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Military of ancient Rome (portal)
753 BC – AD 476
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The Parma was about 36 inches (91cm) across (or less) and had iron in its frame, making it a very effective piece of armor. Parma had a handle and a shield boss (umbo).
The Parma was used by legionnaires in the Early Republican period of Rome's history by the lowest class division of the army--the Velites. The Velites armor consisted of a parma, javelin, sword and helmet. Later, the parma was replaced by the scutum.
In the Pyrrhic dance it was raised above the head and struck with a sword so as to emit a loud ringing noise.
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