|Park visiting Washington, D.C. in May 2013.|
|11th President of South Korea|
25 February 2013
|Prime Minister||Jung Hong-won|
|Preceded by||Lee Myung-bak|
|Leader of the Saenuri Party|
17 December 2011 – 15 May 2012
|Preceded by||Hong Jun-pyo|
|Succeeded by||Hwang Woo-yea|
23 March 2004 – 10 July 2006
|Preceded by||Choe Byeong-ryeol|
|Succeeded by||Kang Jae-sup|
|First Lady of South Korea (de facto)|
16 August 1974 – 26 October 1979
|Preceded by||Yuk Young-soo|
|Succeeded by||Hong Gi|
|Member of the National Assembly|
30 May 2012 – 10 December 2012
|Constituency||Proportional Representation No. 11|
3 April 1998 – 29 May 2012
|Preceded by||Kim Suk-won|
|Succeeded by||Lee Jong-jin|
2 February 1952 |
Taegu, South Korea
|Political party||Saenuri Party|
|Alma mater||Sogang University|
|Revised Romanization||Bak Geunhye|
Park Geun-hye (박근혜, Korean pronunciation: [pak.k͈ɯnh(j)e]; born 2 February 1952) is the eleventh and current President of South Korea. She is the first woman to be elected as President in South Korea, and is serving the 18th presidential term. She also is the first woman head of state in modern history of Northeast Asia. Prior to her presidency, she was the chairwoman of the conservative Grand National Party (GNP) between 2004 and 2006 and between 2011 and 2012 (the GNP changed its name to "Saenuri Party" in February 2012). Park was also a member of the Korean National Assembly, and had served four consecutive parliamentary terms as a constituency representative between 1998 and 2012; starting her fifth term as a proportional representative from June 2012. Her father was Park Chung-hee, President of South Korea from 1963 to 1979. She is generally considered to be one of the most influential politicians in Korea since the presidencies of the two Kims: Kim Young-sam and Kim Dae-jung.
- 1 Early life and education
- 2 Career
- 3 Presidency
- 3.1 Inauguration
- 3.2 1st year (February 2013 – February 2014)
- 4 Criticism
- 5 Electoral history
- 6 Publications
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Early life and education
Park was born on 2 February 1952, in Samdeok-dong of Jung-gu, Daegu, as the first child of Park Chung-hee, the 3rd president of South Korea who served between 1963 and 1979, and Yuk Young-soo. She has a younger brother, Park Ji-man, and a younger sister, Park Seoyeong. Park has never been married.
In 1953, her family moved to Seoul and she graduated from Seoul's Jangchung Elementary School and Sungshim (literal: Sacred Heart) Girls' Middle & High School in 1970, going on to receive a bachelor's degree in electronic engineering from Sogang University in 1974. She briefly studied at the University of Grenoble, but left France following the assassination of her mother.
Park's mother was assassinated in the National Theater of Korea, Seoul, by Mun Se-gwang, a Japanese-born North Korean assassin, and a member of the General Association of Korean Residents in Japan, under the direction of the North Korean government on 15 August 1974. Park was regarded as first lady until 1979 when her father was also assassinated–by his own intelligence chief, Kim Jae-gyu, in co-operation with the CIA on 26 October 1979. During this time, activists who were political opponents of her father, claimed to be subject to arbitrary detention. Further, human rights were considered subordinate to economic development. In 2007 Park expressed regret at the treatment of activists during this period.
Park was elected a Grand National Party (GNP) assemblywoman for Dalseong, Daegu, in 1998 by-election, and three more times in the same electoral district between 1998 and 2008, being the incumbent assemblywoman till April 2012. In 2012, Park announced that she would not run for a constituency representative seat for the 19th election in Dalseong or anywhere else, but for a proportional representative position for the Saenuri Party instead, in order to lead the party's election campaign. She was elected as a proportional representative in the April 2012 election.
