundations proposed to use the property as the site for a $100 million community center modeled after NYC's Jewish Community Centers and YMCAs. They are working on the project with El-Gamal, their co-developer.
The 49–51 Park Place half of the "45–51" parcel is still owned by the utility Con Edison (Con Ed). Soho Properties paid an additional $700,000 to assume a $33,000-a-year lease with Con Ed, for its adjacent attached former sub-station. The plan is to build the facility on the site of the two buildings. The lease for 49–51 Park Place expires in 2071. The two buildings are connected internally, with common walls having been taken down. El-Gamal informed Con Ed in February 2010 that he wanted to exercise his purchase option on the lease. Con Ed is now conducting an appraisal to determine the property's value. Once the property has been valued, El-Gamal will have the option of accepting the price, which was reportedly estimated at $10–$20 million. El-Gamal said the cost "is not an issue". The sale would be reviewed by the New York Public Service Commission, where it might face a vote by a five-member board controlled by New York Governor Paterson.
The specific location of the planned facility, "where a piece of the wreckage fell", so close to the World Trade Center, was a primary selling point for the Muslims who bought the building. Rauf said it "sends the opposite statement to what happened on 9/11" and "We want to push back against the extremists."
While the media widely described the center as a mosque, and the protests were against the mosque, the Initiative's official blog portrayed it as a community center with prayer space, making comparisons to the YMCA or Jewish Community Center. The Initiative said that some services planned for Park51 such as the restaurant and performance center, disqualify it from being a mosque. Daisy Khan, Imam Rauf's wife and partner, in August 2010 also said:
We insist on calling it a prayer space and not a mosque, because you can use a prayer space for activities apart from prayer. You can't stop anyone who is a Muslim despite his religious ideology from entering the mosque and staying there. With a prayer space, we can control who gets to use it.
The official website for the facility had said it would include "a mosque, intended to be run separately from Park51 but open to and accessible to all members, visitors and our New York community". By September 2010, the word mosque had been replaced with "prayer space". In an interview in July 2010, lead developer of the project Sharif el-Gamal had supported the inclusion of a mosque as needed by the New York Muslim community.
The Muslim prayer space is planned to occupy two floors of the 13 story building. Besides the prayer space, the Initiative's plan includes a 500-seat auditorium, theater, performing arts center, fitness center, swimming pool, basketball court, childcare services, art exhibitions, bookstore, culinary school, and a food court serving halal dishes.
El-Gamal said he wanted the building to be energy-efficient and transparent, most likely with a glass façade. The project envisions the demolition of two buildings at 45–47 Park Place and Broadway which were damaged on 9/11. They would be replaced by a glass and steel 100,000-square-foot (9,300 m2) structure with a new address, 45–51 Park Place. A number of commentators stated that the builders planned either the groundbreaking or opening date to coincide with anniversaries of the September 11 attacks. Khan said in a July 2010 conversation with Media Matters for America that such assertions were "absolutely false" and that the construction timeline had not been determined; furthermore, those making such assertions have no proof of their claims. However, in a May 2010 Associated Press interview Khan said that the Initiative may plan for groundbreaking to coincide with the 10th anniversary of the attacks.
Khan said the project is intended to foster better relations between Islam and Americans. Explaining the choice of location, she said, "We decided we wanted to look at the legacy of 9/11 and do something positive." She added that her group represents moderate Muslims who want "to reverse the trend of extremism and the kind of ideology that the extremists are spreading". Pointing to the fact that ordinary Muslims have been killed by Muslim extremists all over the world, Khan also said about the mosque, "For us it is a symbol... that will give voice to the silent majority of Muslims who suffer at the hands of extremists. A center will show that Muslims will be part of rebuilding Lower Manhattan."
Community board advisory vote
On May 25, 2010, the local community board backed part of the plans for Cordoba House to be built on the site in a non-binding advisory vote of 29-to-1, with 10 abstentions. The endorsement related only to "the important community facilities [the project] will provide", and the resolution indicated that the board "takes no position regarding the religious aspects or any religious facilities associated with either the Cordoba Initiative or the Cordoba House Project". The board's chairwoman, Julie Menin, supported deletion of references to the building as a mosque and interfaith center that were in an earlier draft of the resolution, saying: "I personally was uncomfortable with the language that talked about the religious institution. I believe it's not the purview of a city agency to be weighing in on the siting of any religious institution, be it a mosque, synagogue, or church."
