Parthenia was a city in the late Roman province of Mauretania Sitifensis, in what is now northern Algeria. Since its exact location is unknown, it may have been in the much smaller modern Sétif Province.
There is no mention of the town in the works of ancient geographers or other writers.
Formerly a major city, the episcopal see was in the 5th century abandoned and absorbed by the Sahara desert. Today, the area, about halfway between the cities of Aïn Oulmene and Bir Haddada, contains only some scattered farms.
The titular see was assigned to Bishop Jacques Gaillot when he was transferred on 13 January 1995 from the residential diocese of Évreux in France. Gaillot had been noted for his public expression of support for married priests and the use of condoms and for taking a lenient view with regard to homosexual activity and procurement of abortion. The other French bishops complained to him for breaching the confidentiality of the meetings of the episcopal conference and for voicing positions contrary to the Church's magisterium. The president of the conference appealed to him, "if not to retract, then at least to cease making declarations opposed to the teachings and doctrine of the Catholic Church".
- Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2013, ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 950
- Stefano Antonio Morcelli, Africa Christiana: in tres partes tributa, vol. 1, p. 253
- J. D. Fage, Roland Anthony Oliver (editors), The Cambridge History of Africa (Cambridge University Press 1979 ISBN 978-0-52121592-3), vol. 2, p. 481-482
- Stevem Englund, "Provocateur or Prophet? the French Church & Bishop Gaillot" in Commonweal, 6 October 1995
- Homepage of Partenia: diocese without borders (the cyber-diocese)
- Jacques Gaillot: EGLISE VIRTUELLE, EGLISE DE L'AN 2000. Un évêque au royaume d'Internet. Editions Albin Michel, 7. Januar 1999, ISBN 978-2226106735
- Pierre Pierrard: A nous la parole : Partenia, dix ans. Harmattan 17. Oktober 2012, Kindle Edition, ASIN B00814BKFQ