Parliament of the World's Religions

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Chicago Meeting, 1893

There have been several meetings referred to as a Parliament of the World's Religions, the first being the World's Parliament of Religions of 1893, which was an attempt to create a global dialogue of faiths. The event was celebrated by another conference on its centenary in 1993. This led to a new series of conferences under the official title "Parliament of the World's Religions".

1893 Parliament[edit]

In 1893, the city of Chicago hosted the World Columbian Exposition, an early world's fair. So many people were coming to Chicago from all over the world that many smaller conferences, called Congresses and Parliaments, were scheduled to take advantage of this unprecedented gathering. A number of congresses were held in conjunction with the exposition, including those dealing with anthropology (one of the major themes of Exposition exhibits), labor, medicine, temperance, commerce and finance, literature, history, art, philosophy, and science. One of these was the World's Parliament of Religions. The Parliament of Religions was by far the largest of the congresses held in conjunction with the Exposition.[1] Rev. Dr. John Henry Barrows, a clergyman, was the first Chairman of the General Committee on '1893 World's Parliament of Religions'. John Henry Barrows was appointed as chairman by Charles Carroll Bonney to administer General Committee.[2]

The 1893 Parliament, which ran from 11 to 27 September, had marked the first formal gathering of representatives of Eastern and Western spiritual traditions. Today it is recognized as the occasion of the birth of formal interreligious dialogue worldwide.

Absent from this event were Native American religious figures, Sikhs and other Indigenous and Earth centered religionists. (It would not be until the 1993 Parliament that these religions and spiritual traditions would be represented.) The conference did include new religious movements of the time, such as Spiritualism and Christian Science. The latter was represented by Septimus J. Hanna, who read an address written by its founder Mary Baker Eddy.[3] Rev. Henry Jessup addressing the World Parliament of Religions was the first to mention the Bahá'í Faith in the United States (it had previously been known in Europe[4]). Since then Bahá'ís have become active participants.[5]

The Parliament of Religions opened on 11 September 1893 at the World's Congress Auxiliary Building which is now The Art Institute of Chicago.

Islam was represented by Mohammed Alexander Russell Webb an Anglo-American convert to Islam.

Soyen Shaku, the "First American Ancestor" of Zen, made the trip.[6]

In 1893, the Buddhist preacher Anagarika Dharmapala was invited there as a representative of "Southern Buddhism" – which was the term applied at that time to the Theravada. He was a great success and by his early thirties he was already a global figure, continuing to travel and give lectures and establish viharas around the world during the next forty years. An essay by the Japanese Pure Land master Kiyozawa Manshi, "Skeleton of the philosophy of religion" was read in his absence. The Jain preacher Virchand Gandhi was invited there as representative of Jainism and his defending speech was admired. And Dharampala and Virchand Gandhi captivated western public.[7]

Swami Vivekananda (12 January 1863 – 4 July 1902), a wandering Hindu monk (Parivrâjaka) represented India as a delegate. He is perhaps best known for his inspiring speech beginning with "Sisters and Brothers of America,"[8] through which he introduced Hinduism at the opening session of the Parliament on 11 September. Thereafter he conducted hundreds of public and private lectures and classes, disseminating tenets of Hindu philosophy in America, England and Europe. In America Vivekananda became India's spiritual ambassador. His mission there was the interpretation of India's spiritual culture and heritage. He also tried to enrich the religious consciousness of Americans through the teachings of the Vedanta philosophy. He established the Vedanta societies in America and England. He was a key figure in the introduction of Indian philosophies of Vedanta and Yoga to the western world and was credited with raising interfaith awareness, bringing Hinduism to the status of a major world religion in the late 19th century.[9] After a comprehensive tour of four years in the West he returned to India in 1897. Later he became a major force in the revival of Hinduism in India and contributed to the notion of nationalism in colonial India.[10] In Swami Vivekananda's own words, he was "condensed India". William James, the Harvard philosopher, called Vivekananda the "paragon of Vedantists". Nobel Laureate Rabindranath Tagore's suggestion (to Nobel Laureate Romain Rolland) was– "If you want to know India, study Vivekananda. In him everything is positive and nothing negative."[11]

Swami Vivekananda on the platform of the Parliament of Religions September 1893. On the platform (left to right) Virchand Gandhi, Dharmapala, Swami Vivekananda[12]

1930s[edit]

From March to May 1930, Kyoto, Japan hosted a Great Religious Exposition (宗教大博覧会 Shūkyō Dai-hakurankai?). Religious groups from across Japan and China exhibited at the fair.[13]

In 1932 the first Sarva Dharma Sammelan was held in India.