The meeting where the vote was held was contentious. Some of the speakers supporting the project were Muslims who lost family members in the attacks, and were booed by protesters. Some non-Muslim relatives of 9/11 victims also spoke in support, but other family members objected to the project, claiming the location is insensitive.
Landmark status declined and litigation
As the controversy grew New York City's Landmarks Preservation Commission agree to reconsider the 1980s landmark application which it had not acted on previously. On August 3, 2010, it voted 9–0 against granting landmark status and historic protection to the building. That cleared the way for it to be demolished, and the new Cordoba House to be built in its place.
The following day, Timothy Brown, a firefighter who survived 9/11, filed a suit in New York State Supreme Court in Manhattan asking the court to nullify the Commission's decision. He praised 45–47 Park Place, quoting the Commission's own description of it as "a fine example of the Italian Renaissance-inspired palazzi" that flourished in the mid-19th century in the area. The suit was filed on his behalf by the American Center for Law and Justice, a conservative public interest firm.
On July 10, 2011, Justice Paul G. Feinman of the New York State Supreme Court dismissed Brown's case, writing that the firefighter was "an individual with a strong interest in preservation of the building", but added that he lacked any special legal standing on its fate. Adam Leitman Bailey, the lawyer who represented the Islamic center's developer pro bono, called the decision "a victory for America" and said, "Despite the tempest of religious hatred, the judge flexed our Constitution's muscles enforcing the very bedrock of our democracy." Jack Lester, a lawyer for Brown, said, "We believe the brave men and women who risked their lives have standing to preserve the monuments and historic buildings at ground zero." 
On August 2, 2011, the New York Times reported that Sharif El-Gamal, the project's developer, is quietly proceeding with efforts to move Park51 forward, embracing a "slower, more deliberate and more realistic approach" than before. New Republic contributor Isaac Chotiner wrote that El-Gamal "is at least partially acquiescing" to the families of 9/11 victims who disapprove of the center being built near Ground Zero.
On September 21, 2011, Park51 was opened to the public as 4,000 square feet of renovated space in the Burlington Coat Factory building. The center's opening was without incident. Visitors were able to view 160 portraits of immigrant children living in New York during the exhibit called "NYChildren", and a carpeted prayer room is located in the lower level. The project's developer, Sharif El-Gamal, hopes that the new building can be completed within several years. Presently, Park51 is opening its doors to New Yorkers of all backgrounds for interfaith workshops, films and lectures.
Opponents of the Park51 project argued that it is "a mosque", claiming that establishing a mosque a few blocks away from Ground Zero would be offensive because the hijackers in the September 11, 2001 attacks were Islamic terrorists. Project supporters have argued that the Park51 building would not be visible from the World Trade Center site, and that some victims and victims' families have expressed support for the Park51 project, as well as acknowledging the fact that victims of the 9/11 attacks also included Muslims.
- Islamic Cultural Center of New York
- Abbey Mills Mosque – A similar proposal to expand a mosque in London.
- "Conflict over the proposed Cordoba community center in New York Center". Religioustolerance.org. Retrieved April 26, 2013.
- Kate Nocera and Samuel Goldsmith (May 22, 2010). "Imam building Islamic center near Ground Zero urges worshipers to fight against backlash with peace". Daily News (New York). Retrieved August 2, 2010.
- "Cordoba House mosque coming up near Ground Zero renamed as Park51". Sify. July 14, 2010. Retrieved August 2, 2010.
- Stephen Schwartz (July 26, 2010). "A Mosque Grows Near Brooklyn; The dubious financing of 'Cordoba House' deserves scrutiny". The Weekly Standard. Retrieved August 9, 2010.
- Mohammed Al Shafey (May 18, 2010). "Controversy Rages in NYC over Planned Mosque Near Ground Zero". Asharq Al-Awsat. Retrieved August 2, 2010.
- Joe Jackson and Bill Hutchinson (May 6, 2010). "Plan for mosque near World Trade Center site moves ahead". Daily News (New York). Retrieved August 1, 2010.
- Javier C. Hernandez (May 25, 2010). "Vote Endorses Muslim Center Near Ground Zero". The New York Times. Retrieved August 1, 2010.
