Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology
The Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology, (POST) is the Parliament of the United Kingdom's in-house source of independent, balanced and accessible analysis of public policy issues related to science and technology. POST serves both Houses of Parliament (the House of Commons, and the House of Lords), through output that is apolitical and of potential value to Parliamentarians of all parties. Thorough quality-control ensures that MPs and Peers can have confidence in the information should they wish to cite it in debate. These principles are reflected in the structure of POST’s Board with members from the Commons and Lords together with distinguished scientists and engineers from the wider world.
In 2009 POST celebrated its 20th anniversary with a special conference on "Images of the Future". The keynote participants were the Hon. Bart Gordon, Chair of the US House of Representatives' Committee on Science and Technology and Dr Jim Dator of the University of Hawaii Futures Research Centre.
Since 1939, a group of MPs and peers interested in science and technology, through the first parliamentary "All Party Group" - the UK Parliamentary and Scientific Committee had encouraged UK Parliamentarians to explore the implications of scientific developments for society and public policy, but as the UK economy became more dependent on technological progress, and the negative effects of technology (especially on the environment) became more apparent, it was felt that UK Parliament needed its own resources on such issues. Parliamentarians not only required access to knowledge and insights into the implications of technology for their constituents and society, but also needed to exercise their scrutiny functions over legislation and administration. This thinking was also influenced by the fact that specialised parliamentary science and technology organisations already existed overseas.
P&S members (Sir Ian Lloyd MP, Sir Trevor Skeet MP, Sir Gerry Vaughan MP, Lords Kennet, Gregson and Flowers among others) visited already established organisations in the US, Germany and France, and this reinforced their view that modern Parliaments needed their own ‘intelligence’ on science and technology-related issues. Initially they asked the then Thatcher government to fund such services at Westminster but were asked first to demonstrate a real need. This led to the P&S creating a charitable foundation to raise funds from P&S members; the reaction was sufficiently positive to be able to recruit a Director, Professor Michael Norton, on 1 April 1989 and POST was established.
POST began with a modest staff of the Director and a secretary and was supported by fundraising. By 1992, POST was attracting more resources and had recruited 3 specialist science advisers and begun its fellowship programme with the UK research councils. In 1992 the House of Commons Information Committee, later supported by the House of Lords, recommended that Parliament should fund POST for 3 years, and a subsequent review in 1995 extended this for a further 5 years. This was the result of POST demonstrating real interest and demand from MPs and peers. From 1997 the chair of the POST board was appointed by government Whips. Previous chairs have been Dr Ian Gibson MP 1997-2001, Dr Phyllis Starkey MP 2001-2005, and Dr Ashok Kumar MP 2005-2010. In 1998 Professor David Cope took over as Director of POST. In 2001 both Houses decided that POST should be established as a permanent bicameral institution.
Science and Technology in Parliament 
Most parliamentarians do not have a scientific or technological background but science and technology issues are increasingly integral to public policy. Parliamentarians are bombarded daily with lobbying, public enquiries and media stories about science and technology. These cover diverse areas such as medical advances, environmental issues and global communications. POST helps parliamentarians examine such issues effectively. By providing information resources, in depth analysis and impartial advice. POST works closely with a wide range of organisations involved in science and technology, including Select Committees, all-party parliamentary groups, government departments, scientific societies, policy think tanks, business, academia and research funders.
POST's aim 
POST's aim is to inform parliamentary debate through:
- Publishing POSTnotes (short briefing notes) and longer reports. POSTnotes can be downloaded from the publications section of the POST website. Both focus on current science and technology issues and aim to anticipate policy implications for parliamentarians.
- Supporting Select Committees, with informal advice, oral briefings, data analyses, background papers or follow-up research. Committees may approach POST for such advice at any stage in an inquiry.
- Informing both Houses on public dialogue activities in science and technology.
- Organising discussions to stimulate debate on a wide range of topical issues, from small working groups to large lectures.