1993 Parliament[edit]

In 1993, the Parliament convened at the Palmer House hotel in Chicago. Over 8,000 people from all over the world, from many diverse religions, gathered to celebrate, discuss and explore how religious traditions can work together on the critical issues which confront the world. Dr. Gerald Barney of the Millennium Institute gave the keynote address on the state of the environment. This keynote and the introduction of the document, Towards a Global Ethic: An Initial Declaration, mainly drafted by Hans Küng, set the tone for the subsequent ten days of discussion. This global ethic was endorsed by many of the attending religious and spiritual leaders who were part of the Parliament Assembly.

External video
opening Ceremony 1993

Also created for the 1993 Parliament was a book, A Sourcebook for the Community of Religions by the late Joel Beversluis which has become a standard textbook in religion classes. Unlike most textbooks of religion each entry was written by members of the religion in question. The text of the revised Sourcebook is available online at Sourcebook Common.

The keynote address was given by the Dalai Lama on the closing day of the assembly. Cardinal Joseph Bernardin also participated.

1999 Parliament[edit]

More than 7,000 individuals from over 80 countries attended 1999 Parliament in Cape Town, South Africa. The Parliament began with a showing of the International AIDS Quilt to highlight the epidemic of AIDS in South Africa, and of the role that religious and spiritual traditions play in facing the critical issues that face the world. The event continued with hundreds of panels, symposia and workshops, offerings of prayer and meditation, plenaries and performances. The programs emphasized issues of religious, spiritual, and cultural identity, approaches to interreligious dialogue, and the role of religion in response to the critical issues facing the world today.

The Parliament Assembly considered a document called A Call to Our Guiding Institutions, addressed to religion, government, business, education, and media inviting these institutions to reflect on and transform their roles at the threshold of the next century.

In addition to the Call, the Parliament staff had created a book, Gifts of Service to the World, showcasing over 300 projects considered to be making a difference in the world. The Assembly members also deliberated about Gifts of Service which they could offer or could pledge to support among those projects gathered in the Gifts document.

2004 Parliament[edit]

It was celebrated in the Universal Forum of Cultures.[14] More than 8,900 individuals attended the 2004 Parliament in Barcelona, Spain. Having created the declaration Towards a Global Ethic[15] at the 1993 Parliament and attempted to engage guiding institutions at the 1999 Parliament, the 2004 Parliament concentrated on four pressing issues: mitigating religiously motivated violence, access to safe water, the fate of refugees worldwide, and the elimination of external debt in developing countries. Those attending were asked to make a commitment to a "simple and profound act" to work on one of these issues.

opening Ceremony 2004

2007 Monterrey Forum of Cultures[edit]

Forum Monterrey 2007 was an international event which included Parliament-style events and dialogues.[16] It was held as part of the 2007 Universal Forum of Cultures, which featured international congresses, dialogues, exhibitions, and spectacles on the themes of peace, diversity, sustainability and knowledge. Special emphasis was placed on the eight objectives of Millennium Development goals for eradicating abject poverty around the world.

2009 Parliament[edit]

Melbourne, Australia hosted the 2009 Parliament of the World's Religions.[17] The 2009 Parliament took place 3 through 9 December. Over 6,000 people attended the Parliament.[18]

The Melbourne Parliament addressed issues of aboriginal reconciliation. The issues of sustainability and global climate change were explored through the lens of indigenous spiritualities. Environmental issues and the spirituality of youth were also be key areas of dialogue.

The Council for a Parliament of the World's Religions suggested that the Melbourne Parliament would "educate participants for global peace and justice" through exploring religious conflict and globalization, creating community and cross-cultural networks and addressing issues of religious violence. It supported "strengthening religious and spiritual communities" by providing a special focus on indigenous and Aboriginal spiritualities; facilitating cooperation between Pagan, Jewish, Christian, Bahá'í, Jain, Muslim, Buddhist, Sikh and Hindu communities; crafting new responses to religious extremism; and confronting homegrown terrorism and violence.[19]

2015 Parliament[edit]

In 2011, The Parliament of World's Religions announced that the 2014 Parliament would take place in Brussels, Belgium.[20] In November 2012, a joint statement from Brussels and CPWR announced that because of the financial crisis in Europe, Brussels was unable to raise the funds required for a Parliament.[21] The Parliament, now led by interim director Dr. Mary Nelson, will still hold the Parliament in 2015, and plans to make an announcement in the Summer of 2013 regarding the location and details of the event.

