Male: the costal spots of forewing usually without red, the anterior one sometimes with white pupil; submarginal band faint and abbreviated or interrupted ; no spot at hind margin ; hindwing with red ocelli which are usually small, and sometimes with a submarginal row of feebly marked black spots; the veins often marked with well-defined elongate black punctures.
Female: with better defined and more extended markings; vitreous margin of forewing separated from the submarginal band by large white uniform spots ; the second costal spots often pupilled red, connected with one another by black scaling, on disc sometimes blackish shadows; on hindwing a greyish vitreous marginal band, distinct submarginal halfmoons, which are contiguous, forming a band, two larger red ocelli, the posterior one occasionally with white pupil; anal spots sometimes intensified and one of them filled in with red.
- Bernard Turlin et Luc Manil, 2005 Étude synoptique et répartition mondiale des espèces du genre "Parnassius" Latreille 1804 ("Lepidoptera Papilionidae") Luc Manil, Paris.
- Evans, Arthur V. (2007). Field Guide to Insects and Spiders of North America. Sterling Publishing Co. p. 260. ISBN 978-1-4027-4153-1.
- European Butterflies and Moths
- Rusinsects Text, photographs.
-  Tree line and Parnassius phoebus smintheus.
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