- Horizon-scanning to anticipate issues of science and technology that are likely to impact on policy
How POST works 
A parliamentary Board guides POST's choice of subjects. A team of advisers conduct analyses, drawing on a wide range of external expertise. All reports and POSTnotes are externally peer reviewed, and scrutinised by the Board before publication.
POST's work falls into four areas:
- Biological Sciences and Health
- Physical Sciences, IT and Communications
- Environment and Energy
- Science Policy
International activities 
POST is a member of the European Parliamentary Technology Assessment network, which brings together parliamentary organisations throughout Europe sharing information and working on joint projects. POST also liaises with science and technology organisations across the world.
From November 2005 to 2009, POST, collaborating with four of its sister organisations - at the Danish, Dutch, Flemish and German Parliaments - has been providing technology assessment services to the Science and Technology Options Assessment unit of the European Parliament, in Brussels and Strasbourg.
POST Africa Programme 
From 2001 POST received a growing number of requests for advice from parliamentarians in developing countries. It became clear that a real need existed to strengthen capacity in developing country parliaments. In 2005, POST held discussions on this issue with the Gatsby Foundation, which led to a special initiative to assist African Parliaments, and other organisations in their countries, in building parliamentary capacity to handle policy issues related to science and technology. At a time when there is growing awareness of the importance of science and technology in decision making, as demonstrated by, for example, the focus on science, technology and innovation at the African Union summit meeting in January 2007, this programme continues to contribute towards the overall objective of ensuring that parliaments have the capacity to scrutinise decision making processes and act as the national fora for discussion and debate on the broad implications of issues with a basis in science and technology. By sharing information and best practice with overseas parliaments and assemblies, the programme supports one of the primary objectives of the House: to promote public knowledge and understanding of the work and role of Parliament through the provision of information and access.
The POST Board 
(Appointed 2005-2010) with some details below of the new Board, as of summer 2010
The POST Board oversees POST's objectives, outputs and future work programme. It meets several times a year. The Board comprises:
- 14 parliamentarians drawn from the House of Commons (10) and the House of Lords (4), roughly reflecting the balance of parties in Parliament.
- Leading non-parliamentarians from the science and technology community.
- Representatives of the House of Lords and the Department of Information Services of the House of Commons.
- Chair: Dr. Ashok Kumar MP (until March 2010 †) Dr Kumar died suddenly on 15th March 2010.
- Vice-Chairman: Professor the Lord Winston
- Director: Professor David Cope
House of Lords 
House of Commons 
Chair designate - Adam Afriyie MP
Representing the House of Commons Science and Technology Committee - Andrew Miller MP
First representative of the House of Commons Administration Committee - Dr Philip Lee MP
Non-parliamentary Board Members 
- Professor Frances R. Balkwill
- Sir David Davies, CBE, FREng, FRS
- Professor Jim Norton, FIEE, FRSA
- Professor Ekhard K.H. Salje, FRS
Ex-officio Board Members 
- Mr John Pullinger, for the Department of Information Services
- Christine Salmon, Clerk of Select Committees, House of Lords
- Mr Christopher Barclay, for the Librarian, House of Commons
POST staff 
Permanent staff 
POST has six permanent science advisers, covering the fields of biology and health; physical sciences, IT and communications; environment and energy; and science policy. Science advisers generally have a postgraduate qualification and science policy experience.
POST runs formal fellowship schemes with scientific societies and research councils, whereby PhD students can spend three months working at POST through an extension of their maintenance grants. These include:
Arts and Humanities Research Council
- Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council
- British Ecological Society
- British Psychological Society
- Economic and Social Research Council
- Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council
- Medical Research Council
- Natural Environment Research Council
- Royal Society of Chemistry
- The Institute of Food Science and Technology
- The Wellcome Trust
(From 2008) POST 20th Anniversary Open Fellowship Application (for one year only). For more information on fellowship applications see the 'Working for POST' section of the POST website.
- "Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology".
- "Parliamentary and Scientific Committee".
- "Seminars page of the Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology".
- "European Parliamentary Technology Assessment".
- "The Gatsby Charitable Foundation".
- "The Institute of Food Science and Technology".