- "Olbermann: There is no 'Ground Zero Mosque'" MSNBC's Keith Olbermann questions Americä's religious tolerance
- "The Ground Zero 'mosque' is not a mosque". The Huffington Post.
- "Facilities". Park51. Archived from the original on September 11, 2010.
- Abbie Fentress Swanson (September 21, 2011). "Park 51 Opens Renovated Space with Photo Exhibit of NYC Immigrant Children". WNYC Culture. Retrieved October 3, 2011.
- Blumenthal, Ralph (December 9, 2009). "Muslim Prayers and Renewal Near Ground Zero". The New York Times. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
- Calvin Woodward (August 18, 2010). "Fact Check: Islam already lives near ground zero". Newsvine. Associated Press. Retrieved August 19, 2010.
- Bobby Ghosh (August 19, 2010). "Mosque Controversy: Does America Have a Muslim Problem?". Time. Retrieved September 13, 2010.
- Randi Kaye (August 17, 2010). "Anderson Cooper 360 Degrees: Firestorm Grows Over Islamic Center Near Ground Zero". CNN. Retrieved August 26, 2010.
- Cathy Young (August 23, 2010). "A Reality Check in the Ground Zero Mosque Debate: The war of words has become short on facts". Reason. Retrieved September 13, 2010.
- Justin Elliott (August 16, 2010). "How the "ground zero mosque" fear mongering began". Salon.
- Michelle Boorstein (August 19, 2010). "In flap over mosque near Ground Zero, conservative bloggers gaining influence". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 2, 2010.
- David Freedlander (August 11, 2010, timeline of protests). "The Woman Behind The Anti-Ground Zero Mosque Bus Ads". The New York Observer.
- Rush Limbaugh (August 17, 2010). "Why This Mosque on This Spot?". The Rush Limbaugh Show. Retrieved September 19, 2010.
- Pamela Geller (September 11, 2010). "Pro-Victory Mosque Candlelight Vigil". Atlas Shrugged. Retrieved September 19, 2010.
- Editorial (August 5, 2010). "Build that mosque: The campaign against the proposed Cordoba centre in New York is unjust and dangerous". The Economist. Retrieved August 21, 2010.
- Samuel G. Fredman (September 10, 2010). "Muslims and Islam Were Part of Twin Towers' Life". The New York Times. Retrieved September 13, 2010.
- "Bloomberg's Approval Rating: Voters' Views on Mosque Near Ground Zero: Bloomberg's Legacy". Marist Poll. August 10, 2010. Retrieved August 30, 2010.
- Samuel Goldsmith (July 1, 2010). "More than half of New York voters oppose Ground Zero mosque plan: poll". Daily News (New York). Retrieved July 31, 2010.
- Simone Baribeau; David Levitt; Nicholas Johnston; Stacie Servetah and Mark Schoifet (August 3, 2010). "Ground Zero Mosque Plans Move Forward After Key Vote". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved August 4, 2010.
- "9/11 Family Concerns Outweigh Muslim Right To Mosque, New York State Voters Tell Quinnipiac University Poll". Quinnipiac University Polling Institute. August 31, 2010. Archived from the original on September 4, 2010.
- Dana Blanton (August 13, 2010). "Fox News Poll: 64 Percent Think It's Wrong to Build Mosque Near Ground Zero". Fox News. Retrieved August 31, 2010.
- "Mosque-building and its discontents". The Economist/YouGov. August 19, 2010. Retrieved September 19, 2010.
- "Frequently Asked Questions". Cordoba Initiative. Retrieved October 6, 2010.
- Hendrik Hertzberg (August 16, 2010). "Zero Grounds". The New Yorker. Retrieved August 21, 2010.
- Josh Nathan-Kazis (May 26, 2010). "Mosque's Plan To Expand Near Ground Zero Sparks Debate". The Jewish Daily Forward. Retrieved September 19, 2012.
- Javier C. Hernandez (July 13, 2010). "Planned Sign of Tolerance Bringing Division Instead". The New York Times. Retrieved August 1, 2010.
- Ray Sanchez (May 26, 2010). "Despite Protests, Mosque Plan Near 9/11 Site Wins Key Vote". ABC News. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
- "1,000 protest planned Islamic center, mosque near Ground Zero". Daily News (New York). June 7, 2010. Retrieved August 1, 2010.