GNP chairwoman and "Queen of Elections"
Due to the failed attempt to impeach President Roh Moo-hyun, and the bribery scandal of its 2002 presidential candidate, Lee Hoi-chang (revealed in 2004), the GNP was facing a severe defeat in the 2004 general election. Park was appointed as the chairwoman of the party and led the election efforts. In the election, the GNP lost its majority position, but managed to gain 121 seats, which is largely considered a great achievement under such inhospitable circumstances for the party. As the chairwoman of the GNP, Park helped her party make significant gains in local elections and actually obtain a majority in 2006.
During the campaign on 20 May 2006, Ji Chung-ho, a 50-year-old criminal with eight previous convictions, slashed Park's face with a utility knife, causing an 11-centimeter wound on her face, requiring 60 stitches and several hours of surgery. A famous anecdote from this incident occurred when Park was hospitalized after the attack. The first word that she said to her secretary after her recovery from her wound was "How is Daejeon?" After this, the candidate from the Grand National Party won the election for mayor of the city of Daejeon despite having trailed by more than 20 percentage points in opinion polls up to the point of the attack. In addition, during Park's term as the GNP chairwoman between 2004 and 2006, the party won all 40 reelections and by-elections held, which was largely credited to Park's influence and efforts. This feat gave Park a nickname "Queen of Elections".
On 12 February 2007, Park made a much-publicized visit to Harvard University, in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States. Her visit culminated in an address to a packed audience at the Kennedy School of Government, where she said she wanted to "save" Korea and advocated a stronger relationship between South Korea and the United States.
2007 Presidential bid
Park hoped to emulate her father's success by becoming the presidential nominee of the Grand National Party. She eventually lost to Lee Myung-bak by a narrow margin. Lee had a commanding lead at the beginning of the primary season, but Park was able to narrow the gap through allegations of Lee's corruption. Park won the "party member's bid", but she lost the "national bid" which is a larger percentage of the total presidential bid.
2008 general election
After the 2007 presidential election, President Lee Myung-bak formed a government of mostly close supporters. Park's supporters argued that this was a kind of political reprisal, and that they should secede from the Grand National Party. Eventually, they formed parties named Pro-Park Coalition and Solidarity for Pro-Park Independents (친박 무소속 연대; Chin Park Musosok Yeondae). Park herself did not join them, but indirectly supported them by announcing "I hope these people to come back alive". After the mass secession, the rebels announced that they would rejoin GNP after the general election, but the GNP prohibited it. In the following 2008 general election, the rebels won 26 seats: 14 from the Pro-Park Coalition and 12 as independents. Together, they played a pivotal role in the GNP's narrow majority. Park continually insisted that GNP should allow the return of her supporters. As of 2011, most of these rebels had returned to the GNP, resulting in approximately 50 to 60 assembly members who support Park out of 171 in the GNP.
Head of Saenuri Party
As a response to the dwindling approval rating of the GNP, the party formed an emergency committee and changed the name of the political party from the Grand National Party to the Saenuri Party, meaning "New Frontier" Party. On 19 December 2011, Park was appointed as the chairwoman of GNP's Emergency Committee, the de facto leader of the party.
2012 parliamentary election
The Saenuri Party achieved a surprise win against the opposing Democratic United Party in the 2012 General Election, winning 152 seats and retaining its majority position. Because of the corruption scandals of the Lee administration revealed before the election, the Saenuri Party was widely expected to win no more than 100 seats. During the 13-day campaign period, Park traveled about 7200 km around South Korea, visiting more than 100 constituencies. It is the consensus of Korean news media and political experts that the most important factor which led to Saenuri Party's victory was Park's leadership. For this reason, the 2012 election was often dubbed the "return of the Queen of Election". Saenuri's defeat in the populous Seoul metropolitan area in this election, however, revealed the limitation of Park's political influence.