Criticism[edit]

The Parliament of World's Religions has been criticised by some Christians for denying the exclusivity of Jesus Christ. As far back as 1925, Christian writer G. K. Chesterton portrayed the Parliament as "a pantheon for pantheists" in The Everlasting Man.

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • The World's Congress of Religions – The addresses and papers delivered before the Parliament, and the Abstract of the Congresses, held in Chicago, August 1893 to October 1893, under the Auspices of The World's Columbian Exposition. Chicago, 1894.[22]
  • Rev. J. H. Barrows. The World's Parliament of Religions. Chicago,1893.
  • Rev. J. L. Jones. A Chorus of faith as heard in Parliament of Religions held in Chicago, 10–27 September 1893. Chicago, 1893.
  • Rev. L. P. Mercer. Review of the World's Religions Congresses of the World's Congress Auxiliary of the World's Columbian Exposition. Chicago, 1893.
  • Prof.Walter R.Houghton. Neely's History of the Parliament of Religions and Religious Congresses at the World's Columbian Exposition. Chicago, 1893.
  • Max Muller. Arens, December 1894. Boston.
  • Bonnet Maury. Revue des deux mondes, 15 August 1894.
  • R. Rev. Kean. Catholic family annual, 1893.
  • Rev. J. H. Barrows. "Results of the Parliament of Religions". The Forum, September 1894.
  • G. D. Boardmann. The Parliament of Religions. Philadelphia, 1893.
  • M. Zmigrodsky. "Kongres Katolicki i Kongres wszech Religij w Chicago 1893 roku". Kraków, 1894.
  • Gen. M. M. Trumbull. "The Parliament of Religions". The Monist, April 1894.
  • Dr. Paul Carus. "The dawn of a new religious Era". The Forum, 1893. The Monist, April 1894.

References[edit]

  1. ^ McRae, John R. (1991). "Oriental Verities on the American Frontier: The 1893 World's Parliament of Religions and the Thought of Masao Abe". Buddhist-Christian Studies (University of Hawai'i Press) 11: 7–36. doi:10.2307/1390252. JSTOR 1390252. 
  2. ^ Michaud, Derek. An Analysis of Culture and Religion People.bu.edu. 14 April 2012.
  3. ^ Peel, Robert (1977). Mary Baker Eddy: The Years of Discovery. New York: Holt, Rineheart and Winston, p. 51.
  4. ^ First Public Mentions of the Bahá'í Faith
  5. ^ Baha'is participate in interfaith parliament
  6. ^ Ford, James Ishmael (2006). Zen Master Who?. Wisdom Publications. pp. 59–62. ISBN 0-86171-509-8. 
  7. ^ Jain, Pankaz; Pankaz Hingarh; Dr. Bipin Doshi and Smt. Priti Shah. "Virchand Gandhi, A Gandhi Before Gandhi". herenow4u. Retrieved 26 March 2014. 
  8. ^ Dutt 2005, p. 121
  9. ^ Clarke 2006, p. 209
  10. ^ Von Dense 1999, p. 191
  11. ^ Nikhilananda 1953, Preface
  12. ^ "Chicago, September, 1893 on the platform". vivekananda.net. Retrieved 11 April 2012. 
  13. ^ 村上重良「評伝出口王仁三郎」1978. p. 183.
  14. ^ 2004 Parliament of the World's Religions
  15. ^ [1]
  16. ^ 2007 Universal Forum of Cultures, Monterrey, Mexico.
  17. ^ [2]
  18. ^ "GUESTVIEW: Faiths meet at Parliament of World Religions". Reuters. 8 December 2009. 
  19. ^ http://www.parliamentofreligions.org/index.cfm?n=8
  20. ^ "Brussels to Host the Parliament". Parliament of the World's Religions. 21 March 2011. 
  21. ^ "Joint Statement About Brussels 2014". 30 November 2012. 
  22. ^ [3]

External links[edit]