- James Rosen (April 7, 2010). "New York Mosque Controversy Fires Up National Campaign". Fox News. Retrieved August 2, 2010.
- Nicole Neroulias (July 29, 2010). "Quietly, another mosque operates in the shadow of Ground Zero". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved August 1, 2010.
- Deb Feyerick; Julian Cummings; Ed Payne and Alan Silverleib (July 20, 2010). "Palin: Muslim facility near Ground Zero an 'unnecessary provocation'". CNN. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
- Tamer El-Ghobashy (July 27, 2010). "Amid Ground Zero Mosque Debate, NYPD Alert for Security During Ramadan". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved August 1, 2010.
- Thomas L. Friedman (July 16, 2009). "Opinion; Glad to live in a country that will allow a mosque at Ground Zero". The Seattle Times. Retrieved August 5, 2010.
- Javier C. Hernandez (August 3, 2010). "Mosque Near Ground Zero Clears Key Hurdle". The New York Times. Retrieved August 3, 2010.
- "Monument to Jihad; Ground Zero Mosque No Joke". Toronto Sun. July 27, 2010. Retrieved August 1, 2010.
- Frank Salvato (August 6, 2010). "The Consequences of Park51: The Cordoba House". Accuracy in Media. Retrieved August 6, 2010.
- Feisal Abdul Rauf (September 7, 2010). "Building on Faith". The New York Times.
- "Park51 Issues a Statement Regarding the Name of the Planned Muslim Community Center Being Built in Lower Manhattan". Park51. Archived from the original on September 11, 2010.
- Dan Amira (July 14, 2010). "Ground Zero Mosque Gets Less Muslim-Invasion-Sounding Name". New York. Retrieved August 2, 2010.
- "Commission Expected to OK Ground Zero Mosque". WCBS TV. Retrieved August 2, 2010.[dead link]
- "Cordoba Initiative". Retrieved August 17, 2010.
- "Newt Gingrich Statement on Proposed Mosque/Islamic Community Center near Ground Zero". Newt Direct. July 21, 2010. Archived from the original on August 20, 2010.
- Raymond Ibrahim (June 22, 2010). "The Two Faces of the Ground Zero Mosque". Middle East Forum. Retrieved September 13, 2010.
- Kenneth Lovett; Erik Badia and Corky Siemaszko (August 23, 2010). "Archbishop Timothy Dolan, Gov. Paterson to huddle about mosque controversy". Daily News (New York).
- Jean Marbella (August 14, 2010). "When a 'Ground Zero mosque' really is neither". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved August 19, 2010.
- "AP Standards Center issues staff advisory on covering New York City mosque" (Press release). Associated Press. August 19, 2010.
- "The Ground Zero "mosque" is not a mosque". The Huffington Post. Retrieved October 6, 2010.
- Sam Levin (July 30, 2010). "Landmarks to Vote Tuesday on Potential Mosque Site". The New York Observer. Retrieved August 2, 2010.
- "NYC community board OKs ground zero mosque plans". The Boston Globe. May 25, 2010. Retrieved August 1, 2010.
- Emily Geminder (July 20, 2010). "45 Park's Place". The New York Observer. Retrieved August 4, 2010.
- Matt Dunning (July 8, 2010). "CB1 Committee Rejects Islamic Group's Building as a Landmark". The Tribeca Trib. Retrieved August 3, 2010.
- "'Ground Zero' mosque moves forward". Financial Times. August 3, 2010. Retrieved August 4, 2010.
- Matt Dunning (May 26, 2010). "CB1 Backs Imam's Community Center, Silent on Mosque Near WTC". The Tribeca Trib. Retrieved August 2, 2010.
- Tom Topousis (August 3, 2010). "Landmark vote on Ground Zero mosque". New York Post. Retrieved August 3, 2010.
- Michael Howard Saul (August 4, 2010). "Ground Zero Mosque-NYC Landmarks Commission Clears Way for Islamic Center". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved August 3, 2010.
- Ralph Blumenthal and Sharaf Mowjood (December 9, 2009). "Muslim Prayers and Renewal Near Ground Zero". The New York Times. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
- Matt Dunning (May 6, 2010). "CB1 Committee Hails Plans for a Mosque Two Blocks from WTC Site". The Tribeca Trib. Retrieved August 3, 2010.