2012 presidential campaign
Park had been the leading candidate for the 2012 presidential election in every national-level poll in South Korea between 2008, when the Lee Myung-bak administration began, and September 2011, with an approval rating of 25% to 45%, more than twice that of the second candidate. Park's approval rating was highest when the 2008 National Assembly election showed her strong influence and lowest in early 2010 as a result of her political stance against the Lee administration in Sejong City issue. In September 2011, Ahn Cheol-soo, a former venture IT businessman and the Dean of Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology at Seoul National University, emerged as a strong independent candidate for the presidency. In national-level presidential polls in September 2011, Ahn and Park Geun Hye closely competed for the status of front-runner, with Park losing the top seat in some polls for the first time since 2008.
After her victory in the 2012 General Election, Park's approval rating increased significantly. In a national-level survey by Mono Research on 30 August Park was the top presidential candidate with an approval rating of 45.5% when competing with all potential candidates, and according to another recent national survey result, had a higher approval rating (50.6%) than Ahn (43.9%) in a two-way competition with him as of 11 September. On 10 July, Park formally announced her 2012 presidential bid at the Time Square, Yeongdeungpo-gu, Seoul. In this event she emphasized the right to pursue happiness, a democratic economy, and customized welfare services for the Korean people.
The opposing Democratic Party elected Moon Jae-in as its presidential candidate on 17 September. And Ahn announced his presidential bid on 19 September. Although still a leading candidate, in two-way competitions Park had lower approval ratings against Ahn's and against Moon's according to a 22 September national survey. She was elected as the President of the Republic of Korea on 19 December 2012 with the approval of 51.6% of Korean voters.
Her conservative, market-oriented political stance was well reflected in her campaign pledge for 2008 presidential bid to cut taxes, reduce regulation, and establish strong law and order. Since 2009, however, Park started to focus more on welfare issues, advocating customized welfare services to the South Korean people.
Park is well known for her strict, no-compromise adherence to political promises. In 2010, for example, she successfully stopped the Lee administration's attempt to cancel the plan to establish Sejong City, a new national center of administration, arguing the plan was a promise made to people. This conflict between Park and Lee Administration cost her a considerable decrease in her approval rating at the time. In 2012, Park also vowed to construct a new airport in the southeastern region, a 2008 presidential campaign promise made by GNP but cancelled in 2011, despite claims of economic infeasibility of the plan.
The administrative vision of President Park Geun-hye’s new government is "A new era of hope and happiness." The five Administrative Goals of the government are "a jobs-centered creative economy," "tailored employment and welfare," "creativity-oriented education and cultural enrichment," "a safe and united society" and "strong security measures for sustainable peace on the Korean Peninsula." The Park Geun-hye administration plans to create a trustworthy, clean, and capable government through carrying out these goals, related strategies, and tasks.
Park became the 18th president of South Korea on February 25, 2013. At midnight, she took over all presidential authorities including the prerogative of supreme command of South Korea's armed forces from her predecessor Lee Myung-bak. In her inauguration speech at the National Assembly building, Park spoke of her plan to open a new era of hope through "economic prosperity, people's happiness, and cultural enrichment." She particularly expressed her hope that North Korea would give up its nuclear arms and walk on the path of peace and mutual development, and declared that the foundation for a happy era of unification in which all Korean people will be able to enjoy prosperity and freedom and realize their dreams would be built through the Korean Peninsula Trust-building Process. In her inauguration speech, Park presented four guiding principles to realize her administrative vision: economic prosperity, people's happiness, cultural enrichment, and establishment of foundation for peaceful unification. Park's inauguration ceremony was the largest one in Korean history with 70,000 participants. Diplomatic representatives in Korea as well as high-level delegates specially sent from 24 countries around the world including Thai Prime Minister Yingluck Shinawatra, U.S. National Security Advisor Thomas Donilon, and former Japanese Prime Minister Yasuo Fukuda also participated in the event to congratulate Park.
