4xi-Germacra-1(10), 11(13)-dien-12-oic acid, 4,5-epoxy-6.alpha.-
|Molar mass||248.32 g·mol−1|
|Melting point||113 °C (235 °F; 386 K)|
Except where noted otherwise, data is given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
|what is: / ?)(|
Parthenolide is a sesquiterpene lactone of the germacranolide class which occurs naturally in the plant feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium), after which it is named. It is found in highest concentration in the flowers and fruit. Feverfew is used in herbalism and is purportedly useful for a variety of ailments. Many vendors of feverfew remedies specify the content of parthenolide in their products, because it is believed to be the primary chemical constituent responsible for biological activity.
Lack of solubility in water and bioavailability limits the potential of parthenolide as a drug. Drug researchers are trying to develop synthetic analogs instead that will be absorbed to a more useful extent.
In vitro biological activities
Parthenolide has a variety of reported in vitro biological activities, including:
- Modulation of the NF-κB-mediated inflammatory responses in experimental atherosclerosis.
- Inducing apoptosis in acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) cells, leaving normal bone marrow cells relatively unscathed. Moreover, the compound may get at the root of the disease because it also kills stem cells that give rise to AML. Parthenolide is under consideration as a potential cancer drug in combination with sulindac.
- Activity against a parasite Leishmania amazonensis.
- Microtubule-interfering activity.
- Anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperalgesic effects.
- Blocking lipopolysaccharide-induced osteolysis through the suppression of NF-κB activity.
- inducing apoptosis and production of reactive oxygen species in high-risk pre-B leukemia cells.
- Parthenolide from Fermentek
- Will Boggs. "Orally Bioavailable Parthenolide Analog Eradicates Leukemia Stem Cells". Reuters Health.
- López-Franco, O; Hernández-Vargas, P; Ortiz-Muñoz, G; Sanjuán, G; Suzuki, Y; Ortega, L; Blanco, J; Egido, J; Gómez-Guerrero, C (2006). "Parthenolide modulates the NF-kappaB-mediated inflammatory responses in experimental atherosclerosis". Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology 26 (8): 1864–70. doi:10.1161/01.ATV.0000229659.94020.53. PMID 16741149.
- Guzman, ML; Rossi, RM; Karnischky, L; Li, X; Peterson, DR; Howard, DS; Jordan, CT (2005). "The sesquiterpene lactone parthenolide induces apoptosis of human acute myelogenous leukemia stem and progenitor cells". Blood 105 (11): 4163–9. doi:10.1182/blood-2004-10-4135. PMC 1895029. PMID 15687234.
- Tiuman, TS; Ueda-Nakamura, T; Garcia Cortez, DA; Dias Filho, BP; Morgado-Díaz, JA; De Souza, W; Nakamura, CV (2005). "Antileishmanial Activity of Parthenolide, a Sesquiterpene Lactone Isolated from Tanacetum parthenium". Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy 49 (1): 176–82. doi:10.1128/AAC.49.11.176-182.2005. PMC 538891. PMID 15616293.
- Miglietta, A; Bozzo, F; Gabriel, L; Bocca, C (2004). "Microtubule-interfering activity of parthenolide". Chemico-biological interactions 149 (2–3): 165–73. doi:10.1016/j.cbi.2004.07.005. PMID 15501437.
- Feltenstein, MW; Schühly, W; Warnick, JE; Fischer, NH; Sufka, KJ (2004). "Anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperalgesic effects of sesquiterpene lactones from Magnolia and Bear's foot". Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior 79 (2): 299–302. doi:10.1016/j.pbb.2004.08.008. PMID 15501305.
- Yip, KH; Zheng, MH; Feng, HT; Steer, JH; Joyce, DA; Xu, J (2004). "Sesquiterpene lactone parthenolide blocks lipopolysaccharide-induced osteolysis through the suppression of NF-kappaB activity". Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 19 (11): 1905–16. doi:10.1359/JBMR.040919. PMID 15476591.
- Zunino, SJ; Ducore, JM; Storms, DH (2007). "Parthenolide induces significant apoptosis and production of reactive oxygen species in high-risk pre-B leukemia cells". Cancer letters 254 (1): 119–27. doi:10.1016/j.canlet.2007.03.002. PMID 17470383.