- Structural Engineers Association of New York, Noah Klersfeld, Guy Nordenson and Associates, LZA Technology (2003). World Trade Center emergency damage assessment of buildings: Structural Engineers Association of New York inspections of September and October 2001 1. Structural Engineers Association of New York. Retrieved August 3, 2010.
- Luke Funk (January 19, 2010). "Ground Zero Mosque Plan Moves Forward; "Shame On You" Shouted at Panel". Fox News. Retrieved August 4, 2010.
- Federal Emergency Management Agency; Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration (2002). World Trade Center Building Performance Study: Data Collection, Preliminary Observations, and Recommendations. Government Printing Office. Retrieved April 27, 2013.
- "9/11 Plane's Landing Gear Found In Lower Manhattan, Says NYPD (PHOTOS)". The Huffington Post. April 26, 2013. Retrieved April 26, 2013.
- "Officials To Search For Human Remains In Alley With 9/11 Hijacked Plane Remnant". NY1. March 30, 2010. Retrieved April 27, 2013.
- Carl Glassman (April 5, 2007). "West Broadway Bars Facing License Ban". The Tribeca Trib. Retrieved August 30, 2010.
- Anne Barnard (August 13, 2010). "In Lower Manhattan, 2 Mosques Have Firm Roots". The New York Times.
- Samuel Freedman (September 10, 2010). "Muslims and Islam Were Part of Twin Towers' Life". The New York Times.
- Anis Ansari (July 31, 2010). "Q-C area Islamic leader defends NYC mosque". Quad-City Times. Retrieved August 1, 2010.
- Tom Topousis (June 19, 2010). "Muslim Imam leading push to build a mosque near Ground Zero wavers on questions about Hamas as a terror group". New York Post. Retrieved August 2, 2010.
- Tom Topousis (July 27, 2010). "'Safety woe' at mosque". New York Post. Retrieved August 5, 2010.
- Amanda Fung (July 25, 2010). "Mosque madness a matter of perspective; Locals welcome $100M project, but others side with Palin to say no way". Crain's New York Business. Retrieved August 1, 2010.
- "Muslim Leaders and Developers of 'Cordoba House' Community Center in Lower Manhattan Thank Supporters" (Press release). PR Newswire. June 4, 2010. Retrieved August 4, 2010.
- Lauren Green (April 7, 2010). "Plan to Build Mosque Near Ground Zero Riles Families of 9/11 Victims". Fox News. Retrieved August 3, 2010.
- Claudia Rosett (July 30, 2010). "Where In The World Is Imam Feisal?". Forbes. Retrieved August 1, 2010.
- "Anger over mosque plan for Ground Zero". Herald Sun (Melbourne). May 14, 2010. Retrieved August 2, 2010.
- Peer Basharat (August 13, 2010 [August 14, 2010 print edition]). "Zero tolerance and Cordoba House". Financial Times. Retrieved August 20, 2010.
- "Daisy Khan". American Society for Muslim Advancement. Retrieved August 3, 2010.
- Cristian Salazar (May 7, 2010). "Mosque going up in NYC building damaged on 9/11". The Guardian (London). Retrieved August 2, 2010.
- "NYC community board OKs ground zero mosque plans". WSYR. May 26, 2010. Retrieved August 2, 2010.
- Joanna Slater (July 22, 2010). "Opposition to ground zero mosque goes viral". The Globe and Mail (Toronto). Retrieved August 3, 2010.
- "Staff Bios". The Cordoba Initiative. July 31, 2007. Retrieved August 3, 2010.
- "Imam Feisal Abdul Rauf". American Society for Muslim Advancement. Retrieved August 3, 2010.
- Mike Vilensky (August 6, 2010). "'Ground Zero Mosque' Developers Still Need to Snag Half the Property From Con Ed". New York. Retrieved August 8, 2010.
- Isabel Vincent and Melissa Klein (August 8, 2010). "Half-baked mosque". New York Post. Retrieved August 8, 2010.
- "What is a Community Center?". The Cordoba Initiative. July 1, 2010. Retrieved July 29, 2010.
- "What is Prayer Space?". The Cordoba Initiative. Retrieved August 11, 2010.
- "Facilities". Park51. Archived from the original on July 19, 2010.
- "Q&A with Sharif el-Gamal about Park51, NYC". Beliefnet. July 25, 2010.