1st year (February 2013 – February 2014)
The goal of the newly launched Park Geun-hye Administration for governing state affairs is to open "a new era of hope and happiness for all the people". Park avowed that South Korea will break away from its long-pursued development model which centers around the nation, and shift the focus of government administration from the state to individual citizens. Through this process the structure of co-prosperity, in which the citizens become happy and as a result the nation develops, will be created. Park's administrative vision and basic principles for governing the nation are concretely outlined in her policy plans for the eonomy, society, welfare, diplomacy, and unification. The administration's keywords in managing state affairs are "people", "happiness", "trust", "co-prosperity" and "principle".
Government organization restructuring
Right after taking office, Park restructured the Blue House and government organization to carry out her administrative vision. The Office of National Security at the Blue House, Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning, and Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries were newly launched, and the seat of Deputy Prime Minister for Economic Affairs was revived. The Chief of the National Security Office would act as a "control tower" for diplomatic, security, and national defense issues, and the Deputy Prime Minister for Economic Affairs for economic, social, and welfare issues.
United States of America
After taking office, Park met John Kerry and Barack Obama. Park`s trip to the United States was her first foreign trip after taking office.
Like many of her predecessors, Park has maintained a close relationship with the South`s main ally the U.S., which has over 20,000 soldiers stationed there. (See USFK). During her visit to the U.S., she addressed a joint session of Congress, where she called for a united front against North Korean provocations. Park also called for a global relationship between South Korea and the United States.
President Park assesses the security situation on the Korean Peninsula and emphasized that deterrence capabilities were the most important factor for security. Thus, President Park considers the Korea-U.S. alliance as the most successful one in the world. And she hopes the Korea-US relationship can be upgraded from a comprehensive strategic alliance to a global partnership.
Park visited the United States on her first overseas trip as president. She traveled to Washington D.C., New York City, and Los Angeles on May 5–9, 2013.
During summit talks on May at the White House, President Park and Obama adopted a joint declaration for the Korean-U.S. alliance and discussed ways to further develop the bilateral relations in a future-forward manner. Also, two leaders discussed ways to promote cooperation in building peace in the Northeast Asian region and strength the partnership between Seoul and Washington.
The two leaders of R.O.K and U.S. agreed to adopt a joint statement on comprehensive energy cooperation to build a foundation for a future growth engine and establish a policy cooperation committee on information and communication technology. In addition, President Park urged her U.S. counterpart to expand the annual U.S. visa quota for South Korean professionals in order to promote co-development of both economics.
In particular, the "Joint declaration in commemoration of the 60th anniversary of the Alliance between the Republic of Korea and the United States of America" adopted by Korea and the U.S. will become a meaningful document looking back at the past six decades of the alliance and spelling out a new direction for the development of lilateral relations over the coming decade
North Korea had engaged in provocations such as violating a UN Security Council resolution and firing a long-range missile on December 12, 2012, just before the December 19 presidential election. After Park was elected, the regime conducted its third nuclear test February 12, 2013, nullified the non-aggression agreements between the two Koreas March 8, and withdrew North Korean workers from the Kaesong Industrial Complex April 8. Park maintained her stance that South Korea will not succumb to the North's provocations and threats, and will endeavor to elicit policy coordination towards North Korea with major powers such as the US, China and the UN. Her response to North Korean issues gained the support of many South Koreans and also the US, China, and Russia, and played a significant role in the unanimous adoption by the UN Security Council of Resolution 2094 regarding North Korea on March 7, 2013. Due to Park's response and the international community's actions, on June 6 North Korea ceased provocations and threats towards the South and suggested holding discussions on reopening the Kaesong Industrial Complex . Park said that peace and unification on the Korean peninsula is the wish of all 70 million Koreans and that as president she will do her utmost to meet such a goal. And the ultimate objective of reunifications is to improve the quality of lives of people in South and North Korea, to further expand freedom and human rights, and thereby build a happy Korean Peninsula. To open a new era of peace and hope on the peninsula, North Korea needs to accept her administration's trust building policy initiative. Park's policy vision and initiative on issues concerning North Korea and unification are reflected in her Korean peninsula Trust-building Process. The ministry of Unification has announced a new vision statement "realizing a new unified Korea that ensures everyone's happiness." The administrative tasks for this cause include normalizing inter-Korean relations through a trust-building process, embarking on small-scale unification projects that will lead to a complete integration of the two Koreas, and taking practical measures to prepare for unification by strengthening unification capabilities. According to Park, peaceful unification will be achieved in three stage unification initiative: starting from securing peace, going through economic integration, and finally reaching political integration. To achieve sustainable peace by the initiative, the new administration will offer humanitarian assistance for the people in North Korea, inter-Korean exchange and cooperation in economic, social and cultural areas, and will apply 'Vision Korea project' for establishing a single economic community in the Korean peninsula which is conditioned on sufficient mutual trust and progress in denuclearizing North Korea.
