Parliament of the Bahamas
|Parliament of the Commonwealth of the Bahamas|
|13th Bahamian Parliament|
House of Assembly
|Founded||September 29, 1729|
Since 6 February 1952
|Governor-General||Sir Arthur Foulkes
Since 14 April 2010
|President of the Senate||Sharon Wilson, PLP
Since 23 May 2012
|Speaker||Dr Kendal Major, PLP
Since 23 May 2012
|Senate's political groups||
|House political groups||
|Senate's voting system||none|
|House voting system||First Past the Post|
|Senate's last election||The entirety of the Senate is appointed. It is formed based on the composition of the House of Assembly.|
|House last election||7 May, 2012|
|Bahamian Parliament, Nassau, The Bahamas|
The Parliament of The Bahamas is the bicameral national parliament of Commonwealth of The Bahamas. The parliament is formally made up by the Queen (represented by the Governor-General), an appointed Senate, and an elected House of Assembly. It currently sits at Nassau, the national capital.
The structure, functions, and procedures of the parliament are based on the Westminster system.
Originally inhabited by the Lucayans, a branch of the Arawakan-speaking Taino people, the Bahamas were the site of Columbus' first landfall in the New World in 1492. Although the Spanish never colonized the Bahamas, they shipped the native Lucayans to slavery in Hispaniola. The islands were mostly deserted from 1513 until 1648, when English colonists from Bermuda settled on the island of Eleuthera.
In 1670 King Charles II granted the islands to the Lords Proprietors of the Carolinas, who rented the islands from the king with rights of trading, tax, appointing governors, and administering the country. The Bahamas became a British crown colony in 1718, when the British clamped down on piracy.
The first meeting of a legislative body for the Bahamas took place on 29 September 1729, when twenty-four members representing the islands of New Providence, Eleuthera, and Harbour Island gathered together as the General Assembly.
Bahamians achieved self-government in 1964 and full independence within the Commonwealth of Nations on July 10, 1973, retaining Queen Elizabeth II as monarch. The Parliament as presently constituted was established by Chapter 5 of the Constitution of The Bahamas, which came into effect upon the country's independence from the United Kingdom.
House of Assembly
The House of Assembly is the lower chamber. It consists of 38 members (known as Members of Parliament), elected from individual constituencies for five-year terms. As under the Westminster system, the government may dissolve the parliament and call elections at any time. The House of Assembly performs all major legislative functions. The Prime Minister is the leader of the party controlling the majority of the House of Assembly seats. The speaker of the House of Assembly is currently Dr. Kendal Major.
|Progressive Liberal Party||19||29||10||75,815||48.62%|
|Free National Movement||21||9||12||65,633||42.09%|
|Democratic National Alliance||1||0||1||13,225||8.48%|
|Bahamas Constitution Party||0||0||0||96||0.06%|
The Senate (upper house) consists of 16 members (known as Senators) appointed by the Governor-General. Nine of these senators are selected on the advice of the Prime Minister, four on the advice of the Leader of the Opposition, and three on the advice of the Prime Minister after consultation with the Leader of the Opposition. The Senate is authorised by the Constitution to pass Bills in the same manner as passed by the House or it can make such amendments to the Bill should it consider it necessary. Those amendments will then have to be approved by the House of Assembly. The Senate may even reject a Bill outrightly that had been passed by the House. However, if the House passes the Bill in two successive sessions, and the Senate rejects the Bill each time, the House of Assembly may send the Bill directly to the Governor-General without the Senate having consented to the Bill.
If the House passes a Money Bill and sends that Bill to the Senate for its consent, and if the Senate does not give its consent within a month after receiving the Bill, the money bill is sent to the Governor-General for assent even though the Senate had not consented to it 
In a historic vote, attorney The Hon. Sharon Wilson was unanimously elected to a second term as President of the Senate, marking the first time a woman won re-election to head that legislative body. She previous served as President of the Senate from 2002-2007, and succeeded The Hon. Lynn Holowesko who served as President of the Senate from 2007-2012.
Parliament is empowered by Article 52(l) of the Constitution to make laws for the peace, order and good government of The Bahamas. The Constitution also empowers Parliament to:
- determine the privileges, immunities, powers, and procedures of both the Senate and the House of Assembly;
- alter or amend any of the provisions of the constitution;
- prescribe the officers who are to constitute the personal staff of the Governor-General;
- prescribe the number of Justices of the Supreme Court and Court of Appeal; and
- approve the Government's budget.
Parliament also maintains oversight of the Government's finances through the Public Accounts Committee. Parliament is also the forum where public policy and matters of national importance are debated.
Most of the laws passed by Parliament are for the modification or amendment of existing laws.
Article 52(2) of the Constitution empowers Parliament to make laws by the passing of a bill (proposed law). Most bills are introduced into Parliament by a Government minister, but in principle any parliamentarian may introduce a bill. A bill must be passed by both the House of Assembly and Senate, and then must be formally assented to by the Governor-General, before it becomes law.
There are currently four main classifications of Bills: public, money, private member, and private bills.
- A bill is formally introduced into Parliament at the first reading; this stage is generally a formality, with the bill's long title being read out and the presiding officer placing the motion without debate. After the first reading, the Speaker orders the bill to be printed; it is then numbered, circulated to members of Parliament, and made available to the public.
- At the second reading, the principle of the bill is debated.
- At the committal stage, the entire House of Assembly sits as a Committee of the Whole House, with the Speaker leaving the chair and the Deputy Speaker presiding as Chairperson. During this stage the bill is examined clause by clause, with detailed amendments considered. After the bill has been dealt with in Committee, the Chairperson formally reports to the Speaker the outcome of the Committee's deliberations, including what amendments have been made.
- The third reading is the final stage; the motion made by the Speaker for the third reading is usually agreed to without debate. Once a bill has had its third reading, the Speaker orders the bill passed, and instructs the Chief Clerk to take the bill to the Senate for its consideration.
Each Bill consists of five main parts: the long title, the short title, the interpretation clause, the main body of the Bill and the objects and reasons. The long title is a description of the nature of the Bill and covers the intent of the Bill. The Short title follows the long title and labels the Bill for identification purposes. The short title sometimes also, contains the commencement clause, which states when the Bill will have legal force. The short title in turn is followed by the interpretation clause, which defines certain words and phrases used in the Bill. The body of the Bill consists of all of the other clauses, which contain the provisions of the Bill, that is, they contain all of the measures that the Bill is enacting. The objects and reasons is the final part of a Bill and it seeks to explain in layman’s terms the purpose of the Bill and the reason why it is necessary.
- List of members of the House of Assembly of the Bahamas, 2002–2007
- List of members of the House of Assembly of the Bahamas, 2007–2012
- List of current members of the House of Assembly of the Bahamas
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Parliament of the Bahamas.|
- List of Presidents of the Senate of the Bahamas
- List of Speakers of the House of Assembly of the Bahamas
- List of legislatures by country
- The Constitution of the Commonwealth of the Bahamas, The Government of the Bahamas, accessed 15 March 2013.
- "Diocesan History". © Copyright 2009 Anglican Communications Department. 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-07.
- "Restrictions on the Power of the Senate". Government of the Bahamas.
- "Functions of Parliament". Government of the Bahamas.
- "About the Parliament". The Government of The Bahamas. Retrieved 1 September 2011.