Participants in World War I

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Map of the World showing the participants in World War I. Those fighting on the side of the Triple Entente (at one point or another) are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in grey.

This is a list of countries that participated in World War I, sorted by alphabetical order.

The Entente Powers[edit]

Note: The "Entente Powers" are also known as the Allies of World War I or the Allies

The Central Powers[edit]

Neutral countries[edit]

  • Afghanistan Afghanistan – received a German diplomatic mission trying to convince it to act against the British in India
  •  Principality of Albania – In political chaos since the beginning of the war, the country was occupied by both Central and Allied powers but never declared war on either side
  •  Argentina
  •  Bolivia
  •  Bhutan
  •  Chile
  •  Colombia
  •  Denmark
  •  El Salvador
  •  Ethiopia – received a German diplomatic mission trying to convince it to act against Italy, United Kingdom and France in East Africa
  •  Liechtenstein – Had a customs and monetary union with Austria-Hungary
  • Luxembourg Luxembourg – Never declared war on the Central Powers despite being invaded and occupied by Germany
  • Bogd Khaanate of Mongolia
  • Mexico/ Mexico – Declined an alliance with Germany (see Zimmermann Telegram)
  •  Monaco
  • Netherlands Netherlands – An ally of the United Kingdom by treaty. Traded with both sides.
  •  Norway – Gave naval assistance to the United Kingdom.
  •  Paraguay
  • Persia – Civil dispute and Allied Campaign against Ottomans
  • Spain Spain – Also treaty-bound ally to the United Kingdom
  • Spitsbergen – Danish-Norwegian co-dominium
  •  Sweden – Non-belligerent
  •   Switzerland – Switzerland did declare a "state of siege"
  •  Tibet – Unrecognized but independent of China from 1912
  •  Venezuela – Supplied the Allies with oil

Declarations of War[edit]

European military alliances prior to the war.
Allies and Central Powers, early August 1914.
Allies and Central Powers, mid 1918.

The following table shows the timeline of the several declarations of war among the belligerent powers. Entries on a yellow background show severed diplomatic relations only, not actual declarations of war.

Date Declarer On
1914
July 28 Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary Kingdom of Serbia Serbia
August 1 German Empire Germany Russian Empire Russia
August 3 German Empire Germany France France
August 4 German Empire Germany Belgium Belgium
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland United Kingdom German Empire Germany
August 5 Kingdom of Montenegro Montenegro Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary
August 6 Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary Russian Empire Russia
Kingdom of Serbia Serbia German Empire Germany
August 9 Kingdom of Montenegro Montenegro German Empire Germany
August 11 France France Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary
August 12 United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland United Kingdom Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary
August 22 Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary Belgium Belgium
August 23 Empire of Japan Japan German Empire Germany
August 25 Empire of Japan Japan Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary
November 1 Russian Empire Russia Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire
November 2 Kingdom of Serbia Serbia Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire
November 3 Kingdom of Montenegro Montenegro Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire
November 5 United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland United Kingdom
France France
Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire
1915
May 23 Kingdom of Italy Italy Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary
June 3 San Marino San Marino Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary
August 21 Kingdom of Italy Italy Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire
October 14 Kingdom of Bulgaria Bulgaria Kingdom of Serbia Serbia
October 15 United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland United Kingdom
Kingdom of Montenegro Montenegro
Kingdom of Bulgaria Bulgaria
October 16 France France Kingdom of Bulgaria Bulgaria
October 19 Kingdom of Italy Italy
Russian Empire Russia
Kingdom of Bulgaria Bulgaria
1916
March 9 German Empire Germany Portugal Portugal
March 15 Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary Portugal Portugal
August 27 Kingdom of Romania Romania Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary
Kingdom of Italy Italy German Empire Germany
August 28 German Empire Germany Kingdom of Romania Romania
August 30 Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Romania Romania
November 1 Kingdom of Bulgaria Bulgaria Kingdom of Romania Romania
1917
April 6 United States United States German Empire Germany
April 7 Cuba Cuba
Panama Panama
German Empire Germany
April 10 Kingdom of Bulgaria Bulgaria United States United States
April 13 Bolivia Bolivia German Empire Germany
April 20 Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire United States United States
July 2 Kingdom of Greece Greece German Empire Germany
Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary
Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire
Kingdom of Bulgaria Bulgaria
July 22 Thailand Siam German Empire Germany
Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary
Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire
August 4 Liberia Liberia German Empire Germany
August 14 Republic of China (1912–49) China German Empire Germany
Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary
October 6 Peru Peru German Empire Germany
October 7 Uruguay Uruguay German Empire Germany
October 26 Brazil Brazil German Empire Germany
December 7 United States United States Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary
December 7 Ecuador Ecuador German Empire Germany
December 10 Panama Panama Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary
December 16 Cuba Cuba Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary
1918
April 23 Guatemala Guatemala German Empire Germany
May 8 Nicaragua Nicaragua German Empire Germany
Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary
May 23 Costa Rica Costa Rica German Empire Germany
July 12 Haiti Haiti German Empire Germany
July 19 Honduras Honduras German Empire Germany
November 10 Kingdom of Romania Romania German Empire Germany

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The British Empire was the common term for the United Kingdom and its overseas possessions at this time. The term refers to the colonies it controlled, to the Indian Empire, which, while not officially designated a colony, was functionally indistinguishable from one, and the British Dominions - former colonies which were self-governing in most respects but whose foreign policy was controlled by London; Australia, Canada, Newfoundland, New Zealand and South Africa. At that time, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland also included the entire island of Ireland.