On June 27–30, 2013, Park visited China with the South Korean delegation, where she met with Xi Jinping, president of China. During the meetings, Park explained the government' s stance on North Korea and gained his support.
On November 13, 2013, Park held an extended summit with President Vladimir Putin, whose visit to South Korea was the first among leaders of 4 major powers including US, China, and Japan. During the summit, Park and Putin had a comprehensive and productive dialogue with focus on improving economic relations such as logistics cooperation projects(through Russia and North Korea), expanding people-to-people exchanges, and strengthening political ties between South Korea and Russia. Park, especially, emphasized on making preparations to produce an outcome that corresponds to common interests by combining Korea's Eurasian Initiative and Russia's Asia-Pacific Policy. After the summit, both presidents issued a joint communique and held a joint press conference.   Earlier, Park attended the G-20 Summit at St. Petersburg on September 2013, where she met Putin for a separate dialogue discussing economic cooperation and seeking support on North Korean issues. It marked the first Korea-Russia summit talk since Park's inauguration. When Park met with Russian Minister for the Development of Russian Far East Viktor Ishaev, who headed the Russian delegation to Park's inaugural ceremony, she stated that Russia is one of Korea's key strategic partners, and the successful launch of the Naro rocket is the outcome of mutually beneficial relations and demonstrates that relations will grow stronger in the future. She also noted that Russia's active participation in the six-party talks will contribute to alleviating tension on the Korean Peninsula. (February 27, 2013 Rossiyskaya Gazeta)
Park announced her plan to build a "Creative Economy" on June 5, 2013, representing her vision for economic revival and job creation.
In April, Park said "Timing is very important for our Economic Policy, jobs and livelihood mainly ordinary people should organize a supplementary budget in a timely manner."
Park Geun-hye has proposed as one of the national agenda the eradication of “Four Major Social Evils” (4대 사회악) – sexual violence, domestic violence, school violence and unsafe food. Statistics show that sexual violence and Domestic violence are increasing in these years. Without referring to statistical data, aggravating school violence or food safety is a public concern in Korea. She also launched the National Unity Committee on June 17 with the purpose to advise the president in the process of resolving various conflicts in the Korean society and establishing a culture of co-existence and co-prosperity. Former Democratic United Party Advisor Han Kwang -ok was named as the head.
Public support for Park's method of governing state affairs reached up to 63%, much higher than the percentage of the votes she had won in the presidential election, which is 51.6%. The Korean media explained that such a high level of support comes from Park's principled North Korea policy, constructive outcome from visits to the US and China, and distancing away from internal political disputes.
Park had been often criticized for being the "daughter of a dictator Park Chung-hee" and for not actively supporting the Lee administration by supporters of Lee Myung-bak. A national-level poll conducted in July 2012 by a conservative newspaper reported that 59.2% of participants responded they did not believe Park was a "daughter of a dictator" while 35.5% agreed with the characterization.