- Julie Menin (August 30, 2010). "Better mosque compromise: Chair of community board wants interfaith center inside Park51 project". Daily News (New York). Retrieved September 21, 2010.
- Nick Dean (September 30, 2001). "NY Congressman Calls for Probe of Funding for Mosque Near Ground Zero and Its Promoter". Cybercast News Service. Retrieved August 1, 2010.
- Michael Barbaro (July 30, 2010). "Debate Heats Up About Mosque Near Ground Zero". The New York Times. Retrieved August 1, 2010.
- Anton Troianovski (July 19, 2010). "Developer Envisions Landmark Mosque". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved August 3, 2010.
- Peter Worthington (August 4, 2010). "Zero thinking at Ground Zero". Toronto Sun. Retrieved August 5, 2010.
- Judy McLeod (August 4, 2010). "No words can ease the heartache of Ground Zero "mega mosque"". Canada Free Press. Retrieved August 4, 2010.
- Pamela Geller (August 6, 2010). "September 11, 2010. Protest the 911 Mega Mosque at Ground Zero". Atlas Shrugged. Retrieved August 31, 2010.
- "Why is Fox pushing a falsehood to fuel outrage over NYC Muslim community center?". Media Matters for America. July 20, 2010. Retrieved August 4, 2010.
- "Building damaged in 9/11 to be mosque for NYC Muslims". USA Today. May 7, 2010. Retrieved August 26, 2010.
- Jeff Jacoby (June 6, 2010). "A mosque at ground zero?". The Boston Globe. Retrieved August 1, 2010.
- Nicole Bliman (May 7, 2010). "Mosque to go up near New York's ground zero". CNN. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
- Aaron Rutkoff (May 5, 2010). "Near Ground Zero, a Mosque Moves In and Meets the Neighbors". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
- Nancy Fuchs Kreimer (May 21, 2010). "Proposed Muslim Community Center Near Ground Zero: 'A Slap in the Face' or 'Repairing the Breach?'". The Huffington Post. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
- Mark Memmott (May 6, 2010). "Plan For Mosque Next to Ground Zero in NYC Moves Forward". NPR. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
- AFP (May 27, 2010). "NYC board approves Ground Zero mosque". The Gazette. Montreal. Retrieved August 2, 2010.
- Rob Sgobbo and Samuel Goldsmith (May 26, 2010). "Supporters, opponents debate merits of controversial plan to build mosque near Ground Zero". Daily News (New York). Retrieved August 1, 2010.
- Julie Shapiro (May 26, 2010). "Community Board Approves Mosque Near World Trade Center Site After Emotional Meeting". Manhattan: DNAinfo New York. Retrieved August 26, 2010.
- Andy Newman (August 4, 2010). "In Battle Over Mosque, a Defender of Architecture". The New York Times. Retrieved August 5, 2010.
- "ACLJ Files Lawsuit Urging NY Court to Nullify Landmarks Commission Vote Clearing Way for Ground Zero Mosque" (Press release). Business Wire. August 5, 2010. Archived from the original on August 11, 2010.
- "Notice of Petition", Brown v. New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission, Supreme Court of the State of New York, August 4, 2010. Retrieved August 9, 2010.
- Stephen Prothero (August 6, 2010). "My take: Christian group is latest ground zero hypocrite". CNN. Retrieved August 9, 2010.
- Moynihan, Colin (July 10, 2011). "Judge Rules Ex-Firefighter Can't Sue Over Mosque". The New York Times. Retrieved July 19, 2011.
- Barnard, Anne (August 2, 2011). "Developers of Islamic Center Try a New Strategy". The New York Times. Retrieved August 2, 2011.
- Chotiner, Isaac (August 2, 2011). "The Islamic Center Near Ground Zero, Take 2". The New Republic. Retrieved August 2, 2011.
- Zraick, Karen; Dobnik, Verena (September 22, 2011). "Ground zero mosque opened to public Wednesday". The Christian Science Monitor. Associated Press. Retrieved September 23, 2011.
- "'Ground Zero mosque' opens quietly". Al Jazeera. September 22, 2011. Retrieved September 23, 2011.
- "Our Story: Park 51". Retrieved September 20, 2012.
- Rick Hampton (September 9, 2010). "For families of Muslim 9/11 victims, a new pain". USA Today. Retrieved September 19, 2013.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Park51.|