During a recent interview with the Cheongju broadcast station CJB, Park commented regarding her stance that her father's May 16 coup was a “revolution to save the country” by stating, “I don’t think it’s the place of politicians to be fighting over whether [the events of 1961] were a ‘coup d’etat’ or a ‘revolution’”. In a July 2012 survey, 49.9% of respondents answered that they disagreed with Park's assessment that her father’s 1961 coup was “unavoidable, the best possible choice, and an advisable decision,” as opposed to 37.2% that agreed.
Bu-il foundation accusations
Park has faced much scrutiny over an educational foundation, Jeongsoo Scholarship Foundation, formerly known as Buil (in reference to the stock it controls in the newspaper "Busan Ilbo"), which her father, and later, she headed. Its original owners claimed in court they were forced to turn it over to her father.
A Saenuri Party assemblyman Nam Gyeong-pil criticized the Park-centered nature of the party, regarding its preparation for the 2012 presidential election, and stated, “If we keep seeing the same situation where Park Geun-hye gives a press conference before a general meeting of lawmakers is held, and what she says then gets decided on as the party’s position, then the public is going to think democracy has disappeared from the party”.
Furthermore, some have said Park’s behavior in the lead-up to 2012 presidential election was a mixture of trend-following and corner-cutting—a stark contrast with the vehement insistence on principle that she showed when she opposed a revision of the plan for a multifunctional administrative city in Sejong City. For instance, Yim Tae-hee, another presidential candidate of the party, pointed to Park's voting down of a motion to arrest Chung Doo-un, a law maker implicated with bribery related to saving banks. Another candidate, Ahn Sang-soo, accused Park of “saying one thing yesterday and another today.”
Park fired Yoon Chang-jung, a Blue House spokesman who was alleged by Washington police as committing sexual assault against a young woman hired as an intern at the South Korean Embassy in Washington during President Park's first visit to the United States. Park has been criticized for picking the wrong people for senior government posts.
Just a week before the presidential election date, the opposing party has alleged that the public servants from National Intelligence Service (NIS) have organized to promote Park's election campaign by way of posting articles favorable to Park and slanderous to the opposing candidates online. This political behavior by public servants is strictly prohibited by Korean Constitution. To prove their allegation, the opposing Democratic Party, along with the police and Central Election Assistance Commission, swooped in the house where the alleged agent of NIS has resided. From there, the 29-year-old female agent, later known as Ha-Young Kim, who was running an illegal online election campaign operation such as spreading slanderous postings about the opposing candidate had locked herself in. The police could not force to enter the house and the standoff lasted for three days, which provoked a tense political standoff. The opposition accused the intelligence service of blocking an investigation. Park and her party accused the opposition of harassing the woman. Park even said the standoff of the self lock-in was a violation against a female right in the presidential candidate debate which took place three days before the election.
Later that night of the presidential debate, Kim Yong-pan, then the chief of Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency, publicly announced there was no evidence of illegal online postings from the collected laptop of the female agent. This announcement, which took place three days before the election, was believed to have significantly affected the outcome of the presidential election according to the opposing party. After months of probe into the alleged election meddling, the prosecution concluded in mid-June 2013 that Won Sei-hoon, then NIS chief who headed the intelligence agency for around four years under former President Lee Myung-bak, ordered agents to conduct online smear campaign against opposition presidential candidates. The special investigation drew a conclusion that the agents systemically intervened in domestic politics by writing thousands of postings on politics in cyberspace through hundreds of different user IDs. Kim Yong-pan, then chief of the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency (SMPA), was prosecuted without physical detention on charges of abusing his authority to hamper police investigation into the case. CCTV conversation between the computer analysts who was analyzing the laptop at police revealed that the police already knew there were illegal online postings against the opposing party's candidates, but the chief of SMPA publicly announced otherwise, which indicates intentional meddling into the presidential election.
The investigation and the trial at court is on-going, and Park faces a political blow. However, the leading Saenuri party along with government leaders has attempted to dodge its political fall-out. Their effort has involved tipping a rumor to a major conservative media, Chosun Ilbo, about extramarital child of the Chae Dong-wook, former Prosecutor General, who has approved the prosecution of Won Se-hoon and Kim Yong-pan, which eventually led to his resignation. Yoon Suk-ryul, the director of special investigation team, which was leading the probe into the election meddling, was fired and returned to his original position, head of Yeoju branch Supreme Prosecutor`s Office. The investigation of his team has further revealed that the NIS is suspected of having posted 55,689 messages on Twitter for three months until the presidential election.
Whether or not the election meddling of the NIS by way of online postings or twitters has actually affected the outcome of the presidential election is controversial. However, the false announcement by Kim Yong-pan, then chief of the SMPA, has appeared to do so. Had the police announced honestly, 13.8% of the electorate who voted for Park has answered they would have voted for Moon Jae-In, the first runner-up of the election.
National Assembly races (1998 to present)
|15th National Assembly of the Republic of Korea elections, 1998 by-election, Dalseong, Daegu |
|Grand National||Park Geun-hye||28,937||51.5%|
|Grand National hold|
|16th National Assembly of the Republic of Korea elections, 2000, Dalseong, Daegu |
|Grand National||Park Geun-hye||37,805||61.4%|
|Grand National hold|
|17th National Assembly of the Republic of Korea elections, 2004, Dalseong, Daegu|
|Grand National||Park Geun-hye||45,298||70.0%|
|Democratic Labor||Heo Gyeong-do||4,367||6.6%|
|Grand National hold|
|18th National Assembly of the Republic of Korea elections, 2008, Dalseong, Daegu|
|Grand National||Park Geun-hye||50,149||88.57%|
|Democratic Labor||No Yun-jo||5,080||8.97%|
|Grand National hold|
|19th National Assembly of the Republic of Korea elections, 2012, Proportional Representative|
|Park Geun-hye||Saenuri Party||15,773,128||51.55|
|Moon Jae-in||Democratic United Party||14,692,632||48.02|
|Source: National Election Commission|
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- Sung Yeon-chul(성연철) (12 April 2012). "‘선거의 여왕’ 화려한 귀환…수도권·젊은층에선 한계" [Return of Queen of election. Park also showed her limit among capital area voters and the youth]. The Hankyoreh (in Korean). Retrieved 16 May 2012.
- Kim Jeong-ha(김정하); Hur Jin(허진); Sohn Guk-hee(손국희) (14 April 2012). "'청바지 유세' 고개 흔들던 박근혜, 30분 뒤" [Park Geun-hye shook head for wearing jeans, but after 30 minutes changed her mind]. JoongAng Ilbo (in Korean). Retrieved 16 May 2012.
- Kim Sung-gon(김성곤) (15 December 2011). "'여왕의 화려한 귀환' 박근혜가 돌아왔다" [Return of Queen of election, Park Geun-hye returned as GNP leader]. Edaily News (in Korean). Retrieved 16 May 2012.
- Kim Hwa-young(김화영) (8 September 2011). "박근혜 대세론 `휘청'..스타일 변화 모색" [Park Geun-hye's top candidate position is challenged. needs to change her style]. Yonhap News (in Korean). Retrieved 16 May 2012. "Faced with rising Ahn Cheol-soo's approval rate, Park Geun-hye's leadership is in question. Sending messages wouldn't be enough, and she must increase her appearance in public. Park will try to tackle the center. [安風에 대세론 제동 걸려..정치적 시험대 올라. `메시지 정치'서 `현장정치'로..중도층 공략 본격화 예상]"
- 박근혜 컨벤션 효과…안철수 지지율도 동반상승 in 2012, (Korean)
-  2012 survey by Realmeter"
-  2012 Donga Ilbo Article
-  2012 survey by Realmeter"
-  2012 Hankook Ilbo article
-  2012 MK News article
-  2010 Nanum News article
-  2012 Maeil Sinmoon article
-  2013 Gateway to Korea
- News1 Korea: President's Inaugural Address(Korean)
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- "The zeitgeist: Rooting out social vices". JoongAng Ilbo. May 24, 2013. archived at http://archive.is/IJ3KH
- "4대 사회악 근절 위한 추진본부 발족시킬 것" [Four Major Social Evils promotion headquarter will be established] (in Korean). The Hankyoreh. 2013-03-14. archived at http://archive.is/JMILo
- Kang Jin-kyu (2013-05-20). "Park attends memorial of Gwangju massacre". Joongang Daily. Retrieved 2013-05-20.
- Chang Jin-bok(장진복) (24 March 2011). "이해찬 "野 총선승리 시 박근혜 별명은 '독재자의 딸'"" [Lee Hae-chan, "If the oppositions win the legislative election, Park Geun-hye's nickname will change (from Queen of election) to daughter of a dictator"]. NewsIs (in Korean). Retrieved 16 May 2012.
- Ko Dong-seok(고동석) (10 January 2011). "손학규 "누가 뭐래도 박근혜는 박정희의 딸"" [Sohn Hak-kyu, "No one can deny Park Geun-hye is the daughter of dictator Park Jeonghui"]. News Hankook (in Korean). Retrieved 16 May 2012.
- (Korean) 2012 Donga Ilbo article
- "Was it a ‘coup’ or a ‘revolution’?". The Hankyoreh. 9 August 2012. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
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- CHOE, SANG-HUN (May 10, 2013). "South Korean President Fires Spokesman for ‘Unsavory Act’ During Visit to U.S.". New York Times. Retrieved May 10, 2013.
- Lee, Chi-dong (2013-05-10). "(4th LD) Park sacks spokesman Yoon amid sexual assault allegations". Yonhap News Agency. Retrieved May 10, 2013.
- "Constitution of the Republic of Korea".
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- "News Analysis: SKorea rattled by spy agency's political interference".
- "Prosecutor general calls it quits".
- "Prosecutors are swayed by internal conflict and external pressure".
- "국정원 경찰수사발표가 대선 결과 영향 52.8%".
- An Jaeseung(안재승); Choe Ikrim(최익림); Hong Dae-sun(홍대선); Sin Seung-geun(신승근) (3 April 1998). "한나라 재보선 4곳 석권" [GNP won all four seats of by-election]. The Han-gyeo-re (in Korean). Retrieved 16 May 2012. "대구 달성에선 이날 자정 현재 82%개표 상황에서 박근혜 후보가 2만8937표(51.5%)를 얻어 1만 6355표(29.1%)를 얻은 엄삼탁 국민회의 후보를 크게 앞지르며 당선됐다. [In Dalseong Daegu, 82% votes were counted by 12 am. And Park Geun-hye got 28,937(51.5%) votes, compared to 16,355 (29.1%) votes for Eom Samtak of Democratic Party. Park has been elected by wide margin."
- "중앙선거관리위원회, 역대 선거정보 시스템" [NEC, past election result]. Retrieved 16 May 2012.[dead link]
- "중앙선거관리위원회, 18대 국회의원 선거관리 시스템" [National Election Committee, 18th legislative election information]. Retrieved 16 May 2012.
- "Voting figures for proportional representation by parties (in Korean)". National Election Commission. Retrieved 16 May 2012.
- "새누리당 비례대표 당선자 박근혜" [Saenuri Proportional Representation-elect, Park Geun-hye]. Yonhap News (in Korean). 12 April 2012. Retrieved 16 May 2012.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Park Geun-hye.|
- Website of the president of ROK
- Park Geun-hye addresses "U.S.–Korea Relations in a Changing World" at Stanford University, 6 May 2009
- Park Geun-hye's speech at the JFK Jr. Forum, Harvard University, 12 February 2007
- "Star Rises for Daughter of South Korea", The Washington Post, 15 March 2005.
|National Assembly of South Korea|
|Member of the National Assembly
|First Lady of South Korea
|Party political offices|
|Leader of the Grand National Party
as Leader of the Grand National Party
|Leader of the Saenuri Party
|President of South Korea